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^,t «p«nct *d libr«a* prcMKiM aitnlUMi gSBcrU, lagftsdam mecadeiw Icctoram, >t mIcc ul coniivUn conviva 
(.>ili« C»»Tt«*i*v ■■■itkar MindHit Mtlfractnt at Uhmb h qaMap^Bitar* 4««d haJM aat illUt palaio noa 
iiapiimji^, ct b»c ct ill« MfW** JtMiaiMlairt, H alim Arevla probani. m qaM eoMtriMeai coNvivM*r««. 

4 r«aa«r •te*«ld sU 4««B i« • bo«k, npecisllf «f th* ailM«lUii«aM« klad, m a mll-bthavad vUftor doea to a baa- 
,i.'t. Tk« nnatcT af ib« raaataxarta hlaiMlfto tallsfr hit gaeau i bat ff, aftar all htt can and paiBa,«onethlag ihoald 
t^.^f^r *■ tbr takle that da«« «•! salt thU or that panatt'i laMr* Ihajr polUaljr paM it ovar wtthoat nottre, and cnmmcnd 
«b«r di«b««. ihar ihrv M«y aat diWrcH a kind hoM. TVaaWafian. 










PEicEmosi is awoTdwhich is sowellunder- 
«• ".d i>ii.i it i» difficult for the lexicographer to 
; --< any explanation of it. It has been called the 
•:r«t and most simple act of the mind, by which 
i: i-s conscious of its own ideas. This definition, 
bow«Ter, is improper, as it confounds perception 
with consciousness ; although the objects of the 
furaer faculty are things without us, those of the 
U'ter the energies of our own minds. Percep- 
tion l< that power or faculty, by which, through 
the medium of the senses, we have the cogni- 
nnw of objects distinct and apart from ourselves, 
ir.d leim that we are but a small part in the 
•vjttm of nature. By what process the senses 
live us this information is one of the most in- 
i-rKjtiri^ enquiries in metaphysics. See Meta- 


TKKCEVAL (Spencer), second son of John, 
*■-< >:i i earl of Egmont, was bom in 1762, and 
rf-:f:ve»l his education at Harrow, and Trinity 
« ■• l»-;e. Cambridge, of which he became a mem- 
!<•? zbout the year 1775. On quitting the uni- 
^rr«ty he entered of Lincoln's Inn, with the view 
of tiUowing the profession of the law at the 
<.>iDcrry bar. In this pursuit he soon distin- 
r ;>>M-d himself, and obtained a silk gown. In 
1T'W> be represented Northampton in parliament, 
ar;d, 6ve years aAer, his legal abilities and fomily 
iniJurnce raised him to the office of solicitor- 
;;-':»-<i'. In 1802 he was made attorney-general, 
-f : rilled that situation till 1807, when, on the 
•>i-.". of Mr. Fox, he was appointed chancellor 
"f •■jr exchequer. In this high post he continued 
•. 1 li* 1 Ith of .May, 1812, when, while approach- 
i-.-.- th»r door of the house of commons, a person 
r i-r.«"l BelliDchara discharged a pistol at him in 
;•.- lobby, the bullet of which, entering his breast, 
•:-;iri\ed hira almost instantly of life. The 
: -i--n a owed that he had been waiting with 
;. ; « i-w of destroying lord I.evcson Gower, late 
ir /- A>-;iflor to the court of St. Petersburnh, for 
vi fit ai'ie^ed negligence of his mercantile in- 
vr-.-!<. and was brought to trial on the 15th. 
X.-'no'iih a plea of insanity was set up by his 

• •-■ v-X. he was found guilty, and t'xecuted on 

• •- I «th of the same month. 

I'F.RCH, n. I., V. n., & v. a. Fr. prrclie, percher ; 
}.:•. prrtifo. A rod ; measure; that on which 
! - : • sit and roost : to sit or roost ; place on a 


H*- pmhelh on (ome branch thereby, 
Tc weather him and his moist wings to dry. 

Tbe world is grown la bad, 
TLat wieM make prey where eagles dare not pfrch. 

The morning raoie* perch like birds and sing 
Arcwcg his brancbe*. (Viii'.MU'. 

An evtoing dragon raine, 
A^sAilaot on Ihe perched roosti, 
Vol. XVII.— P.»rt 1. 

And nests in order ranged 
Of some villatic fowl. MUton'i Ajonistei. 

Glory, like the dazzling eagle, stood 
Perched on my beaver in the Uranic flood ; 
When fortune's self my standard tremblin;; bore 
And the pale fates stood frighted on the shore. 
V Lee. 

For the narrow perch I cannot ride. Dri/dea. 
They winged their flight aloft, then, stooping low, 
Perclied 00 the double tree, that bears the golden 
bough. Id. 

Let owls keep close within the tree, and not perch 
upon the upper boughs. South. 

Peecu, U.S. ¥r. perche ; Lai. perca. A fish. 

The perch is one of the fishes of prey, that, like 
the pike and trout, carries his teeth in his mouth : he 
dare venture to kill and destroy several other kinds of 
fish : he has a hooked or hog-back, which is armed 
with stiff bristles, and all bis skin armed with thick 
hard scales, and hath two fins on his back : he 
(pawns but once a year, and is held very nutritive. 

Walton's .ingler. 

Perch, in ichthyology. See Perca. 

PERCHANCE', adv. Per and chance. Per- 
haps; peradventure. 

How long within this wood intend you stay ! 

— Perchance till after Theseus' wedding day. 


Finding him by natare little studious, she chose 
rather to endue him with ornaments of youth ; as 
dancing and fencing, not without aim then perchance 
at a courtier's life. Wotton. 

Only Smithfield ballad perchance to embalm the 
memory of the other. V Estrange. 

Stranger, I sent for thee, for that I deemed 
Some wound was thine, that yon free band might 

chafe, — 
Perchance thy worldly wealth sunk with yon wreck — 
Such wound my gold can heal. ilalurin. 

PERCIVAL (Thomas), M. D., a physician, 
bom at Warrington, Lancashire, in 1740, studied 
medicine at the universities of Edinburgh and 
Lcyden, and returning to England, in 1765, 
settled at Manchester. He was the author of a 
Variety of numerous able tracts on scientific sub- 
jects, especially Observations on the Deleterious 
(Qualities of Lead i..d Medical Ethics ; A Fa- 
ther's Instructions to his Children ; -Moral and 
Literary Dissertations, JSlc; and papers in the 
Transactions of the Majichcster Philosophical 
Society, of which ae -vas the rounder and fiiist 
president. He also attempted to establish public 
lectures on malhci jaiics, the fine arts, and com- 
merce, in that town ; and sought to obtain sup- 
port for dissenting academies at Warrington and 
Manchester, but was in both these last attempts 
unsuccessfiit. Dr. I'ercival died, highly re- 
spected both for talents and conduct, on the .30th 
of Ausjust, 1804. His works were puolished in 
1807, in 4 vols. H\o. by his son. 



PERCLOSE', M. ». Per and close. Conclu- 
sion ; last part Obsolete. 

PER'COLA.TE, v. a. Lat. perculo. To stain 

PERCUSS', V. a. v Lat. perau$io. To 

Peicuss'iom, n. t. > strike : the act of strik- 

Percu'tient, tuff. ' inK ; effect of sounds 
strikinj; the ear: percutient being the corre- 
sponding adjective. 

Pebci;s9ion, in mechanicn, the impression a 
body makes in fitllint; or striking upon another ; 
or the shock of two bodies in motiun. 

PcBcussiON l«CKS ; a late and useful inven- 
tion. The percussion lock has no pan. In 
place of the pan, a small tube projects horizon- 
tally from the side of the gun. In this tube 
another small tube stands |)erpendicularly. The 
cock, instead of being formed to hold a flint, is 
shaped somewhat like a hammer, with a hollow 
to (it upon the tube last mentioned. On this 
tube a little cap of copper is placed, in the 
bottom of which is a cbeniical mixture that 
kindles by percussion. This percussion is 
produced by tne cock, which therefore r(>quires 
a very strung spring. The powder is made in 
various ways, and of different materials ; amont; 
others, of mercury, purified nitric acid, and 
spirit of wine freM from water. The copper 
capk in which this chemical powder is placed 
are two and a half Hues long, and two lines 
wide. Sometimes the powder is also formed 
in pills, and then a somewhat different con- 
trivance is required to place the pills, covered 
with a little wax, to protect ihem from moisture, 
in the small tube. The advantages of a percus- 
sion lock are great : 1 . Provided the spring of 
the cock is strong, and the chemical powder 
good, the gun cannot miss fire ; while common 
locks are exposed to iciss fire from many causes 
— bad flints, bad steel, bad priming, and weak 
springs. 2. The chemical powder explodes 
much more rapidly and forcibly than common 
powder, and therefore explodes the powder in 
the gun itself more forcibly, so as to produce a 
prompter and more effectual discharge. 3. The 
moisture of the air ha* hardly any influence : in 
8 violent rain, the lock is as sure to give fire as 
in the driest day. 4. The danger of an unin- 
tentional discharge is avoided : as long as the 
copper cap is not placed on the little tube, the 
gun cannot go off, even if the cock is snapped 
bv mistake ; while, with other guns, there is 
always danger, even when no priming has been 
put in the pan, because some grains inay always 
escape through the toucbhole, and the cock may 
always be accidentally snapped. The caps or 
pills are not dangerous, because it requires a 
strnnE |icrcussion to explode the powder. 

PEIU.'Y (Thonfias). a learned prelate, related 
to the family of Northumbeiland, was bom at 
Bridgenorth in Shropshire in I72B, and educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his 
master's decree in \7b3, and on entering into 
ordpM, was presented to the vicarase of Kaslon 
Maiiduit in Northamptonshire, which he held 
with the rectory of Wilby. In 1769 he was 
made chaplain to the kins, in I77H promoted to 
the dear, ry of Carliile, and in 1782 advancnl to 
tlia bishopric of Dromoie in Ireland, where be 

2 PER 

died in IRtl. His works .tre, I. li.i 
Cliouan, a translation from the ('lii:us-. 
nese Miscellanies. 3. Five Pieces of 
Poetry, translated from the Icelandic L: 

4. A new Translation of the Sonz of S 

5. Ueliques of Ancient English Poetry. 

6. A Key to the New Testament. 7. T 
thumherland Household Book. R. The 
of VVarkworth, a poem, in the ballad st 
A Translation of Mallet's Northern Anti' 

Percy Isles, a chain of islands in tli 
Pacific,near the north-east coast of New I 
Tliey extend from about lat. 21° 32' to 21 
and are distant about thirty miles from t 
land. They were visited by Flinders i 
who laid down their bearings, and gave tl 
name of Percy Islands. The largest i 
thirteen miles in circuit, and 1000 fe 
They are only occasionally visited by the 
from the main land for turtle. The Ian 
pyre bat was frequent!) found hanging 
claws, with its head downwards, under tl 

PERDICCAS I., 11., and III., kings 
cedonia. See Macedo.n. 

PERDICIU.M, in bouny, a genus 
polygamia superflua order, belonging lo t 
genesia class of plants ; and in the 
method ranking under the forty-nintl 
composils. The receptacle is naked ; t 
pus is simple ; the florets bilabiate. 

PERDITION, n. t. Ft. fcrdition 
perditio. Destruction ; death : ruin ; 

Upon tidiogt now arrived, imponiog tl 
perJitim of the Tarkith fleet, every man put! 
in triairph. Shtiki 

Quick let lu part ! Perdilion't in tliy pn'Si 
And horror dwellii about tbce ! AddiMji'i 

PERDIX, in ornithology, a genus o 
belonging to the order of gallintc, rankci 
nsus along with the genus tetrao, or uroi 
now very properly disjoined by Ur. Lath: 
classed as a distinct genus, of whirh he th 
the following characters : — The hill is 
strong, and short ; the nostrils are coverei 
with a callous prominent rim : the orl 
papillose ; the feet naked ; and most 
genus ate furnished with spurs. I'hcre ai 
eight species, of which the two princifial 
partridge and quail. 

1. p. communis, the common partridc 
well known, that a description of it is u 
sary, and we have not room to Hescr 
foreign species. We refer those who wis 
plete information to Dr J.alhani's vuliial 
tem of Ornithology. Partiidues ■•nc fi 
ei-ery country and in e^•ery cllniuio ; as 
the frozen regions about the pole, a< ilit 
tracts under the equator. In' (irfrnlii 
partridge, which is hroun in sunmier, a^: 
the icy winter sets in, is clothed with ; 
down beneath : and its outward pluin:i.;i' ; 
the color of the snow aniune wlneli i 
its food. Those of U<iiakoiiil.t, on th 
hand, are Inn.-er leciicd, nuuli swilter 
and choose the hi-^he>t rocks aiul piecr 
reside in. They all, however, aari-,- in o 
racier, of being immoderately ttddicted tu 


v. VJ 


r. eoiuraix, or common quail, is not above 

Uf tile iiie of the partridge, llic feathers of 

(b bad are black, edged with rusty brown ; 

6* Ikui u of a pa]e yellowish red, spotted 

»/j ibek ; the feathers on the back are marked 

r.x haa of pale yellow, and the legs are of 

: /Je hue. Except in the colors thus described, 

md die siie, it ereiy way resembles a partridge 

s. slope, and, except that it ti a bird of passage, 

i: i> like all othen of the poultry kind in its 

hifcits and aamre. The quail seems to be an 

esabitaat of every climate. It is obser\-ed to 

vjA qtianers aocordiog to the season, coming 

Lorth m spring, and departing in autumn, and in 

TA£t toAa. lia the west coast of Naples, within 

foMT or fire miles, 100^000 have been taken in a 

isr. In England they are not numerous at any 

tixe. They fieed like the partridge, and make 

v> iKft. except a few dry leaves or stalks scraped 

i-xtixt ; and sometimes a hollow on the bare 

zrjcnd suScRs. In this the female lays six or 

<<^en eggs, of a whitish color, marked with irre- 

Ti'ix nut-coloted spots : the young follow the 

BoshfcT as aoon as batched, like young partridges. 

They have bat one brood in a year. Quail- 

fcbtiac was a favorite amusement among the 

AiiKiuaas. They abstained from the flesh of 

Lhis birl, deeming it unwholesome, as supposing 

that It M upon the white hellebore : but they 

Tftitd gnat aumfaera of them for the pleasure of 

'tfins dMm fight, and staked sums of money, as 

ve do with tegard to cocks, upon the success of 

•<bt (ombat. With us its flesh is considered as 

a r«rv great delicacy. Quails are easily caught 

U J oil. 

PERDUE^, adv. From the French prrdiie or 
fvrlaro hope : as perdue or ad%-anced sentinel. 
4 iose; in ambush. 

Few minutes he had lain ptrdur. 
To goanl his dcsp'iate avenue. Huditm. 

I'turvc Bav, a hay on the south-west coast 
c'Sr. \ incent; a mile north-west of Kingston Bay. 
?r.K'OUL«)L"S, adj. Lat. ptrdo. Lost; 
ucwn away. 

Ilkcre may be some wandering pfrdnlout wishes of 
t3i.«= iaipouibililies ; as a man who hath coro- 
7 "*.-i aa odencc, may wish lie had not committed 
:- . 'r-.t to ihuM: HKcaciously and impuSMbly is iii 
. I'Aiiiik as aa impohiibility. Bramhull. 

l'i:riDl.'liABT.K,«rf;. Vr. pe/durabU ; Ut. 
-.■ - i-.-rv. L^'ting ; long continued. A word 
- i .n use. 

fr.t:(vn me knit to thy deserving with cables of 
y *u^a*'U toui;hne»s. ShaktfieiiTf. OlhelliK 

■■ > fr-rimriMt ibame ! let's stab uur^ulves. 

Whv should lie, for the roonienlarv trick, 
; .•■ f^durn'Au lined. /*/. MfuMirf fi'r Mfafure. 
The vijr'rou-? swi'hI 
1 •_ I'-'aJ the Ii\ely sprin;-.-, their ^wrduniUe h'.'al. 


f'KI?F.<.'01', an ancient fortress in the south 

. •■ •'• - i»t!inn>« which joins tlif |ieiiii)Mila of the 

I •.-,.- i. t.T the continent. It is the iiiicient Tapli- 

In the n«:i(jhbourhood are lakes, on the 

r"<-.-.e of vkliith a great quantity of salt cr\ 

. . r.'V.rJIy, in .May, June, anil July. This 

. .• .- '••.Ittttd ; n>l sold to tlie a\ eray'c amount 

• ■ J', ,' -■.• ».i;"on loiJs vcv.rlv. 

3 PER 

PER'EGAL, arf;. Tr.perfgal. Equal, tjlw 

Whilom thoo wast feraial to the best. 

And wont to make the jolly shepherds glail ; 

With piping and dancing d'id pass the rest. 


PEREGRINATION, n. ». ^ Old Fr. pere- 

Pf-'rec II IN E, adj. i grin ; Lat. perr- 

grinus. Travel ; abode abroad : peregrine, 
foreign ; not native ; not dome.itic. 

The received opinion, that putrefaction is caused 
by cold or perrgiine and preternatural heat, is but 
nugaiion. Baemi. 

It was agreed between them, what account he 
should give of his pertgniuiiiou abroad. Id. 

It is not amiss to observe the heads of doctrine, 
which the apostles agreed to publish in all their 
reregrimtima. Uaammd. 

I'hat we do not contend to have the earth past 
for a paradise, we reckon it only as the land of our 
jieTtgrination, and aspire after a better country. 


PEREMIT, ». a. ) lat. peremptus. To 

Pebemp'tiox, n. t. S kill ; to crush. A law 

Nor is it any objection, that the cause of appeal 
is jirremptid by the desertion of an appeal ; because 
the office of tl>e judge continues after such instance 
is jtrrtmptti. Aiilijte. 

This penrnptian of instance was iatroduceil in 
favour of the public, lest suits should be rendered 
perpetual. Id. 

PEREMPTORY, adj. -% Fr. peremptmre ; 

Per'emptouily, (1^0. > barb. Lat. peremp- 

Per'emi-toriness, n. t. ) ioriiii, from pcreinp- 
titt, killed. Dogmatical ; absolute ; such as 
destroys expo.stulation : the adverb and noun- 
substantive corresponding. 

He may have fifty-six exceptions peremptonlj/ 
against the jurors, of which he shall show no cause. 


As touching the apostle, wherein he wa.s so resolute 

and peremptarii, our Lord .lesus Christ made manifest 

unto him, even by intuitive revelation, wherein there 

was no possibility of error. Hooker. 

Not death himself 

In mortal fury is half so ptrrmpiory, 

.\s we to keep this city. S/iakfprnrf. King Jolm. 

N ot to speak /ii'remjifffri/y or conelu.\ively, touching 
the point of possibility, till they have heard me de- 
duce tlie means of the execution. Bticuii. 

If I enti'ilainc 
.As jvrtmptorie a d(;sirc, to level! with the plainc 
A cilie, where tliey loved to live ; stand not IhMwixl 

my ire 
.\nd vvhjt it aims al. {'hiimvtn. 

Noifulk ile'iics llii-m pfremytorilii. Danit^. 

In all confiTinces it was insisted ptrempUmlii, tha 
the king must yield to jiowii was rn|uirr>l. 


SK'lf-ior.ceit and ;ifri-iii;i(iirin(»s in a man's own 
opinions are not ro: nniinly ifjniti'd vices. TUlolsnn, 

(icid's laws ivTiv.ptnrilii iujoin us. and the things 
therein implied do straitly oblige us to partake of the 
holy sacrament. Uiiilnrrlt. 

Thou^-h the tevt and the iloctrine run iinrnpl.T^ 
and absolute. »hi»,iever(l>ni''s Christ shall a.'Mirrilly 
U; (iti.ieu liy him ; y: slill i"';ie is a tacit loniiuiim, 
unless repeiitaiKc iiiti-rvenc. >i.ii('i. 

lie would ne\er lalk in such a /K-rr/'ijiliTy ami ili>- 
coura^'in^' inaniiir. wire he not a~~ure<l that he ho.« 
able tti Milidiie !li< Most |hi'. cilul (i;nK)bition ai.Mi!ist 
the lui'trim «hi'.li he lar'iht. Aiidunii. 



PfremptortMu is of two sorts , the one a ina^te- 
rialness in mttteri of opinion ; the other i poutife- 
ness in relating matters of fact. 

Ciitwrnmintt of |A« Tmgur. 

The more modest confess, that learning was to 
give us a fuller discover; of our iznorance, and to 
keep us from being peremptory and dogmatical in our 
determinations. Collier. 

Some talk of letters before the deluge ; but that 
is a matter of mere conjecture, and nothing can be 
peremptorilg determined either the one way or the 
other. WoodtDard. 

Never judge peremptivily on first appearances. 


PEREN'NIAL, Of/;. > l»i.perennu. laat^ 

Peben'i»itt, n. ». Jini? through the year: 
quality of lasting through all seasons. 

The matter wherewith these jiererinial clouds are 
raised, is the sea that surrounds them. Harvey. 

If the quantity were precisely the same in these 
ftrvnual fountains the difficulty would be greater. 


That springs have their origin from the sea, and 
not from rains and vapours, I conclude from the pe- 
ramitg of diveii springs. 

Derhttm'i Pkyueo-Theology. 

Perekmials, or Perennial Flowers, in bo- 
tany, a term applied to those plants whose roots 
will abide many years, whether they retain their 
leaves in winter or not. Those which retain 
their leaves are called evergreens ; but such as 
cast their leaves are named deciduous, or per- 

PER'FECT, «$•. & i; 

Per'fecteb, n. $. 


Perfec^tiohate, v. a, 

Perfec'tivs, adj. 

Perfec'tivelt, adv. 

Per'fecthes*, n. t. 
less; pure: to perfect is to finish; make com- 
plete ; conclude ; make skilful, or fully to in- 
■truct: a perfecter is he who makes perfect: 
perfection and perfectness mean completeness ; 
goodness; virtue; supreme excellence: to per- 
Kctionate, a word only used by Dryden for to 
advance to perfection : perfective is having the 
tendency to make perfect : perfectively, in such 
manner as brings to perfection. 

If perfeccioun was hi the preesthood of leuy, for 
nodir hym the peple took the lawe, what ghit was it 
nedeful another preest to rise bi the ordie of Melchi- 
ledech 1 Wiclif. Ebreuit vii. 

Put on charity, which b the bond of per/'ectne-i. 

Col iii. 14. 

Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God. 

Oeut. xviii. 

If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and 
Bts love is perfected in us. I John iv. 12. 

What tongue can her perfetlitna tell. 

In whose each part all pens may dwell 1 Sidnen. 

We count those things perfect which want nothing 
requisite for the end wheieto they were inntituted. 


Man doth seek a triple prrfeeVum ; first, a sensual, 
consisting in those th'i' gs which very life itself re- 
quireth, either as necessary' supplements or as orna- 
nanwnts thereof ; then an intellectual, ronti&ting in 
those things which none underneath man is capable 
of; lastly, a spiritual and divine, consisting in those 
things whvreunto we tend by supernatural means 
ItN*, but cannot here attain. Jd 

Fr. parfait ; 
Latin, perf'eclia. 
Complete ; full ; 
^consummate ; cer- 
tain ; due ; not 
deflective or re- 
j dundant; blame- 


Within a ken our army lies ; 
Our men more fierfect in the use of arms. 
Our armour all as strong, our cause the best ; 
Then reason wills our hearts will be as good. 

Is this your perfectneu ? U. 

My parts, my title, and my perfect soul 
Shall manifest me rightly. Id. OthelU. 

It is a judgment maimed and most imperfect. 
That will confess perfection so could err 
Against all rules of nature. Id. 

Thou art perfect then, our ship bath touched upon 
The deserts of Bohemia. Shalapettre. WiMter't Tale. 
Her cause and yours 
I'll perfect him withal, and he shall bring you 
Before the duke. Id. Muumefor Veaturt. 

I do not take myself to be so perfect in the privi- 
leges of Bohemia as to handle that part ; and will 
not oSer at that I cannot master. Baeoit, 

There is no variety in that which is perfect, because 
there is but one perfectum ; and so much shall we 
grow nearer to perfectneu, by how much we draw 
nearer to unity and uniformity. Bp. Hall. 

And they, so perfect in tneir misery. 
Not once perceive their foul disfigurement 

Mitton't Comm. 
Uriel, no wonder if thy perfect sight 
See far and wide. MUlmi. 

True virtue being united to the heavenly grace of 
faith makes up the highest perfection. Id. 

Beauty now must perfect my renown ; 
With that 1 governed him that rules this isle. 

Praise and adoration are actions perfectiee of cor 
souls. Mm. 

Chawing little sponges dipt in oil, when perfectly 
under water, he could longer support the want of re- 
spiration. Bogle. 

No human understanding being absolutely secured 
from mistake by the perfection of its own nature, it 
follows that no man can be infallible but by super- 
natural assistance. T'illottjm. 
An heroick poem requires, as its last perfeciitn, 
the accomplishment of some extraordinary under- 
taking, which requires more of the active virtue than 
the suffering. Dryden. 

Painters and sculptors, chusing the most elegant 
natural beauties, perfeeiionate the idea, and advance 
their art above nature itself in her individual prodac- 
tion ; the utmost mastery of human performance. 

He has founded an academy for the progress and 
perfectionating of painting. Id. 

Endeavour not to settle too many habits at once, 
lest by variety you confound them, and so perfect 
none. iM-ie, 

We knowbodies'and their properties most pvr^/jr. 

Eternal life shall not consist in endless love ; the 
other faculties shall be employed in actions suit- 
able to, andp«i/ccti«e of their nature. 

Hag on the Cmlien. 
What toil did honest Curio lake 
To get one medal wanting yet. 
And perfect all his Koman set ! Prior. 

As virtue is seated fundamentally in the inlellecl, 
so perfectively i.i the fancy ; so that virtue is the 
force of reason in the conduct of our actions and 
pawions to a good end. Grrw. 

Too few, or of an improper figure and dimension, 
to do their duty in perfection. Blackmme. 

If God be infinitely holy, just, and good, hemnat 
lake delight in those rreatui«t thai resemble hia 
most in these perftetuna. Atttrttery, 

PER i 

Whoetv tbiaks • ftrftct work to see, 
TUu what ac'cr wM, nor a, nor e'er ihall be. 

na paetioe was altered ; they offered not to 
Itanrr, bat to Jnpiter the pnfarter. Bnome. 

TW qocrtioB B. not whether gnpel perfeetim can 
k UIt iiwi"««». bat whether ran come as near it 
s a liacoc iatenlMB and eaieful diligence can carry 
I ,„. Laic. 

PERFECnBIUTY, a word which we owe 
t? ^ new phik»optiy, which made so great a 
viiie in the first stipes of the French revolution. 
As te as we nndersUnd, the word perfectibility 
i« pnteaded, in the writings of that disastrous 
^«nad, 10 mean the nltimate and absolute per- 
frrtjoa to whidi man and society have a natural 
and necesiary tendency; and which, we were 
toid, ceitber the tyranny of kings nor the bigotry 
of priests could eventually restrain. 

pEBfEcnos B divided, according to some 
•nterih i»to physical, moral, and metaphysical. 

1. PiarECTios, Metaphtsicai, Tbahscek- 
risTAL,or EssESTiAi, is the possession of all 
Cic eseotial attributes, or of all the parts ne- 
rcsarr to tbe integrity of a substance : or it is 
tJai wkenby a thing has or is provided of every 
li.iv bdoogiic to its nature. This is either ab- 
•rsott, where all imperfection u excluded, such 
a: tbe perfection of God; or secundum quid, 
xaimA kind. 

I. PurtcnoK, MonAtjis an eminent degree 
cf votae or moral goodness, to which men ar- 
OTc by repeated acu of piety, beneficence, tec. 
This B usaally subdivided into absolute or in- 
Wieot, wbidi is actually in him to whom we 
attribute it; and imputative, which exists in 
some other, and not in him it is attributed to. 


ihat whereby a thing has all its powers and T31- 
cJtae*. and' those too in full vigor; and all its 
tarts both principal and secondary, and those in 
:^.»•.r doe proportion, constitution, &c., in which 
vt*e man i> said to be perfect when he has a 
v:'-nd mind in a sound body. This perfection 
.• hw the schools frequently termed ivipytiruct), 
'■^u<« a is enabled thereby to perform all 
;'j r.;i*Tations. 
PF.RUDY, n. t. \ Fr. perfidie ; Lat. 

PftHD'iOVi,adj. fpfr/Wia. Treachery; 

Pr p,r I B^iofSLY, adv. ( want of faith ; breach 
t'ririD'iocssEss, n. ». ' of faith: perfidious 
.. 'mcherous ; false to trust. 
H* ha.« betnved yoiir ba>iae*t, and given up. 
t ft certain drop* of salt, your city Rome. 

<• Jadas, bow happy had it been for thee, if thou 
- . j. ^x^tt done what thou verfUimutu intendedst ! 

Bp. Hall. 
O tpirit accursed, 
Fcsaken of all good. I see thy fall 
(.ftemioed. and (by hapless new involved 
la this perfidioiu fraud. Millon. 

Tell n-.e, jtrfid'unii, was it fit. 
To male mj cream a perquisite, 
Aod s-.eal io mend your wafresl 

Widow ami Cut. 
Thrr eat perfUiiimlg their words, 
t<.t swear tbeir ears through two inch boards. 


> PER 

Some things have a natural deformity in then . 
as perjury, perftdunima$, and ingratitude. 

Can he not deliver us portession of such places 
as would put him in a worse condition, whenever 
be should ptfidiimdg renew tbe war \ 

Swift'B jfiMeUony. 
PER'FLATE, t>. a. Lat. perjio. To blow 

If eastern winds did perflate onr climates more 
frequently, they would clarify and refresh onr air. 

Miners, by perflatim with large bellows, give mo- 
tion to tbe air, which rentilates and cools the mines. 

The first consideration in bnilding of cities is to 
make them open, airy, and well perflMted. 

Arbulhut on ilir. 
PER'FORATE, v. a. > Lat. per font. To 
Pekfora'tion, n.i. 5 pierce witii a tool; 
bore ; act of boring or piercing. 

Draw the bough of a low fruit tree newly budded 
without twisting, into an earthen pot perfonu at 
the bottom, and then cover the pot wiUi earth ; h 
will yield a very large fruit. 

Boeoii'i iValnral Hinory. 
The likeliest way is the peifmalnn of the body of 
the tree in several places one above another, and the 
filling of the holes. fiaom. 

The indnstrious perforatiim of the tendons of the 
second joints of fingers and toes, and the drawing 
the tendons of the third joints through them. 

Mon't Dhin* Dialogiia, 
A perfmUd bladder does not swell. Bayia. 

That the nipples should he made spongy, and 
with such per/onitioru as to admit passage to the 
milk, are arguments of proridence. 

Ray m the Creatien. 
The aperture was limited by an opaque circle 
placed between the eye-elaxs and tbe eye, and per- 
forated in the middle with a little round hole for the 
rays to pass through to the eye. A'flaton. 

The laboured chyle pervades the pores. 
In all tbe arterial perforated shores. Blaekmere. 
Worms perforate the guts. Arbuthnot, 

The patient, placed in a convenient chair, dipping 
the trocar in oil, stab it suddenly through tbe tegu- 
ments, and, withdrawing the perforator, leave the 
waters to empty by the canula. Sharp. 

.4nd such in ancient halls and mansions drear 
May still be seen ; but perforated sore. 
And drilled in holes, the solid oak is found. 
By worms voracious eaten through and through. 

PERFORCE', adv. Per and force. By vio- 
lence; violently. 

Guyon to hiro leaping, staid 

}Vif- hand, that trembled as one terrified ; 

.\nd though himself were at the sight dismayed. 

Yet him perforce restrained. Spetuer. 

Jealous Oheron woald have the child. 

But she perforce withholds the loved boy. 

She amai'd, her cheeks 
All trembling and arising, iiill of spot*, 
And pale with death at hand, perforce she breaks 
Into the inmost rooms. Veaeham on Poetry. 

PERFORM'. V. a. k v. n.-\ Ital. pcrfor- 
Perfou'mabli, <idj. tmarr, of Lat. per 

PEnpOR'HANCE, land formo. To 

Pr.nrou'Mr.R, n. ». ) execute; do; 

achieve ; accomplish ; discharcc : to succeed : 
pcrformable is practicable : performance, accom- 



plishment of a design or promise; completion; 
composition ; work ; action : performer, he who 
performs ; particularly, he who publickly dis- 
plays his skill or abiliqr. 

1 will cry uoto God who peiformeth all things for 
iDe< Pmlmt. 

Perform the doing of it ; that as there was a rea- 
diness to will, so there may be a ptjj'ormance. 

2 Cor. viii. 11. 
Let all things be ferfprmid after the law of God 
diligently. 1 Etdnu viii. 21. 

All three set among the foremost ranks of fame for 
great minds to attempt, and great force to perform 
what they did attempt. HUInei/. 

Hast thou, spirit, 
Perftmud to point the tempest that I bad thee ! 

Froroinng is the very air o' th' time ; it opens the 
eyes of expectation : pttformanee is ever the duller 
for his act, and, but in the plainer kind of people, 
the deed is quite out of use. id. 

In this slumbery agitation, besides her walking and 
other actual performanca, what have you heard her 
say ! Id. 

The merit of service is seldom attributed to the 
true and exact performer. Id. 

Men forcet the relations of history, affirming that 
elephants nave no joints, whereas their actions are 
not petfonmabU without tbem. Brmime. 

Thou, my love. 
Perform bis funerals with paternal care. 

In the good poems of other men, I can only be 
sure, that 'tis tne hand of a good master ; but in 
your peifvrmanea 'tis scarcely possible for to be de- 
ceived. Id. 
The only means to make him successful .n the per- 
formmut of these great works was to be above con- 
tempt. South. 
He eSisctually performed his part, with great inte- 
grity, leamine, and acnteness ; with the exactness of 
a scholar, and the judgment of a complete divine. 

When a poet has ptrformed admirably in several il- 
lustrious places, we sometimes also admire his very 
errnts. Watti. 

Men may, and must differ in their employments ; 
but yet they must all act for the same ends, as du- 
tiful servants of God, in the right and pious jwr/n-m- 
anec of their several callings. Lav. 

Few of our comick piiftrmaneet give good exam- 
ples. Clariin. 

PERFUME', n.». Set), o. J French por/iime. 

Perfij'iier, ) Strong odor of 

sweetness; pleasant scent : to give or impregnate 
with such scent : a perfumer is & dealer m per- 

Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs. 
And h'osht with buzzine nigfat-Bies to thy slumber, 
Than in the perfumed cnaoibers of the great. 
Under the canopies of costly state. 
And lulled with sounds of sweetest melody t 


Tomaoders and knots of powders for drying rheums 
are not so strong as perfimu ; yon may have them 
continually in your hand, whereas prrfumet yon can 
take but at times. Baeom. 

Smells adhere to hard bodies ; as in perfuminf of 
gloves, which showeth them corporeal. Id. 

A moss the perfumert have out of apple trees, that 
hath an excellent Kent. U. tfalural llutorg. 

Ptrfmmei, though gross bodies that may be u-nsi- 
biy wasted, yet fiU the air, so that we can put our 


nose iif no part of the room where a perfume it 
burned but we smell it. OigOf. 

Even the rough rocks with tender myrtle bloom. 
And trodden w^s send out a rich perfume. 

Finks and roses bloom. 
And every bramble sheds perfume. Gay. 

The pains she takes are vainly meant 
To hide her amorous heart, 

1°is like perfuming an ill scent, 
The smell's too strong for art. Oramille, 

No rich perfumes refresh the fruitful 6eld, 
Nor fragrant herbs their native incense yield. 

See spicy clouds from lowly Sharon rise, 
And Carmel's Bowery top perfumei the skies. Id. 

First issued from perfumers shops 
A crowd of fashionable fops. Swift. 

Pebfume, denotes either the volatile effluvia 
from any body affecting the organ of smelling, 
or the substance emitting those effluvia; in 
which last sense the word is most commonly 
used. The generality of perfumes are made up 
of musk, ambergris, civet, rose and cedar woods, 
orange flowers, jessamines, jonquils, tuberoses, 
and other odoriferous flowers. Those drugs 
commonly called aromatics, such as storaz, 
frankincense, benzoin, cloves, mace, &c., enter 
the composition of a perfume; some are also 
composed of aromatic herbs, or leaves, as laven- 
der, marjoram, sage, thyme, hyssop, &c. The 
tise of perfumes was frequent among the He- 
brews, and among the orientals in general, before 
it was known to the Greeks and Romans. They 
came to be very common among the Greeks and 
Romans, especially those composed of musk, 
ambergris, and civet. The nardus and maloba- 
thrum were held in much estimation, and were 
imported from Syria. The unguentum nardinum 
was vanously prepared, and contained many in- 
gredients. Malobathrum was an Indian plant. 
Perfumes were also used at sacrifices to r^ale 
the gods ; at feasts, to increase the pleasures of 
sensation ; at funerals, to overpower cadaverous 
smells, and please the manes of the dead ; and in 
the theatres, to prevent the offensive effluvia pro- 
ceeding from a crowd from being perceived. 

PERFUNCTORILY, ode. Lai. prr/uHcloni. 
Carelessly ; negligently ; so as merely to satisfy 
external form. 

His majesty casting his eye perfunttarilti upon it, 
and believing it had been drawn by mature advice, 
no sooner received it, than he delivered it to the lord- 
keeper. Ctartndom. 

Lay seriously to heart the clearness and evidenoa 
of these proofs, and not peHmetorilii pass over all 
the passages of the gospel, which are written on pur- 
pose that we may believe, without weighing them. 


A transient and peifunetory exsmination of things 
leads men into considerable mistakes, which a mora 
correct and rigorous scrutiny would have detected. 


Whereas all logic is reducible to the fonr piinci* 
pal operations of the mind, the two first of theso 
nave been hsndled by Aristotle very perfk»etcrU)i ; 
of the fourth he has said nothing at all. AdUr. 

PERFUSE', V. a. Lat. ptrju,u$. To tinc- 
ture ; overspread. Not used. 

These dregs immediately perfuu the blood wilk 
melancholy, and cause obstructions. tfanqr. 

PER : 

, the citadel of Troy ; whicli, be- 

ttt iti cmaofdinary height, gave name to 

'_'i baiUiiifS (Scrrius, Virg.) Uthers say 

F%llf of Troy «cre called Pergaraa. 

PCIGXMEA^ PinGAMiA, names given by 

Xifl and Plutarch to Pergamum. 

PCRUAMO, ot PiRGtMo^,the modern name 

\tlVvjB»> "•jrgamuj. 

I VEHBA r.oAMEA, or Pehcamia, a 

'1gp*«of C«--'r. L.U1H uy Agamemnon in memory 

d ka victory (PluL V ii^. V'elleius). Here was 

fc b m j iw g-place of Lycurgus (Aristoxenus'. 

Il wat ntotfcd near ( ydonia (Servius) ; but 

Sntn h«l|s him out, who places the Dactyn- 

■M tcaple of Diana, which stood near Cy- 

*tam (Slntw), to the north of the territory of 

Piscamdm, m town of Mysia, situated on the 
, *li»ch ruas by it (PI in. Strabo). It was 
iwjai nstdcnce of Eumenes, and of the 
) el (be lace of the Attali (Livy). It luul 
I teaplc of £«culapius (Tacitus). The 
of Ferganium was llie royal library, 
*jw^ «itii Aax of Alexandria in £e:ypt ; the 
teo 4f P«T|camun) and (^pt rivaUmg each 
•diis ia l]u» lapect (Pliny). Strabo ascribes this 
tMakyto Etinenes. Plutarch mentions 200,000 
■Diii^B B> Ibe library at Per^amum. Here 
4^ aamhiiBa Pergamenx, whence the name 
1, were invented for the use of books 
no, Pliay). It was the country of Ualen, 
•filnbuii'- in to Julian (Euna- 

• >. Here P " 1 (Cicero). Attalua, 

lof E mw i> W . <!} ">'^ " iitiuut issue, bequeathed 
I to the Roman people, who reduced 
^pcgirtDre (Stmbo). Here was one of the 
'" Has jundici, or assemblies of the 

, called Pergamenus, and the ninth 
r, nrfcldi Pliny also calls jurisdictio Per- 

" PERGAMUS, an ancient kingdom of Asia, 
fcsed «ol of the ruins of the empire of Alex- 
■ricr Ihr Great. It commenced about the year 
tKL The firtt sovereign was one Philetsrus a 
■^Mck, hj hirtb a Paphlagonian, of a mean de- 
mm^wtA in hi* youth a menial servant to Anti- 
■■■i^Bae of Alexander's captains. PhileUcrus 
MdMr ctiy of Pergamus'to his brother, or, ac- 
MniiaK Id aone, to bu brother's son Eumenes 
L. wha olMiBed possession of the greater part 
tf ttm pi u n ox of Asia. Kumenes was suc- 
«priad by AttaJas I., nephew of Philetxrus, 
■fc g^ donnf a h'Ilti of r^rly-thrce years, t«as 
MHMpal ■> nonv ' ;tar) with the Gauls, 

nitet Mf Mace!' l.^rs. He was a man 

«f Crm i^roerosity, aiul such an enthusiast in 
farar of ^enitu that he caused a grammarian 
m^mA Paptmlmr to be thrown into the sea from 
A* tap mt a h«i;h rock, because he spoke disre- 
g^j^ltiilly of llompr. Altalus was succeeded by 
y» vldrxt SOD Fumenes II. He was excced- 
■^^ ^1 " ^— I to the Unmans, and assisted them 
m oMaatriav Antiochus the (jreat, for which 
Itm* icwwiiM h'-" '-■' -'^ling to his dominions 
^ Ike romalnt^ ''- of Mount Taurus, 

■hii h hrVinfrrd • ^>.irch. He continued 

tmig » faithful ally ol <tiat powerf>.l people, but, 
J entrtwl into a secret treaty wi'h Perseus 
; of MxedoD, he excited their rrscntinent ; 


and, altliough he sought to deprecate their ven- 
geance, it would have fallen on him, but for his 
death, which happened in the thirly-nmth year 
of his reign. He left one son, but, as he was an 
infant, he nominated his brother to succeed him. 
Attalus II., in the beginning of his reign, was 
routed in a pitched battle by Prussias king of 
Bilhynia; but the intervention of the Komans 
procured him complete redress. , The latter part 
of his life be devoted tu ease and luxury. He 
died in his eighty-second year, about 13B B. C 
He was succeeded by Attalus III. the son of 
F.umenes, whose reign was one continued horrid 
scene of madness and tyranny. Un his death a 
will was found, by which he left the Roman 
people heirs of all his goods ; upon whicli they 
seized on the kingdom, and reduced il to a pro- 
vince of tlieir empire by the name of Asia Pro- 
per. Aristonicus, a son of Eumenes by an 
Ephesian courtesan, endeavoured lo wrest it from 
them, but although he gained several battles he 
could not attain his object, but died in prison. 
Tlie country remained subject to the Romans 
while tlieir empire lasted, but is now in the hands 
of the Turks. Tlie city is half ruined, and is 
still known bv the mune of Pergamo. 

PERGUNNAH, in Uie language of Hindos- 
tan, means the larpsst subdivision of a province, 
whereof the revenues are brought lo one par- 
ticular head cutchery, whence the accounts and 
cash are transmitted lo the general cutchery of 
Ihe province. 

PERHAPS', adv. Per and hap. Perad- 
veuture ; it may be ; mayhap. 

Perliapt the good old man that kisie J his MO, 
And left a blessing on his bead, 
Ilis aims about liini spread, 

Hopes yet to sec bim ere his glus be run. 


Somewhat excellent may be inveoted, ftrlmfi 
more eicellenl than the first design, though Virgil 
must be still excepted, when that jxrhapi tales place. 

Ilis thoughts inspiml his tougue, 
.\nd all his soul received a leal love : 
Perluyt new graces <larted from her eyes, 
Perhafu soft pity charmed his yielding soul, 
Pcrhapt her love, perhaps her kingdom charmed him. 

It is not his inlcnl to live in such ways as, for 
ought we know, (io<l may perhapt pardon, but lo be 
diligent in such ways, as we know that God will 
infallibly reward. /.aw. 

A dejection of mind, which prrtojii may be re- 
moved by to-morrow, ralber disqualifies me for writing. 
Vovper'i Prmile Corretpfladenet, 

PERIAGOOUE, in rhetoric, is used where 
many things are accumulated into one period 
which might have been divided into several. 

PERIAGUA, a sort of large canoe made use 
of in the I^eeward Islands, South America, and 
the Gulf of Mexico. It is composed of the 
tninks of two trees hollowed and united toge- 
ther ; and thus differs from the canoe, which is 
formed of one tree. 

PERIANDER, tyrant of Corinthand Corey ra, 
was reckoned among the seven wise men of 
Greece; thougli he michi rathet have been 
reckoned among the most wicked nen, since be 
changed the govemineni of his cou- try de[ livea 


his countrymen of their liberty, usurped the 
sovereignty, and committed the most shocking 
crimes. He committed incest with his mother, 
and kicked to death his wife Melissa. Yet he 
passed for one of the greatest politicians of his 
time; and Heraclides tells us that he forbad 
voluptuousness; that he imposed no taxes; 
caused all pimps to be drowned; and established 
a senate. He died A. A. C. 585. 

PKRIANTURJM, from irip., round, and 
av9ot, the flower, the flower cup properly so 
called, the most common species of calyx, placed 
immediately under the flower, which is contained 
in it as in a cup. 

PERIAPATAM, Priya Patana, or the 
Chosen City, a town and domain in the Rajah's 
territories, Mysore, towards the borders of the 
Coorg country, thirty-one miles west by south from 
Seringapatam. This domain formerly belonged 
to a polygar family, named Nandirax. About 
ICO years ago the chief was attacked by Chica 
Deva llaya, the Curtur of the Mysore ; and, 
finding himself unable to resist so powerful an 
enemy, he killed his wives and children, and 
then rushed into the midst of his enemies, where 
he died also. On the approach of general Aber- 
crombie's army, in 1790, Tippoo ordered both 
the town and fort to be destroyed. The fortifi- 
cations are now a mere ruin. The surrounding 
country is beautiful, but at the time it was con- 
quered by the British did not contain one-fourth 
tlie number of inhabitants necessary for its culti- 
ration, llie natives declare they have never 
seen ice or snow on the top even of the highest 
hills. There is at Bettadapoor a hill about 4000 
feet above the level of the sea. Periapatam, in 
time of Peace, is an entrepot of trade between 
'.fie Coorg and Mysore sovereignties. Sandal 
wood grows in the skirts of the forests. In 
twelve years it attains, in a strong soil, the most 
suitable size for being cut. The Periapatam district 
produces about 2000 cwt., and the whole sandal 
wood of India is now in the possession of the 
East India Company and the rajah of Mysore. 
The woods are much infested, and the crops in- 
jured, by wild elephants, which are more nume- 
rous on the borders of the Cooig country than 
either at Chittagong or in Pegu. Among the 
trees is abundance also of teak. 

To prepare the sandal wood, the billets are 
here buried in dry ground for two months, dur- 
ing which time the white ants eat up all the 
outer wood without touching the heart, which is 
the sandal. The deeper the color the higher 
the perfume, but the root sandal is the best. 
The large billets are sent to China, and the 
middle sized used. The chops, fragments, 
and smaller as.sortments, are best for the Ara- 
bian market, and from them the sandal oil is 

PER'IAPT, n. •. Gr. wiptarru. Amulet; 
charm worn as a preservative against disease or 

The Itegent conquers, and the Ftenchnien fly : 
Now help, ye channiog spells and periapii. 


PERICARDIUM, n. $. Fr. prricarde ; Gr. 
irtpt and capua, the heart. The membrane that 
contain, llie lieurt. 


The pericardium is a thin membrane of a conie 

guie, that resembles a purse, and contains tba 

heart in its cavity : its basis is pierced in five placet, 

»d c 

for the passage of the vessels which enter and 
out of the heart : the use of the ferieanUttm it to 
contam a smAll quantity of clear water, which it 
separated by small glands in it, that the surface of 
the heait may not grow dry by its continual motion. 


PEIUCAR'PIUM, n.i. Tr. pericarpe; Gt. 
ircpi and capxoc, fruit. In botany, a pellicle or 
thin membrane encompassing the fruit or grain 
of a plant, or that part of a fruit that envelopes 
the seed. 

Besides this use of the pulp or pericarpium for the 
guard of the seed, it serves also for the sustenance 
of animals. Bog. 

PERICHORUS, in antiquity, a name given 
by the Greeks to those games or combats that 
were not consecrated to any of the gods. 

PERICLES was one of the greatest men that 
ever flourished in Greece. He was very brave; 
and so eloquent that he gained almost as great 
an authority under the republican government of 
Atbens as if he had been a monarch. His fond- 
ness for women was one of his chief vices. Ho 
married the celebrated Aspasia, and died the 
third year of the Pelopotmesian war. See At- 

PERICRA'NIUM, n. ». Fr. pericrane: from 
vcpt and eronitim, the skull. 

The pericranium is the membiaDe that coven the 
skull : it is a very thin and nervous membrane of an 
exquisite sense, such as covers immediately not only 
the cranium, but all the bones of the boay ; except 
the teeth ; for which reason it is alio callea the pen- 
osteom. Quinej/. 

Having divided the periennimn, I saw a fissure 
running the whole length of the wound. Wittnan. 

PERrc'Ul.OUS,<Ki;. Lat. perifu/ona. Dan- 
gerous ; hazardous. A word not in use. 

As the moon every seventh day arriveth unto a 
contrary sign, so Saturn, which remaioeth about at 
many years in one sign, and holdeth the same con- 
sideration in years as the moon in days, doth caoio 
the perieulmu periods, Brotnt, 

PERIGEE', n.». > Fr. perigti; Gr. rut 

Perige'uii. ) and yq, the earth. A 

point in the heavens wlierein a planet is said to 

De in its nearest distance possible from the 


By the proportion of its motion it was at the 
creatioD, at the beginning of Aries, and tb» perignm 
or nearest point in libra. Bromu. 

PERIGORD Stonf, an ore of manganese, of 
a dark grz}* color, like the basaltes or trapp. It 
may be scraped with a knife, but is extremely 
difficult to be broken. It is found of no regular 
figure, is very compact, heavy, and as black as 
charcoal. Its appearance is glittering and striated, 
like the ore of antimony; its particles being dis- 
posed in the form of needles, crossing one ano- 
ther without any agglutination, insomuch that 
some are loose as iron filings when stuck to a 
loadstone ; resembling the scoriu from a black- 
smith's furnace. By calcination it becomes 
harder, and of a reddish brown color, but is not 
magnetic. It has a considerable specific gra- 
vity, does not melt per se, but with borax runt 


ttam .Moctlij^-coSiorpI i;ia». It .i scarcely 
4hni4 by MOOtts acid without the addition nf 
m^ ll Jtjuiu mbo to contain some argil ^ni 
■a II i> BMt with ID the ci-devant provinces 
' rf Gwany and Dmphint in France, anil in 
^m W*^ of EagLud. It is employed by the 
tan paacn aid enamellen in the glassy var- 
latk tl aeir rarthen wares. 

PIlRIGKAPUE, a word used to express a 
Hl lli j aoi iaaocurate delineation of any thing. 

riMBaaFKS, in anatomy, is u»ed by \'e3alius 

M«S{aaa tbe white lines or impressions that 

^Mv en Ike musculus rectus of the abdomen. 

Pf.'"'" ' ' \, VisiSNA, an ancient and 

Tatty hief place of the department of 

L>«i.i, • i^ifCC, haTing an inferior court of 

ptum, ■■4*r tlie royal court of Bourdeaux, a 

daafttf of comnerce, tnd an agricultural so- 

orf;. k M a bishopric, the princifial place of 

Ih* l^alKlIt nulitary division, and a post tovrn, 

««h UCU lalaiNtlDts. This city stands in a 

%mt rifcj. qo'lbe hgiht bank of the isle, near 

th« o^lwiiflt of that river with the V'ezi^rc. It 

uritli freestone walls tolerably 

I eoalains several remains of ancient 

, whicb show its splendor in the time 

tf tta >!■■■■ I There are some very pleasant 

■afc RMBtd Ibe town, and the neighbourhood 

ifaaalt « caedlent game and delicious truffles; 

ftq^BBS piet are also hic;hly estet-med, and 

^M • OHHidenbW branch of the commerce 

^Itm piMC. The manoAclures coiuist of hand- 

lHMrfl«<a{>i, fine liqueurs, &c., and the trade 

• cbMly n iIm pal^*, or pies, and truffles, just 

■■■iaacd, together with wood, iron, grocery, 

kaaiy^aaM, poultry, and cattle. Here is a 

■rffefiimy ol ll/)00 volumes; the prefect's 

•■■* af i t s it a u ronslructiun ; a botanical gar- 

4m: ik* aMbtdtal ; ttie tower of Vesunna, a cir- 

olar HiiftEC, 100 ieet bizh, without eitlier door 

I* «nda« (ikaagbl to lutve been anciently the 

^■fl* nt V<aiu} ; several remains of antiquity, 

«f^— Jagt. public baths, and several arcades 

tf • him aapkilheaire. This h the native place 

tf BMniaBii La Grange-Chancelle, celebrated 

atfatb It if KTcntv-two miles S. S. W. of Li- 

mi^a, un»j-iix E.N. K-nf Bourdeaux, fiAy- 

•■CB fcooth-cHt of Angauli^me, and 364 S. S.W 

V Pi' ; 1° 37' W.. lat. 45" 1 1' N. 

Pi M. «. t. Vt.ptrihclie; Gr. 

XacsJ « ' That point of a planet's 

wIms^ -«t the sun. 

Sir lour >iiU}3 lu^ maile it probable that the 
aaac •kkk j p y^ml in in08, by approaching to 
te ^19 ia \^M iMtAtfmm, actiuiietl such a degree of 
^IB aa n kf lOfiOO jar* a cooling. 
^^ Oirmms't rhitaurphical PrincipUi. 

^H N Fr. ;Kri/,- Ital./m-i- 

^^^ (^glto; Lat. periculum. 

^^V^^ rWr. 1 Danger ; jeopardy ; 

^^^V%s ■ >, n. I. ) risk ; danger de- 

MBca^ i fWsraiK'iation : perilous is, hazardous ; 

; and Shakspeare tises ' parlous' more 

for (farrwd or witty, as Dr. Johnson 

aoac of th« opinion 'that children 

^ Corwan! do not live :' but query. Is' 

« «ac • eorrvplion of peerless ? perilously and 
f^itcimmem fellow these senses. 

Bmm Foaelo. ka tAeral unto me of tlioee things 


which have made you indeed precious to the world, 
and now doubt not to tell of your periU. Sidney 
tlow many ptriU ilo unfold 
The righteous man to make bim daily fall ! 

Alterations in the wrrica ot vied, for that the/ 
impair tlio credit of religion, are therefore ptriiviii 
in commoo-ncaU, which have no continuance longer 
than religion hath all reverence done unto it. 

I told her, 
Oo your displeasure's peril. 
She should not visit you, 

SliuluiMvrt'i If'in/<r'< Tale 
\ parlimi boy, go to you are too ihrewd. 

/(/. King Richard III 
In the act what jieriU shall we find, 
If either place, or time, or other course. 
Cause OS lo alter the order now assigoad. 

Her guard is chastity ; 
She that hat that is clad in complete steel. 
And like a luivereU nymph with airows keen 
May ince huge forests and unharboured heaths. 
Infamous hills and sandy friU'iu wilds. /Vi/iiii. 

Thus was the accomplished squire endued 
NVith gifts and knowledge ptr'loui shrewd. 

The love and pious duty which you pay 
Have passed tlic ;)fril» of so hard a way. 

Strong, healthy, and young people are more in 
peril by pestilential fevers than the weak and old. 

Dictate propitious to my duteous ear. 
What arts can captivate the changeful seer : 
For perilowi the assay, unheard the toil 
T° elude the prescience of a God by guile. Pope. 

Soldiers always live 
I a idleness or peril : both are bad. Procttr. 

PERIM'ETER, n.i. Fr. perimetre ; Gr. 
■KifH and /iirprw. The compass or sum of all 
the sides which bound a figure. 

By compressing the glasses still more, the diame- 
ter of this ring would increase, and the breadth of 
its orbit or perimeter decrease, until another new 
colour emerged in llie centre of the last. SeatoH. 

PEKIN/tUM, or PrninrtM, in anatomy, 
the sp.-u:e between the anus and the parts of ge- 
neration, divided into two equal lateral divisions 
by a very distinct line, which is longer in males 
than females. 

PEllINSKIOLD (Jobn),a learned SwedUh 
writer, born at Sti^egnesia in Sudermania, in 
1654- He was made professor at Upsal, secre- 
tary antiquary of the king of Sweden, and coun- 
sellor of tlie chancery of antiquities. He died 
in 1720. His principal works are, 1. A History 
oftheKinKSof .Norway. 2. A History of the 
Kings of the North. 3. An edition of John 
Me'isenms on the Kings of Sweden, Norway, 
and Denmark, in 14 vols, folio, Jcc. 

PERIOD, H. I, & V. a.-j Fr. periaJe; Gr. 

Ptniou'ic, oi/;. ^iripio/ot. A circuit; 

Period'ical, itime during which 

Pebiod'icallv, orfw. *Bny thing is per- 
formed that is continued in series ; course of 
events; a given number of years; length of 
time; a complete sentence; particularly the end 
or conclusion of a series ; the point or state at 
which a thing terminates : as a verb to put an 
end to : periodic amd periodical mean cirr;ular; 




regular ; returning at a given period or length of 
time ; relating to periods : periodically, at stated 

If my death might make this island happy. 
And prove the penod of their tyraany, 
i would expend it with all willingness ; 
Bat mine is made the prologue to their play. 

Your letter he desires 
To those have shut him up, which failing to him, 
Pn-iuA his comfort. /d. Timon. 

Some expenments would be made how by art to 
make plants more lasting than their ordinary period, 
as to make a stalk of wheat last a whole year. 

Baixm'i Katunl Hutory. 
Piriedt are beautiful, when they are not too long : 
for so they have their strength too as in a pike or 
•avelin. Ben Joium. 

Beaoty't empire*, like to greater states, 
Have certain per'wdt set, and hidden fates. 

Light-conserving stones must be set in the sua 
before they retain light, and the light will appear 
gieater or lesser, until they come to their utmost 
period, Uighy, 

Is this the coohdence you gave me t 
I^ean on it safely, not a periud 
Shall be unsaid for me. Mitton. 

It is implicitly denied by Aristotle in his politics, 
ia that ducourse against Plato, who measured the 
vicissitude and mutation of states by a periuditul 
fatality of number. Bromne. 

We stile a lesser space a cycle, and a greater by 
the name of period, and you may not improperly call 
the beginning of a large period the epocha thereof. 

holder on Time, 
Syllogism is made use of to discover a fallacy 
cunningly wrapt up in a smooth period. Loeke. 

There is nothing lo secret that shall not be brought 
to light within the compass of our world ; whatso- 
ever coooem* this sublunary world in the whole ex- 
lent of its duration, from tlie chaos the last period. 

Bumet't Iheort). 
What anxious moments pan between 
The birth of plots and their last fatal periodi! 
Uh ! 'tis a dreadful interval of tim;:. Addiaa, 
The confusion of mountains and hollows furnished 
me with a probable reason for those periadieat foun- 
tains in Switzerland which flow only at such parti- 
cular hours of the day. td. 

Was the earth's periodic motion always in the 
same plane with that of the diurnal, we should miss 
of those kindly increases of day and night. 

Astrological undertakers would raise men out of 
some slimy soil, impregnated with the influence of 
the stars upon some remarkable and periodical con- 
junctions, hentlev. 

The three tides ought to be understood of the 
space of the night and day, then there will be a 
regular flux and reflux thrice in that time every eight 
hours ptriodieaU)), ■ Broome, 

From the tongue 
The unfinished period falls. Thornton, Spring, 
Tell these, that the sun is fixed in the centre, that 
the earth with all the planets roll round the sun in 
their several periodi ; tney cannot admit a syllable of 
this new doctrine. Wotu, 

For the assistance of memories, the first words of 
•very period in every page may be written in distinct 
colours. Id. 

Four moons perpetually roll round the planet 
Jupiter, and are carried along with him in his periodi- 
ml dfCttil lonnd the sun. n'atu on the itind. 

Period, in astronomy. See Astronoiit. 

Period, in chronology, denotes a revolutioa 
of a certain number of years, or a series of yean, 
whereby, in different nations, and on diffeceok 
occasions, time is measured ; such ate the fol- 
lowing : 

1. Period, Calippic, a system of sereaty- 
six years. 

2. Period, Dion Ysi AN, or Victorian period, a 
system of 532 lunee-solar and Julian yean ; 
which being elapsed, the characters of the moon 
fall again upon the same day and feria, and 
revolve in the same order, according to the 
opinion of the ancients. This period is otherwise 
called the great paschal cycle, because the Chris- 
tian church first used it to find the true time of 
the pascha or Easter. The sum of these years 
arise by multiplying together the cycles of the 
'Sun and moon. 

3. Period, Hipparcuus's, is a series of 304 
solar years, returning in a constant nmnd, and 
restoring the new and full moons to the same 
day of the solar year, according to the sentiment 
of Hipparchus. This period arises by multiply- 
ing the Calippic peri<Kl by four. Uippaidtos 
assumed the quantity of the solar year to be 
365 d. Sh, 55 m. 12s.; and hence concluded 
that in 104 years Calippus's period would tn 
a whole day. He therefore multiplied the period 
by four, and from the product cast away an en- 
tire day. But even this does not restore the new 
and full moons to the same day throughout the 
whole period ; but they are sometimes anticipated 
1(/. 8A.23m. 29ii. 

4. Period, Julian. See Julian. 

Period, in grammar, denotes a small com- 
pass of discourse, containing a perfect sentence, 
and distinguished at the end by a point, or full 
stop, thus ( . ) ; and in members or divisions 
marked by commas, colons ( : ), &c. Rhetori- 
cians consider period, which treats of the struc- 
ture of sentences, as one of the four parts of 
composition. The periods allowed in oratory 
are three : a period of two members, called by 
the Greeks dicolos, and by the Latins bimem- 
bris; a period of three members, tricols, tri- 
membris ; and a period of four, quadrimembris, 
tetracolos. See Punctuation. 

Period, in medicine, is applied in certain 
diseases which have intervals and returns, to 
denote an entire course or circle of such disease; 
or its progress from any state through all the 
rest till it return to the same again. Galen de- 
scribes period as a time composed of an inten- 
tion and remission ; whence it is usually divided 
into two parts, the paroxysm, or exacerbatioD, 
and remission. In intermitting fevers, the pe- 
riods are usually stated and regular; in otner 
diseases, as the epilepsy, gout, Slc, they are 
vague or irregular. 

PEKIOKCI, iTfpuKcot, in geography, suchin- 
hahitantj of the earth as have the same latitudes, 
but opposite longitudes, or live under the same 
parallel and the same meridian, but in different 
semicircles of that meridian, or in opposite points 
\>{ the parallel. These have the same common 
seasons throughout the year, and the same phe- 
nomena of jQie heavenly bodies ; but, when it is 
noon-day with the one, it is midnif^t with th* 


CWV i^*"* being twelre hours m an ea^t and 
*et fcii I'iBi These ore found on the g:lobe 
^ Ai boE' ■"'•'■• "r by Uiriiing tho globe lialf 
WiAAa: .!her way. 

PfltRi'- .. 1. Fr. fieriottt ; Gr. xipt 

^\x m m , • boae. 

%A ih> !■•(• ar« rortred with k very unsible 
■iknaa. callcii - "n. Chti/n*. 

fSBlFATETi . j^opbers, followers of 

LttiilMlf , lad nuinuinvn of (be peripatetic phi- 
ealled s!«> .KnMotclians. They were 
'oM l>cxipate<. - xrartw, I wajk; be- 

^■t tb»y <ll»f" ,' 111 the Lyceum. A 

irillBKl wjvteai <>i iiiv I'lTipatetic philosophy 
^i iot latnMlureil into the schools in the 
L'arafnily of Fan*, whence it soon spread 
Aaq^eot Earope : and has subsisted in some 
i mjt i Lj tolhi< •^■■'~ iirrii.^rlhe name of school 
fUanfkij. TV' : of this is Ari3lotlr's 

^tamtfiAak m id, but oftener mis- 

^fliol : wbcnoe tlie retainers m.-iy be denomi- 
Md B«femed Peripatetics. Out of these hare 
^na|^ at rxhoaa times, several bnnches ; the 
ami «nr Ih* T>Hwnists, Scotisis, and Nomina- 
k*». TW I ' system, after having pre- 
ilAidvMii exteniive dominion for 
■■iy«alanr«, of^ia rapidly to decline towards 
tttdaBof the •e*cnteenth, when the disciples 
^bimm ■ttMkr') -• — •' •> one hand, and it had 
idlM** fannt'l ines to encounter in 

,G»aaeax--, : .\jwlon. See Puilo- 

IPATDX, in antiquity, the name of that 

: «* lfc« Ljceuin where Aristotle uughl, and 

one of Peripatetics was given to bis 

PEUPETIA, in the drama, that part of a 
wiMRBo the action is turned, the plot 
and the whole concludes. See Ca- 

IPITERY, 11.1. Fr. peripheric; Gr. 
■ IW mtt iit«l faculty sufficient to eiler- 
leat kuMMn to tlie frrifhtTv or outward 
■^ Utt1*ti). 

Pnimimr. See GumcntT. 
PCRIPIIRASE^ e. a. | Gr. vipifpatnc ; Fr. 
Puini'KAits ■• «- SptriphroMT. To ex- 
I word by many ; circumlocution : use 
vQfdi to express the sense of one. 
Ika taiuatu «U bliu, 
Aai aalcs llw «»rVd but her prri'pAnuu. 

CUiiivland . 
TbvT Bake the |alet of Thehei and the mouths of 
h« rivar • w s tn u ftrtfltTatu for this number leven. 

1W ^ ii y *i— 'i and rirCDmloculions by which 
iiiyiym.! Ibe ttngle act of dying, have sup- 
Cai aaaswbaf poets with all their manners of 

TWy •!■*« liheir tejnuot; us«l«s>ly, and make a 
M| prnpAnuii oa evay wunl of the iKmll they ei- 
ka. H'adi. 

PtJtlPLOC'A, Virv;ini»n silk, in botany, a 
tmt» of lit* diijrnia order and pentandria class 
r pCaot* i nalural order thirtieth, conlortn. The 
■nUB •■RO> nilaU, and sends out 

UMBMiita- live species, four of 

db H« oabvc-' VI ,,.11111 climates, and can 
I b« «««i tkcn. TV ftfih, however, is suf* 


ficlently hardy for tJiis climate. The periploo* 
is a fine climbing plant, that will wind itself with 
its ligneous branches about whatever tree, hedge, 
pale, or pole is near it ; and will arise, by the 
assistance of such support, to the height of about 
thirty feet; and where no tree or support is at 
baud to wind about, it will knit or entangle itself 
together in a most complicated manner. The 
stalks of the older branches, which are most 
woody, are covered with a dork brown bark, 
whilst the younger shoot* are more mottled 
Willi the different colors of brown and gray, 
and the ends of llie youngest shoots are often 
of a light green. 'Jlie sUillts are round, and the 
bark is smooth. The leaves are the greatest 
ornament to this plant; for they ate tolerably 
larse, and of a good shining green color on their 
upper surface, and cause a variety by exhibiting 
their under surface of a hoary cast. Tlieir figure 
is ohiong, or nithcr more inclined to the shape of 
a spear, as their ends are pointed, and they stand 
opposite by pairs on short foot-stalks. Their 
flowers have a star-like appearance ; for, though 
they are composed of one petal only, yet the 
rim is divided into segments, which expand in 
such a manner as to form that figure. Iheir in- 
side is hairy, as is also the nectarium which sur- 
rounds the petal. Four or five of the flowers 
grow together, forming a kind of umbel. Tliey 
are of a chocolate color, are small, and are in 
blow in July and August, and sometimes in 
September. In the country where this genus 
grows naturally they are succeeded by a long 
taper pod, with compressed seeds having down 
to their lops. The propagation of this climber 
is very easy; for if the cuttings are planted in a 
light moist soil, in the autumn or in the spring, 
they will r^iulily strike root. Three joints at 
least should be allowed to each cutting ; they 
should be the bottom of the preceding summer's 
shoot ; and two of the joints should be planted 
deeply in the soil. Another, and a never-failing 
method, is by layers ; for if they are laid down 
in the ground, or a little soil only loosely thrown 
over the young preceding summer's shoots, they 
will strike root at the joints, and be good plants 
for removing the winter following. 

PERIPNEU'MONY, n.«. » Gr. x«p» and 

Pcripneumo'nia, n. f. \ irvivfiuvi the 

lungs; Fr. pcripneumonie. Inflammation of tlie 

Lungs oft imbibing phtegmatick and roelancholick 
humours arc now and then deprehended schtrrous 
by diuipation of the tiibliler parts, and lapidifica- 
liun of the grosser that may be left indurated, through 
the gross reliques of peripntummtia or iDfiammation of 
the lungs. ' Hanri). 

A peripneumonj/ it the last fatal symptom of every 
disease ; for nobody dies without a sUgnalion of the 
bloo<l in the lungs, which is the tourexUaclion of 
breath. Arbuthnol. 

PiBiPSEtiMOKT, a disease attended with an 
acute fever, and a difficulty of breathing. See 

PERIRRHANTERIUM, a Teasel of stone or 
brass, which was filled with holy water, and with 
which all those were sprinkled who were ad- 
mitted by the ancients to their sacrifices. Beyond 
this vessel no profane person was allowed to 


pau. It was used both by Greeks and Romans, 
and has been evidently borrowed by the church 
of Rome. The Hebrews also had a vessel for 

PBRISCII, in geojnaphy, the inhabitants of 
either frigid lone, between the polar circles and 
the poles, where the sun, when in the summer 
signs, moves only round about them, without 
setting; and consequently their shadows in the 
same day turn to all the.points of the horizon. 

PER'ISH, c.n. &».o. 2 Fr. periV; Port. 

Per'isuable, adj. ?and Span, perecer; 

Per'isbablekess, n. t. J Lai. pereo. To die; 
be destroyed; come to nothing; be lost; be in a 
state of constant decay ; be eternally lost : as an 
active verb (obsolete) to destroy; cause to de- 
cay: perishable and perbhableness follow the 
senses of the verb neuter, which generally takes 
for or with before a cause, and by before' an in- 

They ptriih quickly from off the good land. 

Deui. xi. 18. 

If I have seen any per'uh for want of cloathing, 
then let mine aim fall from my shoulder blade. 

Jab xxxi. 29. 
I jterith with huager. Lttke xv. 17. 

These, as natural brute beasts made to be destroyed, 
speak evil of the thing* they understaod not, and shall 
utterly pnith. 2 fetitr. 

I burn, 1 pine, I perish, 

It I atchieve not this young modest girl. 


The splitting rocks cowered in the sinking sands. 
And would not dash me with their ragged sides ; 
Because thy flinty heart, more hard than they. 
Might in thy palace periMk Margaret. M. 

We derogate from his eternal power to ascribe to 
them the same dominion over our immortal souls, 
which they have over all bodily substances and 
ptriihabU natures. Rattigh. 

Rise, prepared in black, to mourn thy perithed 
lora. Dryilen. 

Characters drawn on dust, that the first breath of 
wind e6aoes, are altogether as useful as the thoughts 
of a soul that ptrish in thinking. Locke. 

Exposing their children, and leaving them in the 
fields to feriiA bg want, has been the practice. 


Duration, and time which is a part of it, is the 
idea we have of periihing distance, of which no two 
parts exist together, but follow in succession ; as ex- 
pansion is the idea of lasting distance, all whose 
paru exist together. Id. 

Suppose an island separate from all commerce but 
having nothing because of its commonness and periA- 
ableneu fit to supply the place of money : what rea- 
son could any have to enlarge possessions beyond the 
use of his family 1 Id. 

To these parposea nothing can so much Contribute 
as medals of undoubted authonty not ptruhabU by 
time, nor confined to any certain place. Adduon. 

He was so reserved, that |ie would impart his 
•ecrets to nobody ; wherenpon this closeness did a 
little periih his understanding. Collitr. 

Human nature conid not sustain the reflection of 
having alt its schemes and expectations to determine 
with uis fiail and perMabU composition of flesh and 
blood. Rogm. 

So »hen the lust of tyrant power succeeds, 
Some Athens peritha, or some Tally bleeds. Popt. 
Familiar now with grief your ears refrain, 

And in the public woe forget your own, 

You weep not for a ptriAtd lord alone. Id. 



Thrice has he seen the perithabU kind 
Of men decay. Id. Odyuey, 

It is a prince's greatest present felicity to reign in 
their subjects' hearu ; but these are too perithabk to 
pieserve their memories, which can only be done by 
the pens of faithful historians. Smift. 

PERISTALTIC, adj. Gr. w.p.«XX«, to 
contract ; Fr. perutaltique. Contractile in the 
particular manner described below. 

P*ri$taltick motion is that vermicular motion of the 
guts, which is made by the contraction of the spiral 
fibres, whereby the excrements are pressed down- 
wards and vcj^ded. Quiney. 

The perutaltick motion of the guts, and the conti- 
nual expression of the fluids, will not suffer the least 
matter to be applied to one point the least instant. 


PERISYSTOLE, n.i. Gr. wipi and .i/toX,. 
In medicine, the pause or interval betwixt the 
two motions of the heart or pulse ; namely, that 
of the systole or contraction of the heart, and 
that of diastole or dilatation. 

PERISTYLE, It. I. TT.perittiU. A circu- 
lar range of pillars. 

The Villa Gordiana had iptrutyU of two hundred 
pillars. Arbutknot m Coiiu. 

PERITONE'UM, n. 1. Fr. perUoine; Or. 
mpiTovttiov. A membrane that lies immediately 
under the muscles of the lower belly, and which 
encloses all the bowels there contained. 

Wound* penetrating into the belly are such Ms 
reach DO farther inward than to the petitomum. 

Pehitoneum. See Akatomy, Index. 
PERITONIUM. a town of Egypt, on the 
west bank of the Nile, reckoned one of tlie keys 
of the country. Marc Antony was defeated 
near it by Cornelius Gallus, a lieutenant of 

PERITROCHIUM, in mechanics, denotes a 
wheel or circle, concentric with the base of a 
cylinder, and moveable together with it about its 

PER'J U RE, V. a. kn.t.^ Lat. ycrjaro. To 
P^VuRER, n. I. > forswear ; swear 

PERii'RY. ) felsely ; taint with 

perjury, used with the reciprocal pronoun : it is 
usM as a noun substantive by Shakspeare, and 
for perjurer, which signifies one who swears 
falsely : perjury is (alse swearing ; a fiilse oath. 

The law is not made for a righteous man, but for 
the lawless and disobedient, for perjurrd persons. 

1 Tm. i. 10. 
The common oath of the Scythians was by the 
sword and fire ; for that they accounted those two 
special divine powers, which should work vengeance 
on tiie ptriHrm. Speiutr. 

Hide thee, thou bloody hand. 
Thou prrjurt, thou similar of virtue. 
Thou art incestuous. Skaktpnr*. King httr. 
Who should be trusted now, when their light 
Is ptrjund to the bosom t Staktptmn. 

Mv great father-in-law, renowned Warwick, 
Cried aloud — What scourge for ptrjurji 
Can this dark monarchy ^ord false Clarence? 
And so he vanished. Id. Richard til. 

Let us consider, that rash and vain swearing is 
very apt often to bring the practiser of it into that 
most horriblk sin of prrjwrji. ~ 


Pli/r«t, by ibe common law of KnplanJ, is 
I aarnaiiniUed bjr one wlio, being lawfully 
Hfmtito daww ttie truth In any judicial pro- 
Mdhi|t, wMmy fw«us falsely in a point mate- 
H^H^ qoesUoo in dupule It has, however, 
InMd. tl»t a inan may be indicted for per- 
ftjlet twcmnng thit he ht/icved a fact to be 
Ka, vkich he knew to be false. The common 
h* Mia oo notice of any false swearing, but 
mtk n M oonunitled in some court of justice, 
bnm power to adruinister the naih, or before 
MM oScer or magutrate invested with similar 
imkmvty, m tome proceeding; reUuive to a civil 
MM m Cfuniiaal prosecution ; for the law es- 
tmam aD other oaths unnecessary, at least, and 
&■■• wtil oa( punish the breach of them. Thus, 
ill pnon smtan falsely in a voluntary affidavit 
n wy estiB}odicia] matter, he is not liable to 
■9 1— "TT***"**" By numerous slatule« in En- 
1 ABerio, the penalties of perjury have 
miilril to faiit oaths by electors, bank- 
npl^ aaoiveDt debtors, 8cc. By the English 
lav. ifae c^xleoce of one alone is not 
mAcmM to cnnvict on an indictment for per- 
fji ia MKk case, there would be only one 
OMipiiMt another ; but it is sufficient if corro- 
kavlrf by olber independent evidence. Subor- 
■■MB tf paijnry is llie offence of procurin;; a 
■^HeaaAit perjury. Ily the law of Moses 
CAaritowaaaajf >ix. 19), if a man testify falicly 
^Mttkis b*Dth«r, it shall bv done unto him as 
W kid lko«t«hl to do a'^uiriit his brother. And 
lla IB lb* priociple adopted in the laws of many 
if tW sMte* of modem Europe. By the law of 
AaT«ll««Tmble», "perjurii perna iln'ina.ezitiion; 
tmmatm, 4nltrtn-'' Uelliu-, xx. I, mentions, 
r panoos who had perjured themselves, 
; ulat tcilimony, were thrown from (he 
rock. Thr civil law punished perjury 
,' by ihr name of God, m 
0MC9. V (Dt;ittt, lib. ii, tit. 4; 

bb. '" 11 •); but the punishment of 
fnjBry coramiilol in swearing by the safety of 
AacMpoor ^:-^ cl<-:iih (Cvde, iv. 1:2); by the 
mrmimB of , beating and scourging 

(Om.Jiii. , 13). The punishment of 

fm^tj, bf llw common law in England, was, 
•iMMatJy, il#sth; aftefw.irds huni-hment, or 
omamg <Mt tlie toilgiie ; then forfeiture of goods. 
At ite present tiinr, it is fine, imprisonment, 
•rf pillvr;, at t)ie discretion of the rourt, to 
okici dMl'ltAtnte Geo, II, c. 25, adds a power in 
fee umtn to order the oifcnder to be »cnt to the 
■oaiB of Correction fur a term not exceeding 
I Jimrs, or to he transported for the .same 
The offender is inc;ipacitated from giv- 
< in a court of ja>tice ; but a pardon 
im competency. - By the law of the 
, ifc* pnnisiimnit on conviction for per- 
illed to any cause depending m any 
k* eOMtt of the V. States, oi in any deposi- 
I Mkaa ia partuance of the laws of the U. 
MM, ia npniOttmenI not above th-ee years, 
tm» not exceeding £'iOO, pillory one hour, 
diti^aali&mlion for being a witness until the 
la reversed. Hy the capitularies of 
I and Louis U Dehonnairr, perjury 
1 by cutline off the hand. By the 
I code, perjury in criminal cases is pun- 


ishable by confinement at hard labor for a limited 
time. If the party accused is sentenced to a .se- 
verer punishment, the perjurer is to siifler the 
like. In cases of correctional or police junsdic. 
tion, it is punishable by confinement. Perjury 
in civil suits, is punishable by civic degradation. 
Bv the Prussian code, promulgated by Frederic 
Williain in 1794, whoever, whether he appears 
as a party or as a witness, perjures himself, is to 
be excluded for ever from his employments, 
rights and civil profession, to undergo an igno- 
minious exposition as a perjured person, or to 
be publicly declared such, and, in addition 
thereto, to be condemned to confinement from 
one to three years. If the perjury be with a 
view to profit the perjurer, he is to forfeit a sum 
quadruple of that which he endeavoured to ob- 
tain. If the perjury is committed in a capital 
case, and an innocent person is, in consequence, 
condemned, the punishment of the perjurer is 
death; and in cases not capilal, the punishment 
of the peijurer is to he proportioned to the crime 
of which the innocent person was accused and 
convicted. By the law of Spain (in 1804), per- 
jury, in civil causes, is punishable with ten years' 
condemnation to the galleys ; and in criminal 
cases, in which the punishment for the offence 
charged does not extend to death, public iufamy 
and perpetual condemnation to the galleys. 

I'ER'IWIG, n. s. & c. o. Fr.peTTugue. False 
hair worn by way of ornament or concealment 
of baldness : to diess in false hair. 

PERTWINKLE, n.r Barb. Lat. pcrvinra 
(from its winding shape.) A small shell-fish ; a 
fish snail ; also a winding pl.ini, the clematis. 

PERIZONIUS (James), a learned and labo- 
rious writer, born at Dam in ICSl. lie became 
professor of history and eloquence at the univer- 
sity of Franekir, when, by his merit and learn- 
ing, he made that university flourish. How. 
ever, in 1693, he went to Leyden, where he was 
made professor of history, eloquence, and fJreek ; 
ill which employment he continued till his 
death, in 17l5. lie wrote many learned and 
curious wnrks, particularly Origines Babylonicx 
et Egyptiacs, 2 vols. 8vo. &c. But his work 
most generally known is the Notes upon Sancta 

PERIZZITES, ancient inliabitants of Pales- 
tine, mingled with the Canaanites. They did 
not inhabit any certain portion of the land of 
Canaan ; there were some of them on both sides 
the river Jordan, in the mountains, and the 

PEni\, v.n.,v. a. tc adj. From ptrch. Skin- 
ner. To hold up the head with affected brisk- 
ness ; assume airs; dress smartly or proudly: 
pert ; brisk ; proud. 

PERKINISM, in medicine, is a late and 
already exploded method of curing head-aches, 
rheumatisms, quinsies, gouts, lumbagos, cramps, 
contusions, sprains, tumois, burns, scalds, ery- 
sipelas, palsies, and various other diseases and 
pains in all parts of the body, by drawing me- 
tallic iraciors over the pans affected ; invented 
by a Dr. Perkins of Ameiica. These tractors 
were made of silver, brass, copper, iron, lead, 
or line ; and even of ivory or ebony ; and sup- 
posed to act as mechanical stimuli, or as galvanic 




conductors of electriciljr- Experiments are said 
to liave been made will) success in this way by 
otlier physicians and surgeons, particularly Dr. 
J. C. Tode, physician to the king of Denmark, 
and professors Uerholdt and Uafn, of Copen- 
hagen, who published a Treatise on Perkinism, 
and first made use of the term. 

PER'LOUS, adj. Corrupted from perilou.* 
Dangerous ; liazardous. 

PERM, an extensive government, situated 
chiefly in European, but partly in Asiatic Rus- 
sia, adjacent to that of Viatka on the wrtt, and 
Tobolsk on the east ; extending from 56° to 62° 
of N. lat. Its area is 116,000 square miles, or 
double that of England, while its population 
does not exceed 1,100,000. It is intersected 
from north to south bv a part of the great Uial 
chain, aod is in genenl hilly, covered with vast 
and impenetrable forests. It is divided into 
twelve districts or circles. Those situated in 
the south-east are tolerably cultivated, but the 
rest of the country is fit only for pasture ; and 
an annual import of com is generally necessary. 
The exports are cattle, and the copper, iron, and 
salt of the mines. The inhabitants are a mixed 
race, paitly Russian, and partly Finnish and 
Tartar. The annual export ot metal is computed 
at 2000 tons of copper, and 70,000 tons of iron. 
The sea being remote both on the north and 
south of the rivers ; those on the west side of 
the Ural (haib flow mio the Kama, which joins 
the Wolga ; those on the east side fall, for the 
most part, into the Oby, the outlet of which is in 
the Frozen Ocean. The forests contain various 
animals, which are hunted for their furs. The 
inhabitants are partly Christians, partly Maho- 
metans, and, in no inconsiderable degree, Pagans. 
The ancestors of those of the country between 
tbe White Sea and tlie Ural Mountains are de- 
scribed as a wealthy and powerful nation ; but 
after falling, in the middle ages, under the sway 
of the republic of Novgorod, they were gradu. 
ally incorporated into the Russian empire. 

Pesm, the chief place of the preceding go- 
vernment, is situated on the river Kama, and 
has some neat public buildings, a public school, 
and an hospital. It carries on an active traffic 
with the provinces both to east and west, in the 
metals of the sunounding country. Population 
3800 : 910 miles cast by south of St. Petersburg, 
and 720 E. N. E. of Moscow. 

PERMACOIL, a town and fortress of the 
Camatic, south of India. The fort is situated 
on a rock from 200 to 300 feet high, and from 
400 to 500 yards in breadth. It was first taken 
by the British in 1760, then made oVer to the 
nabob of Arcot. and in the year 1782 wifs cap- 
tured by the united forces of Hyder Aly and the 
French. It remained with them till tlir.' end of 
the war, when it. was dismantled, and the forti- 
fications blown up. Long. 79° 52' E., lat. 12° 
13' N. 
PER'MANENCE, or-\ 1 Jt. pentmnrnt.ptr- 
Pi.H'MANLhCT, n. s. f munto. Duration; 
Pei'manent, adj. \ abidance ; consis- 
Pra'tiANFMLTioe/r. i Icncy ; continuity of 
PcK'MA^Slo^, n. «. J stale; |>ermanent is 
lasting ; durable ; unchanged ; the adverb cor- 
responding : pennansioD (obsolete), continuance. 

Such a punctum to our coaceptions i* almiMt 
equivaleot to permanency and rest. Btntkf. 

PER'MEABLE, adj. J Lat.perfwo. Sudi 
Pcrmea'tion, n.t. ) as may be passed 

It entereth not the veins, but taketh leave of the 

ftmuant parts at the mouth of the meseraicks. 

The poies of a bladder are not easily ftrmtahle by 
air. BogU. 

This beat evaporates and elevates the water of tbe 
abyss, pervading not ouly the fissures, but tbe very 
hoilies of the strata, jxrmtating tbe interstices of this 
sand, or other matlera whereof they consist 

WooUaerd'i Natural Wulorf. 

PERMIS'CIBLE, adj. "j Latin, permitceo 
•Pebmis'tion, n. s. > Capable of being 

Permix'tioh. 3 mingled or mixed : 

permistion and permixtion mean the act of mix- 
ing or mingling; state of being mingled. 

They fell into the opposite extremity of one n*tai« 
in Christ, the divine and human natures in Christ, 
in their conceits, by fermixtiim and confusion of sub- 
xances, and of pioperties growing into one upon 
tbeir adunation. £r*mmii<. 

PERMIT, t>.fl.&n.».1 Fr. 
Permis'sible, adj. 

Pebmis'siok, n. t. 
Permi&'sive, adj. 
Permis'sively, adv. 
Permit'takce, n. t. 

Ital. parmtttert ; 
IjA. pertnitto. To 
'yield ; allow ; sufler; 
resign; let; not bin- 
der: a permit is 

a legal excise ticket of sufferance, or allowance 
for goods to pass from a place, having paid the 
duty imposed on them : permissible is allowable ; 
what may be permitted: permission and per- 
mittance, allowance; forbearance of opposition; 
grant of liberty : permissive, granting liberty ; 
not hindering; allowing without upbraiding: 
permissively, by way of allowance or forbearance 
to hinder ; by haie allowance. 

Women keep silence in the churches, for it u not 
piTmitUd unto them to speak. I Cor. ziv. 34. 

What things God doth neither command nor far- 
bid, the same he ptrmittelh with appiobatioo either I* 
be done or left undone. Hoottr. 

We bid this be done. 

When evil deeds have their ftrmiuive T^*, 

And not tbe punishment. Shahptart. 

As to a war for the propagation of the christiaa 
faith, I would be glad to bear spoken concerniDg tb* 
lawfulness, not only ptrmisiicttii , but whether it be 
not obligatory to Christian princes lo design it. 

BacCfn't Half War. 

If this doth authorise usury, which before was 
hut /vniiuiiM, it is better to mitigate usury by decla- 
ration, than to sufler it to rage by connivance. 

Id. Ktuyt. 

With what prrmiin'M glory since his fall 

Was left him, or false glitter. 

MiUon't Parmiim Lm*. 

With thy prrmiuim then, and thus farewamed. 
The willinger I go. Mittm. 

Hypocrisy, the only evil that walks 

lovisiDle, except to Ood alone 

Uy his pcrmiuitt will, through heaven and earth. 

Nor love thy life, nor hate ; but what thou livest. 
Live well ; how long, bow short, permit to heaven. 





'■flt BnnB irf iTHib he ftrmiuM anlo iticir, it 
■■■I CB|w ■■uiy Miwun* 

Bf9im*'§ Vulgar Emnin. 

Hm ta« gnea ois yoor pmniaian for this addre», 
■{■■■iCid ■• bjr jam pmualBodapptobiiion. 

TvgBM gfioctii. /wrmi/ me to relate 
~ * " nH<»ni of ymjr ftileut state. Id, 


^■■c. (h>vtneB i 

VbaiOT caa >.: . ' yuuth la fight, 

Jkfaayaoalj diipi^o .--loic their sight; 
taa^ «afne, »U ftrmitttd to the sword. U. 

IT* itoialit net f*rmit an allowed, possible, great 
■^ aeif^T jood tD slip out of oar thoughts, »'ilh- 
M haiiag aaj leiiiti, an? desire of itself there. 

Xm ^ aM i«;TmTate our sonows, 
■«t M Aa goda ftrmit the eveou of things. 

Wl^ tkia ajitan of air conies, by divioe ptrmit- 
%■■(, M W eomiptcd by poisonous acrimonious 
•■■^ wkil ha«aek is ma^e in all liring creatures ! 
Dtrham'i Phynev~ Theoliigti. 
Ater ■■■ bvrc acrjnifcd as much as the laws per- 
mt ttaa, tkmj bsrc nothing lo do but to uke care of 
9m I Hvk. Swi/i. 

TW aftorrs. in their ptrmitr for removing excisea- 
^(•i^ •: as wtII the time Tor which 

•knr ^til U. ! rHmovin<{ such goods, as the 

&■■ aaka* wLiUi tiii:y shall be received into stocK 
^ ^ fB9Mi ts whom they aie sent . and if not re- 
«B«rf ailhia tkc lime limited i uoivoidable accidents 
^B^ari). or. in delaalt of such removing, iftheprr- 
■ot be ratcnied to the olfictr nho granted 
1 ptocuriDg the ptrmtl shall forfeit 
th* ;n«Hs : and if not received into 
ilfc«'5' ' tiy th? person to whom 

^■mmm pmmtt>r ihey shall be deemed 

SI Cm. hi. c. 55. 
PSRMtT.^TION. n i. Fr. fxrinutatiin ; 
M. fa i m ml Mttn. Kxchan^'e of one for another. 
Otti mad altm. hj their rarity, are wonderfully 
tarffer th* lae of pmtiitatMn for all torts of com- 
■Ah*. Rag. 

* A f^mmtmtitm of anmber is frequent in languages. 


PSSKAMBUCO, a province of Drasil, 
bjr ibe Atlantic Ocean Dortli and east, 
mtt ht EialMa. uk) cast by a desert territory. 
it • M—l 470 miles in extent from north to 
a«dk aad abval 370 from ea<.l to west ; abonnd- 
mt m ■■or.<an<>, cotton, and Brasil wood. 
Tbc ckaMe is in the interior hot and moist. 
BiAm^ eaeD»«uta, ipecacuanha, and a few other 
tn^i, MB aou Isenoe ; but lU cbief exports are 
■■ma mkI W||w. The im|>orts are manufoc- 
^■d jt>«di, iwtlieowire, and other articles of 
^^mm$tj aMOOOf civilised people. Vessels from 
te VtB»td StaM* arrive at Recife annually, 
[ Soar, of which sreat quimtilies are now 
(vranure for dwolline houses, and 
^m kted* «t luinlicr ; and carryine away 
^pK, metmttta, and rum. The trade to the 
■■B «f Ainct tat slaves is also considerable. 
.flMtof iW war bt t wte u the <3nited States and 
edited mtick inimapted this trade, Recife 
«■■ MoaUaca iilUttttA for vrheat-flour, but a 
mplAf *>■■ ncairol fmm Kin Gnntir. 

PitsxAifaccx •■•. a 

tfmatBnfAfC.. me. 

It taatttti af dutc dinsions, iucite, bt. Antonio, 

•jjiri Hoa Vista; the first two ofwliicli are sitnntcti 
on two Siuid-liaiiks, surrounded by the sea, iiiid 
connected together by a bridij:e of stone and 
wood lined vriih shops ; this renders it so nar- 
row that two carriages cannot pass abreast. 

Tlie harbour of Recife, called the Mo.squeiro, 
situated on the outward bank, is formed by a 
reef of rocks which runs parallel with the towii, 
at a small dist.incc. Tlie lower harbour, for 
vessels of 400 tons and upwards, called the 
Poco, is dangerous, as it is open to the sea; and 
the beach opposite is very sleep. Tlie port has 
two enlnuices : the tide does not rise more than 
five feet and a half. The principal defence of 
the town consists in the forts Do buraco and Do 
Bnim, both built of stone, and situated upon 
the sands opposite to the two entrances. There 
is likewise the small fort of Bom .Iczus, near to 
the archway and church of the same name; and 
upon the south-east point of the sand-hank of 
St. Antonio stands the large stone fort of Cinco 
Pontas, but they all are said to be out of order. 

The division of Recife, which is that nearest 
the sea, stands on a lontj narrow neck of land, 
which stretches soutliward from the foot of the 
hill on which the town of Olitida, about a league 
distant, is built. In front of this bank runs a 
reef of rocks. At full tide the waves roll over 
it ; but, bein^ checked by this barrier, they strike 
the quays and buildings of the town with di- 
minished strenirth. The second sand-bank, on 
which IS placed the division called St. Antonio, 
is connected with Boa \'ista, situated on the 
continent, by a narrow wooden bridge. Build- 
insrs have only been raided within the piotection 
of the reef. 'The tide enters between the bridgos, 
and encircles the middle compartment, 'llie 
vicwr from the houses that look on these waters 
is rery extensive and beautiful; the opposite 
banks being covered with trees and white-wash* 
ed cottages, varied by small open spaces and 
loDy cocoa trees. The Recife division of tlie 
town is composed of brick houses, of from three 
to five stories in height ; most of the streets are 
narrow, but they are paved. In the square iji 
the custom house, a low and shabby building; 
the sugar-inspection house ; a large cliurcli, and 
a coffee-house, in which the merchants assemble 
to transact commercial afl'airs. There art two 
churches in use, one of which is built over tlie 
stone arch-way leading from the town to Olinda. 
Near to this is a small fort, close to ibe wal r 
side, which commands it. To the north is the 
residence of the port-admiral, with the govern- 
ment timber-yards. The cotton-mai ket. ware- 
houses, &c., are aljo in this part of the town. 

St. Antonio, or the middle town, is composed 
chiefly of large lof\y houses and broad streets, 
Tlie eround floors are appropriated to shops, 
warehouses, &c., without windows, the only 
light they have being admitted from the dt>or; 
and there exists very little distinction of trades. 
Here is the governor's palace, once the Jesuits' 
convent; the treasury; town-hall, and prison; 
the barracks ; the Franciscan, tamielite, and 
Penha convents, and several churches, hand- 
somely ornammtcd. The principal street of 
Boa \ista is broad and handsome. The rest of 
this third division consist* chiefly of small 


tioiues. extending at intervals to some distance. 
:V long embankment lias lieen made, wliich con- 
nects the sand-bank and town of St. Antonio 
«itli the main land to the south and west of Boa 
X'isla. The river Capibaribc discharges its 
vniten into the c!<annel between. 

Peroambuco, since the ports of Braail were 
thrown open to foreign commerce, has been con- 
stantly increaising in opulence. The three divi- 
sions of the town contain together about 25,000 

PERNICIOUS, orfj. J ¥r.pemiciau;lM. 
PERKic'ioi^iLT, adv. > f)f rniciotus. Mis- 
Persic'ioussess, n. I. ) chievotis ; destruc- 
tive ; ruinous ; the adverb and noun substantive 

.Som« wilful wiu wiirutly againitt their own know- 
ledge, pri-7i>ciMu/y agaiiut thvir own conscience, have 
taught. A*c^lflm. 

'lo ramove all oat of ll>« church, whereat Ihey 
■hew tbenu*l«es to be sorrowrul, would )ic, as we 
are peisuadcd. hurtful, if not iiemidtiu thereunlu. 

I call you servile ministers. 
That have with two i>rrutci<m4 daughters joineJ 
Your high engendereil batdei, 'gainst a Lead 
So old and white as this. 

^'iu/k<pwrv. King Lear. 
All llie comninns 
Hate him ptmiciottti/. and wish him 
Ten fathom deep. Iil. Hinty Till. 

Now, if we were to judge of the several kinds of 
science by this rule, we should And, 1. dome of them 
to be very hurtful and pemicioiit. Jfasun. 

PchnTcious «</;. > Lat. pernii. Quick; 
Peknix, Jswifl: quickness; cele- 

Pebsix'itt, n. <. J rity. Dr. Johnson says, 
' A use which I have found only in Milton, and 
which, as it produces an ambiguity, ought not to 
be imitated ; yet he supplies the example of the 
noun substantive from (lay. 
Part incentive (ced 
Provide, ftmicimu with one touch to 6rc. 

Others armed with hard shells, others with prickles, 
the rest that have no such armature endued with great 
swiftness or fiemicity. Ua^ mi ikt ('rniliox. 

PERNIO, a kibe or chilblain, is a little ulcer, 

occasioned by cold in tlie hand*, fret, heels, 

nose, and lips. It will come on when warm 

parts are too suddenly exjioscd to cold, or when 

parts from being tog cool are suddenly exposed 

lo a considerable warmth ; and has always a 

tendency to gangrene, in whith it fre<]uently 

niniila*. It mo«t commonly attacks chlldn^ii 

• swtguini* habit and delicate constitution : 

Iftod may be :>1 by such re- 

IBimlies as n .u<\ are capable 

[of lemovinv, .m^ i, iniiui., i» i^ungrene in the 


l'ri(()Sl>; a sort of high shoes which in 

L<arl> ' worn even by senators; but at 

lla^ttt' I III ploughmen and laborers. 

f They wrrr . formwl, consisting only 

"Of hidei <ii' ikI re»i.'hMig to tlir nitddlp 

of the leg V II Kit nituttons the |>erones as worn 

by a company of nistic soldiers on one foot 


r-RRORATION. « 1. Ul. prT,iratio. The 
conclusion of an onliun. 

16 PER 

What means Uiis passionate disconrse? 
I'his peromtion with such circumstances } 

True women to the last — my fierontioit 
I come to speak in spile of suDocation. 

Pr.Ron.nios, inrhel.^rit, tor rists of two 
1. Recapitulation; wherein the substance of 
what was diffused throughout the whole speech 
is collected bnetly and cursorily, and sunininl 
up with new force and weight. 2. llie movia^ 
the passions ; which is so peculiar to the perora* 
lion that the masters of the art call this put 
sedes afTectuum. See Oratory. 

PEROTIS, in botany, a genus of the digynhl 
order, belonging (o the triandria class of plaiats ; 
aud in the natural method ranking under the 
fourth order, gramina. There is no calyx : tlie 
corolla consists of a bivah°ular glume; ihevaire* 
are oblong, acute, somewhat unequal, and ter- 
minating in a sharp beard: it has three capillu^ 
stamina ; the anthera: incumbent ; the style capil- 
lary, and shorter than the corolla; the stigma 
feathery and divaricated. The corolla serves «» 
a pvrianthium, including a single seed of an ob- 
long linear shape. Of this there is ontv one 
species; vii. P. plumosus, a native of A- 

PEROUSE (John Francis Galaup, 
Trench navigator, distinguished forhis my^tciKuu 
file, was bom at Albi, in Ijinguedoc, in 1741, 
and entered at an early age into the naval serricf. 
During the American war he Imd the command 
of an expedition to Hudson's Bay; and, on lb* 
restoration of peace, the French govemmcm 
having determined on a voyage of discvroy, 
M. de la Perouse was fixed on to commamlji^ 
Two vessels, the Boussole and tbe AstteWk/' 
were placed under his direction ; and, leaving 
France in 1785, proceeded to the South So. 
Having visited the coast of California, he croMol 
the Pacific, to continue his researches on the 
coasts and islands of Asia. In Apnl, 1787, be 
sailed from Manilla towards the north ; and at 
lenirOi, on the 6th of September, arrived at the 
harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul, Kamtschalch*. 
Here he stayed to reAt the ships, and experienced 
the utmost hospitality from the Icxral authorilii**. 
The commander baa also tlie satisbction to re- 
ceive letters from France, informing him that be 
had been promoted to the rank of commodonv 
which event the governor of Kamtschatcha cele- 
brated by a salute of artillery. From St. Peter 
and St. Paul Perouse sent copies of his jouniall. 
&c., to France, by M. de I.esseps, who proccMM 
over land across Sibena; and on the 30th «l 
September tbe vessels sailed. They ctnsieri tha 
equinoctial line, without meeting with any laMi 
till the 6th of December, when ihev saw iltt 
Navigators' Islands, and a few days after landarf 
at Maouna. Here M. de Langle,'lh« captala •( 
the Astrolabe, Idmanon, the natunliii 0itirr '' 
to the expedition, and ten other , 
killed in an unprovoked att.i(k i< 
AAer this Perouse visited Oyolava. and then 
steered for the coast of New lloUand ; and, o«t 
the 2Gth January, 17BH, anchored in 
Hay, at the time governor Philip, with the 
of the cnliinists, was wiiliriit out lo Port JacluM. 
The French did not leave Botany Bay unlfl 
March, wlicn the commodore wrote, stating hii 



MMte •» coaiioue his researches till Deceni- 
Ib.<^ h« expectnl to arrive al llie tsle of 
Tntii. Thrt was i)it blest direct iiilelligence 
■■nW rf him : and M. d'Enlrecasleaux, who 
■I AipaHied by the French government, ip 
Wll. ia trirch of Perouse, was unable to Imte 
tt^nm he had taken. Subsequently, however, 
•■•■» h«» been published by the French mi- 
■■» rf nttnoe, purporting that an American 
"'"»• k«d declared that he had »een, in the 
!• "fi** of the natives of an island between 
made aoii New Caledonia, a cross of the 
'rf St Louis, and some medals, which ap- 
■i to h«»e been procured from La Perouse 's 
I« eoosequence of this informalion, the 
tcr of m vessel which sailed from Toulon, 
■ *f«J I8a«, received orders to make researches 
it At quader speciBed. Other intelligence, 
•^■l** to the wreck of two large vessels, on 
to! AAvinM islandls of the New Hebrides, was 
^tniatd bjr oor ca^piain Dillon at Tucopia, in 
^ P*^^ 6o«n Valparaiso to Pondicherry. in 
Ibf IBM, ia conaequence of which that officer 
•M4c^Meti«d to th« New Hebrides to ascertain 
of the report he received. Many 
I of I eroaae have since been discovered, 
•*i* plainly prove the loss of ihe navigator and 
■• •»«- Tne »oyage of La Perouse was pub- 
BiAil ■ Pmra, 1797, in 4 vols. 4to. 

MERPESD*. ». a. Lat. perpoido. To weigh 
iH0lf ; •nsb ID the mind ; consider attentively. 
TVs It tmmim and the remainder thut : 
^ffmdm ahuk^peare. Hamlet. 

f»fmd, mj frmcmt. and give ear. Shakrpean. 
Caaate tbc tlifieivnt cnnceiti of men, and duly 
l^jmt tkciopeiiectioa qf their discoveries. liroimi. 
V«to aaBiaaMi /ki^miuiphj it hath no place in 
a^H lOMBS- Br^wntf'f Vulgar Err\mrt. 

rtStPVmiCVLAR, adj. ■% !■>. ptrpendt- 

hxraotc'cLjiii.T, adv. > culairc ; Lai. 

PtArcsmct'LAK'iTt, a. I. 3 perpendicuhris. 

Cfmaatf al niKhl angles; particularly crossing 

^ kp iB oa i B( ngfat angles: perpendicularity is 

a* ■■* vt beio^ perpendicular. 

Taa aaali attaclit make not the altitude, 
Vkak ikaa kaatfa>7«adir<ilarl« fallen. 

iaaa daiaa tfae frrfndicuUr altitude of the high- 
■■ aaaalaaa la be four miles. Browne. 

buaa afri^er^iteti north aod south, not only ac- 
fMa a finctiif facility, but if cooled iipriE;ht and 
wffm^taitHg, they will aUo obtain Ihe same. 

Hr^vrui^t Vulgar Krrofirf. 
flkaal mf •> arrow perpnJir^tLartv from the earth, 
^ Bi f wsU latnra to your foot again. More, 

4B a aii fctt aataraJly move ptrpendieularlv down- 

b of ioridence, ia that angle which the 
bad by tha incident ray. contains with the 
' 10 dw icflectiog or refracung surface at 
■raaaM «f iscadeacc. AVirinn'i 0/>lic*3. 

Tlwn,li tJia iiuaiility of water thus lisiiig and fall- 
al^ to aiari* eoaslaal as lo the whole, yet it varies 
■ tm •Mtrsf pans of the cinlie ; by reason that the 
f^aan Beat la lit almospheic, ana are not restored 
Am* ansa ia a ftrfndieular upon the same precise 
awl af hwL n'oodward. 

TW aaatjaf af two lines is the primary essential 
•■da ar 4<4n*aet of an angles the ptrptudiculnrilg 
MAma tiam ia tbc diSereace of a right angle. 

Il'aiu'i /-«eic. 
Vou XVII. 

' PER 

If in a line oblique their atoms rosw, 
Or in a i*rrpendieiiliir they move; 
If some advance not tlower in their nco, 
.ind some more swift, how could thev bo «ntvi> 
gled ? iladimurfi. 

P E' R P E r RATE, v. a. l Ir. pcrpetrer ; Lat 
PERPF.TBATior, n. «. SpcrjKlro. To cotn- 
mil ; act: almost always used in an ill sense: 
but see tlie extract from Butler. 

A desperate discontgnted assassinate, would, after 
the perpelratian, have honested a mere pnvate re- 
venge, (t'oiicin. 
Success, the mark no mortal wii, 
Or surest hand can always hit ; 
For whatsoe'er we perpetrate. 
We do but row, we're steered by fate. 

My tender infant* or my careful sire. 
Tlicse they returning will to death require, 
Will ptrpelrnlr on them Ihe first design. 
And take the forfeit of their heads for mine. 

The forest, which, in after limes. 
Fierce Romulus, for perpetrated crimes, 
A sacred refuge made. JJ. 

Hear of such a crime 
As iragick poets, since the birth of lime. 
Ne'er feigned a thronging audience to amaze ; 
Hut true, and prqirlrated in our days. 

Tate*t Jvtvnal, 
A woman who lends an ear lo a seducer may )>« 
insensibly drawn into the perpetration of tlie most 
violent acts. Clariua. 

PERPETUAL, flrfj.-v Fr. perpetuel, per,^- 
PEiirET'iAt.i.Y, («/f. ftucr; lla].. Span., and 
Pebpei'i'ate, u.n. » Lat. ;xT/if <Ho. Ince»- 
pEBi'ETl''rTY, rr.s. *sant; uninterrupted; 
eternal, with respect to futurity : always opetaU 
ing : perpetually, the corresponding adverb ; to 
pcrp>etuale is to preserve from extinction or de- 
cay; to eternise; continue without cessation : per- 
petuation, the acl of making, and perpetuity, the 
state of being, perpetual. 

For men to alter those laws, which God for per- 
petuity hath established, were presumption most into- 
lerable. Hwtn-. 

Ycl am I heller 
Than one that's sick o' Ihe gont, since he had rather 
Groan so in perpetuity, than be cured 
By the sure physician, death. 

Shaktpeare, Oymbetine. 
Time as long again 
Would be filled up with our thanks ; 
And ycl we should, for perpetuity. 
Go hence in debt. Id, Wintrr'i Tate. 

Nothing wanted to his noble and heroical intentions, 
but only to give perptlmlg lo Uial which was in bis 
time so happily established. Boom. 

Tile strokes of divine vengeance, or of men's own 
consciences, always attend injurious pfr^lratinu. 

King CharteM. 
.\ perpetual screw hath the motion of a wheel and 
the force of a tctew, being both infinite. 

Wilkim'i .Vijlhrmatieal tfagick, 
Wiihin those banks rivers now 
Stream, and perprtttal draw their humid train. 

Nourishing hair upon ihe moles of the faca is tba 
perftrtnatiim of a very ancient custom. Browne, 

'Tbere can be no other assurance of the prrpelmty 
of this church, but what we have from him that built 
i( i'taripn. 




What is it, but s cootinued ptrpetualtd voice from 
UeAveo, mouoditig for ever in our ears T to eivc 
men no rest in their sins, no quiet from Christ's im- 
portunity, till they awake from their lethargick sleep, 
and anse from so mortiferous a slate, and permit him 
to give them life. Hammond. 

under the same moral, and therefore under the 
same perpetuat law. Hoiifday, 

A cycle or period begins again as often as it ends, 
tod to obtains a fi*rpftuittt. Holder. 

Mine is a love, which must jitrpttual be, 

If yoQ can be so just as 1 am true. lirydtn. 

This verM is every where sounding the Tery thing 
in your ears ; yet the numbers are ptrprtimllii varied, 
SO that the same sounds are never repeated twice, /d. 

What the gospel enjoins is a constant dispoution 
of mind to practise all Chiislian virtues, fs often as 
time and opportunity require -, and not a pn7»(ui(y 
of ciercise and action ; it lieing impossible at one 
sod the same time to discharge variety of duties. 


The ennobling property of the pleasure, that ac- 
crues to a man from religion, is, that he that has the 
property, may be also sure of the perptluily. Simtk. 

Medals, that are at present only mere curiosities, 
may be of use in the ordinary commerce of life, and 
•t the same time ptrpttuttU the glories of her majesty's 
reign, Adduon. 

In passing from them to great distances, doth it 
not grow denser and denser fMri<rtttatltt ; and thereby 
cause the gravity of those great bodies towards one 
anoiher? Xrnim'i Optia, 

The laws of God as well as of the land 
Abhor a ptrptlHil^ should stand ; 
Estates have wings, and hang on fortune's power. 


Tbe bible lod common prayer-book in the vulgar 
tonsrne, being prrpctiiallt) read in churches, have proved 
a Liud uf standard for language, especially to tbe 
common people. SiL-iJi. 

Man cannot devise any other method so likely to 
preserve and ptrptdutit the knowledge and belief of 
a revelation so necessary to mankind. Forbti. 

O ye blest scenes of permanent delight ! 

Full above measure! lasting beyond bound .' 

A fjpnuuu of bliss is bliss. Ytmif, 

PERPIGNAN, Ruscino, an ancient, large, 
and strong post town, and the principal place of 
the department of the Eastern ryreneej, France, 
containing 15,800 inhabitants. It has an infe- 
rior court of judicature, under the royal <»urt of 
Montpellier, a chamber of commerce, a mint, a 
superintendency of the customs, an agricultural 
society, a society of arts, a communal college, 
and a school for drawing architectural. Thi? 
town IS pleasantly situated on the right bank of 
the Tel, at its junction with tlic Hame, It is 
built at the foot and on the declivity of a hill, 
which overlooks a magnificent plain, to the west 
of which rises the t'anigon, one of llw highest 
of the Pyrenean mountains; to the north the 
Corbieres mountains ; to the east the sea, hidden 
by • noge of Terdaot hills, and to the south the 
road to Catalonia. The tempentuie is quite 
warm : at a few IcaKue* ftom the town the ontng« 
^ws in tli« open field, and even in the valley, 
in which It stands ; the olive trees form imraen(« 
orchanU, extending to the fool of the Canigou ; 
to Ihal while this mountain rears its peak, co- 
vtnd with snow, its bas« is dothed with the 
tielM*t produce of the louih. The town, though 

not well built, presents an agreeable aspect ; them 
are seveml hnc public buildings in it, and SOOB 
fine walks recently planted. 

This place is of the greatest importance, «* it 
forms the pass from Roussillon into Catalonia. 
Its fortifications, considerably augmented bf 
Vauban, were almost entirely renewed in 1823; 
and the citadel, so situated as to comm.ind tlie 
town, has been rendered very strong, and caiiable 
of reMsting successive attacks. At diSlerent iH;no<is 
I'erpignan has sustained sieges, uhich put ths 
constancy and courage of ils inhabitants to Iha 
severest trial. The most memorable of Ibeaa 
was in M75, under Louis XI., which has been 
compar>!d to those of Saguntum and Numantia; 
for eight months the people sufTered all the hoc* 
rors of famine, aud at last the place wa.s taken hj 
.storm. It was besieged wiiliout success in 1543, 
in the reign of Francis I., by an army of 400,000 
men. In 1642 Louis XIII. took it after a sicg* 
of three months. This is the native town of 
Carrere, the celebrated physician, and the jiajotec 

llere are manufactures of cloth, woollen stiifli, 
lace, cork, and leather; and a trade is earned oit 
in Rivesalses wines, brandy, grain, oil, line wool» 
iron, silk, corks, &c. There is a very flourishia^ 
fold here, in which are 150 Thibetian goaU. 
The public places are the library, conlainiaf 
13,000 volumes, the cabinets of natural hiMoiy 
and philosophy, the place d'armes, a grand rect- 
angle, one side of which is occupied by bsrnick* 
capable of coplaining 5000 men ; the royal sqiusre, 
the lown-hall, the justice-hall, the bcaulifnl walk 
between the glacis of the to«n and ihe natenns; 
canal, the bridge over the Tel and the citadvl, 
where there is a very deep well lo which you de- 
scend by a flight of stairs ; it is supplied by a 
fountain, inexhaustible in the greatest droughtv 
Perpignan is eighty -one miles south-east of Car- 
cassone, forty-five south of Narbonne, thirty -three 
east of Prades, twenty-four north-west of Port- 
Vendre, and 705 south of Paris, in long. 0" 3< 
E., lat. 42° 42' N. 

PERPLEX', V. a. & adj.-^ Fr. ptrplrx; lul. 

PtaPLr.x'EDtT, adv. (perpUno ; Lat. ptr- 

Pcrplcx'edmus, n. >. iplerta. "To embu- 

PtRPttx'iTT. 3rass;enlangU-;di>- 

tract; torment; vex; involve; make inliicataj 

complicate: as an adjective, intricate; cornpli* 

cated ; difficult ; but perplexed is the m^doil 

and better word : perplexedly and perplexedlMM 

follow the senses of the adjeciive: (>erplexc<llMM 

nnd perplexity mean embarrasment ; iotriouioa; 

involution of affairs or of mind. 

Being greatly prrptntd ia bis mind, be dtter- 
mined lo go into Persia. I itar. lii. XL 

1 he fear of him ever since hath put me intn tiuHk 
ptTvltxily, as now you found me. StJnrf. 

IImi royal virgin, whi>h '•' .■' ' 'nm far. 
Id pensive plight and suo 

■fbe whole alrhicvcmi'ii ■ jbtful war. 

Came ruoning fast lo greet his victory. Spmtm 

Prrftaiiy not sufleiing them to be idl«, ihrv Ibiak 
and do, as it w«r«, in a phrrnsy. Httiwr. 

Themaelvcs with doubu tbe day and night ptrpUr' 

.-. D~a-i. 

Tbeir way 
Li« tkfoagk the fmrUmi peilii el the diear wood. 

PER 19 


fctdtaiJ 4it*ru ibe •pints for ths motiriD of 
fctrfj^mmiliig to lb« aevctal uiiiiitl ciigcnu, u 
|i^ ■ tW Ihror;. GlamtiUe't Scrptii. 

UIb iMk for ihc UbjriDth ; for I onoot di». 
a^» hUcm Ml the perplexity of hU own thoughts. 

hp^flmt iIm wadt of the fair ki with nice 
— . ' M' JJ of pkilotopbjTi vhea he should engage 


. M. Casiiroir, prime niini«(er of 

*is Vnn at Grenoble on the 12ih of 

IT7r. Hi* fiilher was an eminent and 

I Mercbani, and at an early age his son 

I 1^ amy. and served in the Italian caro- 

I of 1799 and 1800; on the death of his 

he f«lit«d from the army, and devoted 

to emnniercial pursuits. In 1802 he 

1a bank at Paris, and speculated in 

I for mtlria-spiniiing, sui;ar-refining, 

■<|Radi>iK 6our by sieaiu. By these means 

It (OfBifvd an irameDse fortune, and being 

^tmm • it^ti, continued tl)e resolute and un. 

■■fnaonng eDcmy of every ministry from that 

fMiadio IW KToluiion of 1830. At tiie latter 

criMht avowed himself the friend of popular 

■■■■■^ and opened his house a< a rendezvous 

tm te itfatia who protested against the ille- 

9^ 4f *t>a proce«din^ of the crown. On 

■a Aaalutica of the Lafitte administration, 

la aaeialhil to Ibe bead of the government, and 

y«*atd la* AiToarite policy to the termination 

»l kmmrnr. He died of cholera morbus, on 

iKihiHof April, 1832, and was interred with 

A* kifiaat (leiDonitratioo of respect in the re- 

MM7 ol Prrc l« Chaise. 

PlKt)i:iSlTR,B... ) Lit. perqumtus. 

F(a'acTUTXi>. arf|f. ) Something above re- 

flfw aB ^ia or gains : supplied with perquisites. 

ka whmi avkiU the pride of gardens rare, 

Bssiiii r*)al, ur however fair, 

U fmYm^fi vvrlels frrqarot stand, 

Aad cac& acv wttlk must a new tax demand ? 

TM ■*. perfidious, was it fit 
T« mt/km mj cream a perfnii/e, 

\ sAKal to mend your wages f Widmrand Cai, 
\ ^iB fciiislmini the bt^t prr^witf of aplace ar« 
lit (ivct amaoof doinggood. Adduon, 
Psaacmn, in lavt, is any ihini; ptlen by a 
•a industry, or purchased with his mo- 
coatxadislinclion to what descends to 

■ has Grthar or other ancestor. 

FKKSAULT (Cbailes), son of an advocate 

. ut bom at Paris, in 1620. Col- 

Um first cleric of the buildings, of 

ha WM superintendant, and aftervtards 

k&B oojnptroller-i!eneral of the finances 

his. He was one of the first members of 

r— .U«i « y of belles lettres and inscriptions, 

res frce'rrfd into the French academy in 

-mn La Peinture, and La siecle 

.lid, are well Itnown. He drew 

_ oi gnat men of the seventeenth cen- 

vTwlril (KKtmts, and produced other esteemed 

Paa»j»ctT (Oaiidi"), brother of Charles, was 
|«» at Pantia 1613; and was bred a physician, 
^^A Im eevar pnctised but among his rela- 
^H, (haodi, aoa the poor. He excelled in 
^tiiitactw, painting, sculpture, mathematics^ 

physics, and all those arts tliat relate to deiiizn- 
ing and mechanics. When the academy of 
sciences was established, he was one of its first 
members, and was chiefly depended on for me- 
chanics and natural philosophy. His works are, 
A French translation of Vilnivius ; Memoires 
pour servir a 1' Histoire Naturclle des Anirnaux, 
fol. 1676, with figures; Essais de Phisique, 4 
vols. i2mo, 1688; Kecueil des Plusieurs Ma- 
chines de nouvelle Invention, 4to. 1700, &c. He 
died in 1(388. 

Perr.\ult (Nicholas and Peter), brothers of 
the two last, made Uiemselves also known in the 
literary world. 

PERRON (James Davy Du), a cardinal dis- 
tinguished by his abilities and learning, born in 
Bern, in 1556; and educated by .lulian Davy, 
his father, a very learned Calvinist. Philip Des- 
portes, abbot of Tyron, made him known to 
Henry III. king of France, who conceived a 
great esteem for him. Some time after Du Per- 
ron abjured Calvinism, and embraced the ecclis 
siaslical function. After the murder of Henry 
III. he retired to the house of cardinal de Bour- 
bon, and look great pains in bringing back the 
Protestants to the church of Rome. lie chiefly 
contributed to engage Henry IV. to change his 
religion : and that prince sent him to negociate 
Ills reconciliation to the holy see, in which be 
succeeded. Du Perron was consecrated bishop 
of Evreux while he resided at Rome. He was 
made cardinal in 1604 by pope Clement VIII. 
at the solicitation of Henry Iv. who aAerwards 
nominated him to the archbishopric of Sens. He 
also sent him to Rome with cardinal Joyense, in 
order to terminate the disputes between Paul \''. 
and the Venetians. He died at Paris in 1618. 
His works were collected after his death, and 
published at Paris in 3- vols, folio. 

PERROT (Nicholas), lord of Ablancourt, a 
man of uncommon genius, born at Chalons in 
1600. After studying philosophy about three 
years he was sent to Pans to follow the taw. At 
eighteen years of age he was admitted advocate 
of parliament, but soon discontinued his prac- 
tice. In 1637 he was admitted a member of the 
French academy; he died in 1664. His works 
are mo!>tly translations. 

PERRUKE, Pebuke, or Periwig, was an- 
ciently a name for a long head of natural hair ; 
such, particularly, as there was care taken in the 
adjusting and trimming of. Tlie Latins called it 
coma ; whence part of Gaul look the denomina- 
tion of Gallia Comata, from the long hair which 
the inhabitants wore as a sign of freedom. The 
word is now used for a set of false hair, curled, 
buckled, and sewed together on a frame or cawl ; 
anciently called capillamentum or ' false peruke.' 
The ancients used false hair, but the use of pe- 
rukes, in their present mode, has not existed two 

PERRY, II. «. Fr. |>oirJ, from poirr ; Belg. 
jieerdranck. Cyder made of peais. 

Perrji is llie next liquor in esteem after cyder, ia 
the ordering of which, let not your peais tie over ripa 
before you grind them ; and with some sorts of pears, 
the mixing of a few crabs in the grinding is of great 
advanlJge. making ptrryequal to the redstreak cyder. 




Perbt, tlie best peats for perry are tliose 
which are most tart and harsh. Uf these tlie 
Bosbuiy pear, the Bareland pear, and the horse 
pear, are the most esteemed for perry in Worces- 
tershire, and the squash pear in Gloucestershire. 

Pebri (Captain John), an engineer, who 
resided long m Russia, having been recom- 
mended to the czar Peter, while in England, as a 
person capable of serving him on a rariety of 
occasions relating to his new design of establish- 
ing a fleet, making his rivers navigable, &c. He 
was author of The State of Russia, 1716, 8vo., 
and An Account of the stopping of Dagueham 
Breach, 1721, 8vo. He died February 11th, 

Perry (James), an Enelish journalist, was 
bom at Aberdeen,. October 30th, 1756. After 
receiving his education in the high school of that 
place, he was entered of the Marischal College, 
with a view to the law ; but the failure of his 
fether, who was a builder, put an end to that 
design, and in 1774 he went successively to 
Edinburgh and to Manchester, as a mercantile 
clerk; but in 1777 he pushed on in quest of for- 
tune to London. Here tie became a writer in The 
General Advertiser, which paper prospered well 
under his management. In 1782 he became the 
first editor of llie European Magazine, in which 
he bad Dr. William Tnomson for a coadjutor, 
though the work did not answer till Mr. Isaac 
Reed undertook the management. Mr. Perry 
now engaged in conducting The Gazetteer, and 
was also the editor of Debrett's Parliamentary 
Debates. At length he purchased The Morning 
Chronicle, which paper made his fortune. He 
died at Brighton, December 4th, 1821. He was 
twice the object of a public prosecution, once for 
publishing the Resolutions of the Derby Meet- 
mg ; and secondly, for a par^raph respecting 
his late majesty then prince of Wales. Un 
the (brmer occasion he was defended by lord 
Erskine ; on the latter he pleaded his own 
cause with great ability, and both times obtained 
a verdict of acquittal. For many years the 
Morning Chronicle, under the management of 
Mr. Perry, might be deemed a sort of official 
orv'an of the Whig opposition, a feature which it 
imtnediately lost on his death. 

PEK'SECUTE, V. a. ) Fr. peneculer, of 

PrRsr-ct'Tiox, n. ». > Lat. p«T«TU<iif ; ital. 

Persecvtob. Jpertequire ; Span, and 

Port, peruqvir; of barb. Lai. penequi. To pur- 
sue intently ; hence malignantly ; harass with 
penalties ; importune : the nouns follow these 

Our necks ire under ftntcatim; we labour and 
hive no rest. Ijimtntatiotn v. 5. 

The Jews raised prntcul'um agiintt Paul and Bir- 
Dibu, and expelltd them. Aclt xiii. .*>•). 

1 pertecvted this way unto the drath. Id. xsii. 

They might have fallen down, being pmtculfti of 
vengeance, and icittered aliroad. Wiulom xi. 20. 
Hcivv pfrtrculion >hall arise 

On all, who in tlie worship severe 

Of ipirit ind tiuth. ilUum. 

\\ hat man can do against llivm not afraid. 

Though to the ilratli : againtl ^u<'h cruelties 

With inHiril cun>olatiuiii tivuniiwiiscd ; 

And oft (uuporlt'd mi, at shall amue 

Tbeii proudest fertmtun. Id. Parodiu Loit. 

He endeavoured to prepare bis chirge for the i^*' 
ception of the impendiug peneeuliou ; that they mUl*' 
adorn their profession, and not at the sime tiniiiiiiil^r 
for a cause of righteousness, and as evil doeis. FtU, 

For what offence the queen of heaven began 

To perHcutt so brave, so just a man. Drgimu 

Chnstian fortitude and patience had their oppOT' 
tunity in times of affliction and ftrmeutim. Sfnt. 

The deaths and sufferings of the primitive ChristiaM 
had a great share in the conversion of those leainrf 
Pagans, who lived in the ages of fxrHciuiaii. 


Henry rejected the pope's supremacy, but rrtiinrt 
every corruption besides, and became a cruel pum ^' 
cutar. Swj^ 

Pebsecution, in a more restrained tenae, i« 
the sufferings of Christians on account of their 
religion. Historians usually reckon ten seaeal 
persecutions, the first of which was under the 
emperor Nero, thirty-one years after our LordV 
ascension ; when that emperor, having set fire to 
the city of Rome, threw the odium of that exe- 
crable action on the Christians, who under that 
pretence were wrapped up in the skins of wild 
beasts and worried and devoured by dogs ; othen 
were crucified, and others burnt alive. The ae- 
cond was under Domitian, in the year 95. Ib 
this persecution, St. John the apostle was sent t» 
the isle of Patmos, in order to be employed id 
di^ng in the mines. The third began in the 
tliircl vear 6f Trajan, in the year 100, and waa 
carried on with great violence for several yean. 
Tlic fourth was under Antoninus the philosopher, 
when the Christians were banished from their 
houses, forbidden to show their heads, reproached, 
beaten, hurried from place to place, plundered, 
imprisoned, and stoned. The fifth be«n in the 
year 197, under the emperor Severtis. The tixth 
began with the reign of the emperor Maximinns 
in 235. The seventh, which was the most dread- 
ful persecution that had ever been known in the 
church, began in the year 250, in the reign of the 
emperor Decius, when the Christians were in all 
places driven from their habitations, stripped of 
their estates, tormented with racks, &c. The 
eighth began in the year 257, in the fourth year oC 
the rei^n of Valerian. The ninth was under the 
emperor Aurclian, A. D. 274 ; but this was very 
inconsiderable ; and the tenth began in the nine- 
teenth year of Dioclesian, A. I). 303. In this 
dreadful pcrsecutiun, which lasted ten years, 
houses filled with Christians were set on fire, 
and whole droves were tied together with ropes, 
and thrown into the sea. 

PERSEPOLIS, formeriy the capital of Per- 
sia, situated in N, lat. 30° 30' E., lone. H4° ; 
now in ruins, but still remarkable for the most 
magnificent remains of a palace or temple thai 
art now iierhaps to be found in the world. This 
city «too<t in one of the finest plains in Persia, 
beiiiir eis;hteen or nineteen leagues in length, 
and in different places, two, four, or six leagues ' 
in bruadth. It i:, watered by the great river 
Araves, now Uendemir, and by a multitude of 
riviileti besides. Within the compass of this 
plain .ire between 1000 and 1,'iOO villages, all 
ailorned with |)lva.sant gardens, and planted with 
shady trees. The entrance of ihij plain un die 
west side has received as much grandeur tNm 



city U coven cuuld do from in- 
Imijm art. ll eansals of a range of moun- 
Mb aap and bi^, four leagues in leng:th, 
ml 4mt two milei broad, forming two flat 
Wa i<& a risiag terrace in the middle, the 
■■c«<«lHe]| b Mffectly plain and even, all 
j if^n* ro^ In this there are such openings, 
l«f tt lenarccs arc so fine and so even, that one 
[ttrii ht te tpied to think the whole the work 
, if tk znat extent, and prodigious eleva- 
I tereaC v»d not convince one that it is a 
r M» great for augfat but nature to produce. 
banks were the very place 
guards firem Feisepolis tuck 
I hoai which Alexander found it so dif- 
litfedse them. Une caiinut from hence 
I Ae (uiit3 o^ the city, because the banks 
I ka^ to be overlooked : but one can per- 
n rttrj <Kle ilie ruins of walls and of 
•Moa^ which heretofore adorned the range of 
^BMias of which we :u^ speaking. On the 
•Maad oo the norilt this city is defended in the 
tt* mmoKt : *o that, considering the height and 
noon* of these banks, one may safely say 
Ak Aa» is not io the world a place so fortified 

1W ■OBfltam Rehumut, in the form of an 
MftahaUc, encircles the palace, which is one 
<4i^ kablest and most beautiful pieces of ar- 
^^em lemaining of all antiquity. Autliurt 
■d tiarellert have been exceedingly minute in 
toor 4Bcnp4>vns of these ruins ; and yet some 
•^Abi lafr rx^iressed themselves so differently 
6«B alkas, that, had they not agreed with re- 
ipm 10 \!gc latitude and longitude of the place, 
tm •wkU be tempted to suspect that they had 
nMhd diflercnt spots. I'hese ruins have been 
<l« by Garcias de Siha Figueroa, Pietro 
4» k Vtlle, Cbaidm, Le Brun, and Mr. I'rank- 
k W« than adopt tlie description of the lat- 
Iv, a hoog exoeediDgly distinct, and given by 
( tTi« m a MclIiKeoi and unassuming. 

Tbr aseeat to the columns is by a grand stair- 
cac af biue ftooe containing 104 steps. The 
fcal ifeiecla that strike the beholder on his en- 
I m» two portals of stone, about fifty feet in 
the tides are embellished with two 
I of aA immense size, dreiised out with a 
«f bead work, and, contrary to the 
ihad, they are represented standing. On 
above are inscriptions in an ancient 
Aaaetac the meaning of which no one hitherto 
Ib laaei iltir to decipher. 

Al a small distance from these portals you as- 
^■1 XBOlhrr Bight of step!^, which lead to the 
PmI hail of cotomos. Tlie sides of this staircase 
•■ viaaaiitcd with a variety of figures in basso- 
w^mm : ato** of them have vessels in their hands ; 
bar ^gi there a camel appears, and at other 
•■M a kind of triumphal car, made afier the 
Bi^Ba hij^mn : tx-iides these are several led 
iamm* ' <i at times intervene 

«d A At the head nf the 

MSEaae a anoii.rr oivxi-rtlievo, representing a 
Cm tiria ^ a baO ; and close to Ihi.s are olher 
»i iHliiiBi in m-'~' • ' -ncters. On petting 
«■ (be top of tb>- you enter what was 

"^ eilT a ma** iit liall ; the natives 

Ibii the name of chehol minar, or 

forty pillars ; and, though this name is oAen used 
to express the whole of the building, it is more 
particularly appropriated to this part of it. Al- 
though a vast number of ages have elapsed since 
the foundation, fii\een of the columns yet remain 
entire ; they are from seventy to eighty feet in 
height, and are masterly pieces of masonry : their 
pedestals are curiously worked, and appear little 
injured by tlie band of lime. The shafts are 
enfluted up to the top, and the capitals are adorn- 
ed with a profusion of frei-work. From this hall 
you proceed along eastward, until you arrive at 
the remains of a large square building, to which 
you enter through a door of eranite. Most of 
the doors and windows of this apartment are 
still standing; they are of black marble, and po- 
lished like a mirror : on the sides of the doors, 
at the entrance, are bassi-relievi of two figures 
at full length ; they represent a man in the atti- 
tude of suibbing a goat : with onL hand he seiies 
hold of the animal by the horn, and thrusts a 
dagger into his belly with the olhef ; one of the 
goat's feet rests upon tlie breast of the man, and 
the other upon his right arm. Tliis device is 
common tliroughout the palace. Over another 
door of the same apartmeut is a representation 
of two men at full length ; behind them stands 
a domestic holding a spread umbrella : they are 
supported by large round staffs, appear to be 
in years, have long beards, and a profusion of 
hair upon their heads. At the south-west en- 
trance of this apartment are two large pillars of 
stone, upon which are carved four figures ; they 
are dressed in long garments, and hold in their 
hands spears ten feet in length. At this entrance 
also the remains of a staircase of blue stone are 
still visible. Vast numbers of broken pieces of 
pillars, shafts, and capitals are scattered over a 
considerable extent of ground, some of them of 
such enormous size that it is wonderful to 
think how they could have been brought whole 
and set up together. Indeed, all the remains of 
these noble ruins indicate their former grandeur 
and luagnificence, truly worthy of being tlie resi- 
dence of a great and powerful monarch. 

These noble ruins are now the shelter of beasts 
and birds of prey. Besides the inscription above- 
mentioned, there are others io Arabic, Persian, 
and Greek. Dr. Hyde observes that the inscrip- 
tions are very rude and artless ; and that some, 
if not all of them, are in praise of Alexander the 
Great ; and therefore are later tlian that conqueror. 

P£KSES, llie last king of Macedonia. See 

PEU.SEVERE', V. n. "J Fr penevertr ; Ital. 

PtRSEiE'R»xct, n. ». >;wr»er«rflrt; Span. and 

Pehseve'bast, adj. j Port, pfrieverar; Lai. 
penrvero. To persist; continue; be constant in 
a design or attempt: perseverance is persistence; 
continuance ; constancy in good or ill : persever- 
aut, constant; persisting. 

But my rude musick, which was wont to pleas* 
Some dainty eani, cannot with any skill 

The drt-atlful tempest of her wralh 
Nor mote the dauphin from her stubborn will ; 
But io her priilc she doth pmtverr still. iifnftr. 
The kiag-becoming graoo 

Bounty, frrtmrraucf , mercy, lowlineaa ; 

I hare no relish of them, Statapfor*, MaeUth. 



Tbty hau rapenUnc* mora Uun pt n m tmmn in a 
fault. Sing Charla. 

We place the grace of God in the throoe, to rule 
and leigQ in the whole work of conversion, permver- 
mcf, and lalvation. Hammond. 

Thrice happy, if they know 

Their happiness, and ptnaen upright ! tliUan. 
Thus beginning thus we pertevtn ; 

Our pasuoDf yet continue what they were. 


Wait the seasons of Providence with patience and 
fmntnna in the duties of our calling, what difficul- 
ties soever we may encounter. L'Sttrange. 

To ptrxwra in any evil coune makes you unhappy 
IB this life, and will certainly throw you into ever- 
lasting torments in the next. (Valu. 

Patienoa and pmrnnau* overcome the greatest 
diiEculties. CiariMta, 

.\nd ptnaemnet vrith his battered shield. Brooke. 

Pebseveramce, in theology, a continuance in 
a state of grace to a state of glory. About this 
■abject there has been much controversy in the 
Christian church. All divines, except Unitari- 
ans, admit that no man can ever be in a state of 
Race without the cooperation of the Spirit of 
• God ; but the Calvinists and Arminians differ 
widely as to the nature of this co-operation. The 
former, at least such as call themselves the true 
disciples of Calvin, believe that those who are 
once under the influence of divine grace can 
never fall totally from it, or die in mortal sin. 
The Arminians, on the otiier hand, contend that 
the whole of this life is a state of probation ; 
that without the gtace of God we can do no- 
thing that is good ; that the Holy Spirit assists, 
but dbes not overpower our natural faculties ; 
and that a man, at any period of his life, may 
resist, grieve, and even quench the Spirit. See 

PERSEUS, in fabulous history, the son of 
Jupiter by EHuiae, the daughter of king Acrisius. 
See AcRisii'S and Danae. Many miracles are 
related of this hero by the poets. Having en- 
saged to bring the head of Medusa to Polydectes 
King of Seriphos, who had educated him, Mi- 
nerva gave him her shield, Mercury lent him his 
wing5 aiid caduceus, with his dagger made of 
diamonds called herpe ; and Pluto lent him his 
helmet, which rendered him invisible. Thus 
equipped, Perseus flew through the air, visited 
the Graie, and their sisters the Gorgons ; killed 
Medusa, and brought away her head ; gave birth 
to Pegasus and Chrysaor from her blood ; turn- 
ed the giant Atlas into a mountain by a sight of 
her heaid ; killed the sea monster that was going 
to devour Andromeda ; married that princess ; 
chan^ her uncle Phineus and his troops, who 
were going to carry her off from him, into 
stones; and made the same metamorphosis upon 
Polydectes when he was going to ravish Da- 
nae. Having afterwards killed his grandfetlier 
Acrisius accidentally, bjr throwing a quoit, he 
refused to succeed him in the throne of Argos, 
and exchanged it for that of Tirynthus ; after 
which he founded the city of Mycente, of which 
be became king, and where he and hn posterity 
teigned for too years. Heflouriiihed, according 
to most chronologists, in 1348 B.C.; but ac- 
cording to Sir Isaac Newton only in 1028. 

PiRSEi's, in astronomy. Sec .\<>TnoNOMr. 

Pebseus. See Macedon. This 
moiutrch left a daughter and two sons, Philip i 
Alexander. The latter was bred a carpenter, f 
having acquired some learning, became i 
to the senate of Rome. 

PERSHOUE, or Pearsbore, an 
market town of Worcestershire, is situated 
the north side of the river Avon, 10.1 milei i 
west by west from London, on die direct road *^ 
Worcester. It consists of two parochial di ^^*. 
sions ; viz. the vicarage of St Andrew, and *^|2 
chapelry of Holy Cross. Pershore b a Unm ^2 
great antiquity, and is said to have derivvd #** 
name from the number of pear-trees which giW^^ 
in its vicinity. Accordit^ to bishop Tanntf^^ 
Oswald, a nephew of Etheired, king of Mtici^^ 
founded a monastery here in 689 ; but Williatf^ 
of Malmsbury asserts that Egelward, duke a^> 
Dorset, in the reign of Edgar, was the first foii»«^ 
der. Gough, in his additions to Camden, oolT' 
accounts for the discrepancy, by stating that A 
was considerably enlar^jed and increased in ili 
endowments by Egelward. It became an abb^ of 
Benedictine monks, dedicated at first to tfaa 
blessed Virgin and the apoAles Peter and Puil, 
but afterwards to St. Edburga. Belonging to 
the abbey was a large chotch, called tl^ Holj 
Cross, 280 feet in length, and 120 broad. Of 
the abbey itself there are but few vestiges ; bvt 
the church has been refoired, and used for paro- 
chial purposes. It has a lofty square tower, and 
contains several old monuments. In ancient 
times, the principal approach to the abbey was 
through Lice Street, a Saxon appellation derived 
from the corpses for interment being carried 
along that street. A small part of the gateway 
on the north side is still in exutence ; near it 
was the chapel of St. Edburga, a daughter of 
king Edward the Elder. Pershore has at pre- 
sent two churches, that of Holy Cross above- 
mentioned, and All Saints, which is small, but 
neat, and has a square tower. The town consists 
principally of one street, about three-quarters of 
a mile in length, and has many respectable 
houses. The manufacture of stockings is the 
chief pursuit of the inhabitants. It formerlj 
sent members to parliament, but none have been 
returned since the 23d of Edward I. It has a 
market on Tuesday, and three aimual fairs. 

PERSIA, a mojt ancient and celebrated em- 
pire of Asia, the limits of which have been vari- 
ously stated. At present, according to Sir Wi|. 
liam Jones, Persia is the name of only one 
province of this extensive empire, which, by the 
natives, and all the learned Mussulmans in In- 
dia, is called Ir^. The same learned writer is 
confident that Iriln, or Persia in its largest ex- 
tent, formerly comprehended within its outline 
the lower Asia. 

Of Ancient Persia. — The most ancient 
name of this country wai Elam, or K.\asa, from 
Klam the son of Shem, from whom its first in- 
habitants are descended. Herodotus calls its 
inhabitants Cephenes ; and in very ancient times 
the people are said to have called themselves 
Arta'i, and the country where they dwelt Artva. 
In the books of Daniel, Esdras, &c., it is called 
by the names of Pars, Pharus, or Pars, whmce 
the modern name of Persia ; but whence tliose 



kr*« be«a deriTed is now unceriain, 
llrt Penu was onginally peopled by Elam, the 
■■WSbmL. has been rery ge'ierally admitted; 
hM A* aacicfit history of this distinguished em- 
fitt a venr little known. The first Persian 
■■■rIi of whom any thing is known with lole- 
oMe ■t i x.tum.j was the great Cvnis, although it 
ii erident ikoU a powerful monarchy had subsist- 
■I m Ii^ for ages before the accession of that 
kMo; cbai llus monarchy was called the Mahe- 
I dj i mrt T ; and tliat it was in hct the oldest 
thf m me world. 
f Cyrus i* celebrated both by sacred and profane 
• ; bat the latter are at no small variance 
; his birth and accession to the throne. 
told by Hertxlotus of Astyages, the 
kiag of the Medes, being alarmed by his 
of bis endeavouring to prevent Iheir 
t by martying his daughter, Mandane, 
m Persian ; of his afterwards ordering 
■oa Cyras to be murdered ; of his pre- 
bf Harpagus, and of Astyages's bar- 
icweoc^ by murdering llarpagus's son, 
art mriiK up his man^iled (imbs to Harp,-i)rus 
■ tdaaer; and of llarpagus's conspiring with 
Cjia ta dethrone his grandfather ; with Asty- 
^Bs deposition and imprisonment ; have all 
^trj anai the air of a fable. According to 
XaMpboo, Cyrus was the .son of Cambyses, king 
tf PtoM, ODil Mandane the daughter of Asty- 
1^ kin^ of Media. He was bom a year after 
■I Mocbr Craxares, the brother of Mandane. 
Be Rnd liU the age of twelve with his parents 
ii r^snii. being educated after the manner of the 
amatJj, aad inured to fatigues and military ex- 
WCaia. At this age he was taken to the court 
if Astyages, where he resided four years, when 
Ai w > ub <if the Medes and Persians from the 
AAjrhaiMM happened. Sec BAiiTLONrA. While 
(^fi«» waa capiovrd in the Babylonish war, be- 
w* he aHaalied (lie metropolis itself, he reduced 
aV iki Biliwn of Asia Minor. The most for- 
■ifaUe <f these were the Lydians, whose king 
CWhb asMmbted a very numerous army, com- 
Maol d all the other nations in that part of 
m0m, M wril as of Egyptians, Greeks, and 
IbnrsMB. This vast army, consisting of 420,000 
aoi, C^tm muled at ilie battle of Thymbra, 
mtd t- ">V Sardis, the capital of Lydia. 

%m I d l.iDi>i. After the 

of Sviiii. ■ ' iiirnpd his arms against Baby- 
los, wlMcb Ii' i> l'.< •'!, a.H related under Babv- 
l«st«. }' ''id the civil goveniment of 

•be fiMHqti. nis, and restored the Jews 

Ii Ibnf or ! . „ .1 ) tus took u review of all his 
turn*, wbich be found to consist of 600,000 
<■*, iMgOOO horae, and 300U chariots armed with 
MTlkc*. With these he extended his dominion 
M •vrr (be nations to the confines of Ethiopia, 
lad to ibe Ked Sea; uller which lie continued 
•b reics |t«ic«Aklr over his vast empire till his 
AMb,wh: d about A. A. C. 529. In 

lb« tine r- - Persian empire extended 

Amd lb* Iriiii'- * . m Sea. On the north 

•I WM boMaded ne and Caspian Seas, 

tmd oa the MMitii u; i .hiujua and Arabia. l°ha: 
MOMMk Iwjit kit N^idenre for the seven cold 
■HMtki tf HBbjrIon, by reason of the warmth of 
itmt iliiiisl* ; ihiee montlis in the spring he spent 

at Susa, and two at Ecbatana during the heal of 

t)n his death-bed Cyrus appointed his son 
Cambyses lo succeed him in the empire ; and 
to his other son Smerdis he gave several consi- 
derable governments. The new monarch imme- 
diately set about the of E<;ypt, which 
he accomplished in the manner related in the 
history of that country. Having reduced Egypt, 
Cambyses next r'^solved to turn his arms against 
the("arthasinians, liammonians, and Fthiopians. 
But he was obliged lo drop the tirst of these en 
terprises for want of ships : and in attempting 
to cross the Desert against the latter he lost the 
greater part of an immense army, and was 
obliged to return to Thebes. Through jealousy 
of his brother Smcrdls he had caused him to be 
murdered, but, during his absence on tliis expe- 
dition, a magian, who greatly resembled Smerdis 
in looks, assumed the name of the deceased 
prince, and raised a rebellion against Cambyses, 
who was generally hated for his cruelty. Hasten- 
ing home to suppress this revolt, his sword acci- 
cidenlally wounded him in the thigh, which 
occasioned his death. 

Though he had on his death-bed informed the 
nobles of the murder of his brother, and that the 
person who had usurped the government was an 
impostor, yet they gave no credit to his as . 
surances : Smerdis tlie magian was allowed to 
take possession of the throne in peace, and com* 
menced his reinn very popularly. The impo- 
sition was, however, soon delected, the false 
Smerdis having formerly lost his ears ; the per- 
son who had killed the true Smerdis publiciv 
confessed his crime ; a confederacy of seven 
principal lords was formed against the usurper, 
and he and his brother Patizilhes were slain, after 
a reign of only eight months. Nor were' they the 
only sufferers. 'Hie mob fell upon the magi, 
and made a general massacre of them ; the me- 
mory of which was kept up long after by an 
anniversary festival, called .Magophonia. Six 
of the most noble conspirators having determined 
lo choose a king from among themselves, by re- 
pairing on hor-seback to a particular s))Ot, and 
bestowing the crown on him whose horse first 
neighed, Darius, the son of Hystaspes, governor 
of Susa, was put in possession of this dignity by 
the sagacity of his groom. He was elected king 
of Persia in the year 522 B. C. Immediately 
after his accession he promoted the other six 
conspirators to the first employments in the 
kingdom, mamed the two daughters of Cyrus, 
Atossa and Artyslona, Parmys the daughter of 
the true Smerdis, and Phedyma the daughter of 
Olanes, who had delected the imposture of the 
mast. He then divided the whole empire into 
twenty satrapies or governments, and appointed 
a governor over each division, ordering them to 

ray him an annual tribute. Under Darius the 
uilding of the temple of Jerusalem, w.iich had 
been obstructed by Cambyses and Smtrdis, went 
on successfully, and the Jewish state was entirely 
restored. The most remarkable of Darius's other 
transactions were his expeditions against Baby- 
lon ; against Scythia, India, and Greece. The 
expedition against Babylon took place A. A. C. 
517. The inhabiUnti of that city, having laid 



up a stock of profUions for several years, and 
Hirangled all the old people and children, and 
those whom they considered unnecessary, shut 
themselves up, and withstood the sicj^ uf [)arius 
And all his forces fur a year and eit;ht montlis, 
and would most probably have succeeded in 
tiring them out; but Zopyrus, one of Darius's 
generals, having cut oH' his own nose and ears, 
persuaded them he hud been thus barbarously 
treated by the monarch, and was desirous of re- 
venge ; so they intrusted to him the eiiard of 
the city, which he delivered up to the Persians. 
Darius \iml down the walls df that metropolis 
to the height of lifty cubits ; 3000 of the nnost 
active in the rebellion were impaled; the rest 
pardoned. After the reduction of Babylon Da- 
rius undertook a Scythian expedition, directed 
against those nations which lie between the 
Danube and the Tanais. In this, however, he 
was not so fortunate. He led 700,000 men into 
Scythia, but the inhabitants, too wise to oppose 
so an army in the lield, retreated before 
him, wa-.linij the country as they Hed. Seeing 
the imminent danger his army were in of perish- 

. iiig for want, he began his retreat, which he 
ITected with the loss of the old and sick, whom 
left behind him. India, however, felt and 
submitted to his prowes'i. He reduced tliat 
large country, and made it a province of the Per- 
sian empire, drawing from tlieiice an annual 
tribute of 360 talenU of gold. He also under- 
took an uuforlunate expedition into Greece. 
The ill success which attende<l him here, how- 
ever, was .so far from making him drop the 
enterprise that it only made him the tnore intent 
on reducing the Grecians ; and he resolved to 
head his army in per.son, having attributed his 
furmer bad success to the inexperience of his 
generals. But, while he was making the neces- 
sary preparations for tliis purpose, he received 
intelligence that the Kgyptians had revolted, so 
tliat he was obliged to make preparations for re- 
ducing them also; and before this could be done 
the king died, after having reigned lhirty-si\ 
yeari, leaving ihe throne to his son Xerxes. 

Tim prince ascended the throne of I'ersia in 
the year -iSi B. C. ; and his first enterprise was 
to reduce the F.gyptians, which he etrectually 
did. bringinn them into a wor«c slate of slavtry 
^ «n tliey ever had experienced. After t'ui.* he 
so resolved on an expedition into Greece; the 
unfortunate event of which made him at last so 
dispinted that he henceforth abandoned all 
thought* of war and conquests ; but growing 
tyrannical, and oppressing his subjects, he was 
murdered in his lied, A. A. C. 464, and twenty- 
first of hii reiirn ; and was succeeded by his third 
son.\r'i I luimedLonginianus on account 

of the 1 of his arms. Tliis unnci- is 

^B-i '^ ■ i'J is the same 

' whole of hiJ 

'rnn" ..^..•, . .,.. . totlieJewiKh 

naiion. In the ' reign he was 

'•'' ■ i_TUIIH.'nt, «|ltj tK ••» 

>^ ' rcDl in : and thvi lU- 

lulivJ vu ilic* ■|>puuiti.'d lcut>aiiil r 

joiciogs to be made for 180 days in the city \ 
Susa ; at one of which he resolved to divorce his 
queen for disobedience ; and afterwards married 
the .lewess Esther, as recorded Est. ii. I — 18. Itt 
llie fifth year of his reign the Egyptians revoIt«d 
anew, and, being assisted by the Athenians, held 
out for six years ; but were again obliged to sub- 
mil, and continued in subjection during tlie whole 
of his reign. Nothing else remarkable happened 
during the life of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who 
died in Ihe forty-first year of his reign ; and w»« 
succeeded by Xerxes II., the only son he had 
by Lis queen, though by his concubines be ki»d 

Xerxes II., having drunk immoderately at as 
entertainment immeidiately after his accession, 
retired to a chamlier to refresh himself with 
sleep ; but here he was murdered by Sogdianus, 
the son of Artaxerxes by one of his concubines, 
after he had reigned forty-five days. SoKdiauii* 
was scarcely sealed on the throne when be put 
to death liagorazus, the most faithful of all bis 
father's eunuchs ; by which, and the murder of 
his sovereign, he became generally odious, lie 
next «ent for his brother Uchus, intending to 
murder him ; but the latter, havine collected a 
great army under pretence of avenging the death 
of Xerxes, and being joined by many of the no- 
bles and govemon of provinces, Sogdivius pro- 
posed an accommodation. Uchus, however, no 
sooner had him in bis power than he caused him 
to be suffocated among ashes. Being settled on 
the throne, Uchus changed his name to Dariu* ; 
and is by historians commonly called Daritis 
Nothus, or The Bastard. But Arsites, another of 
the brothers, seeing how Sogdianus had got the 
better of Xerxes, and Uchus of him, revolted. 
He was not, however, successful ; for being de- 
feated in an engagement he surrendered, and was 
immediately put to death by suffocation. Several 
other persons were executcsl : but these *r%eri- 
ties did not procure Uchus repose ; for lii.s whole 
reign was disturbed with violent commolions. 
Une of the most dangerous was raised by Pi- 
sutlinet governor of Lydia ; but he, being de- 
serted by bis Greek mercenaries, was overcoioe, 
and put to death. His son Amorgas continued 
to infest the maritime provinces of Asia Minor 
for two years ; till he also was taken and put to 
death by Tissaphemes, governor of Lydia. Othtr 
insurrections quickly followed ; particiilort* 
lliat of the Egyptians, who could not be reduced. 
Before his death C>anus invested Cyrus hit 
youngest son with thesupreme government of all 
AfiaMinor. Thiswasdonethroughihe persuatioa 
of his mother Farysatis, who had an absolute sway 
over her husband ; and she procured this com- 
niand for him, that he might thereby be enabled 
to contend for the kingdom after bis father'* 
death. He died A. A. C. 405, and was succeeded 
by his son Artaxerxes, by the (irccks sumamed 
Mnem<in, on account of his extraordinary me- 

Till' most remarkable transaction during tha 
• '( this prime was the n-voll of his brollier 
' He ncv*n with gaining over Ihe citMa 

under Tissaphemes; which quickly produced a 
war wiih Ihui governor. (.«rii« then becan to 
-< ilile troop*, which lis prvlciided «*n do- 



mI; agunit TUiiaphenies. As he had 
misUnce to the Spartans in their 
the Athenians, he now demanded 
&ua> them ; which ll)ey very readily 
Cyrus, bavin;; thus cuUected an army 
Creek mercenaries and 100,000 re^u- 
of other nations, set out from Sardis, 
Upficf Asia. Havmg arrived at Cunaxa, 
Babjloo. Cyrus found his brother with 
ttady to engage him. Clearchus, 
fc iiimiiimIi I of the Peloponnesian troops, ad- 
imbI Cttos net to charge in person, but to re- 
^^ IB dM (ear of the Greek battahons ; but he 
■ffiid tint he should thus reader himself iin- 
•««A; «f the crown for which he was lighting. 
\t ikc ktniK's army drew near, the Ureeks fell 
na> ikam with siich fury that they routed the 
■t^f nppoaite to them almost at the first onset; 
«B^ wtuek Cyras was with loud shouts pro- 
OHBad kiag^ by those next to him. But he, 
y«cama( Ihat Aitaxerxu was wheeling about to 
t^tk kiai ia Sank, advanced against him with 
fKtehemm hnne, killed Artagese^, captain of the 
la^i ■iiMil I. with his own hand, and put the 
iMt "Miy *<> flight. In this encounter, dis- 
a>ai| hn brother, he spurred on his horse, 
■4, oiwag ap to him, engaged him with great 
lay. Cyras killed his brother's horse, and 
Marfad him oo the ground i but he imme- 
4aMj aoaBted another, when Cyrus attacked 
iaa tpiiH aad gave him a second wound ; until 
Ac gmtA*, perceiving the king's danger, dis- 
(ikafal ihrir arrows gainst Cyrus, who at the 
■■• UOM was pierced through by his brother's 
pnim. lie fell dead upon tlie spot ; and all the 
daf lards ot bis court were slain with him. In 
i* mtma ifaBC, the Greeks having defeated the 
mimnf't UA wing, commanded by Tissaphemes, 
mi Bc kuy'i nght wing having put to tlight 
Cffw't left, both parties imagined that they had 
pisid lb* victor/. But Tissaphemes acquaint- 
^ Iki ktop that his men had been put to flight 
hrfWCrcHS, he immediately rallies his troops. 
1W Gnck* under Clearchus easily repulsed 
•nl pursued them to the foot of the 
hilU. As night was drawing near, 
^cf n t BUlw d lo their camp, but found that the 
^^^HMalpMt of their baggage had been plundered, 
^KSi^rf^ ntir ptovisioos taken. The next mom- 
^^^^Hw H O tW f d the news of Cyrus's death, and 
^^^^Kbt of the army under him. Whereupon 
" trf wnt <lenatles to Ati«us, commander in 
^■f of aQ the other forces of Cyrus, offering 
h« ih* CTV«D of Persia. Ariteus rejected the 
Ac, and, acqiuintiog them that he intended to 
« aat aa bis return to lonia, advised them to 
/IB turn Ml the mcbt. They followed his direc- 
«a^ and, and*r Clearchus, arrived at his camp 
ifeoat auaoight, whence they set out on their 
■can 10 Ctnecc. They were at a vast distance 
k* theii own couninr, in the very heart of the 
ftacnt cni : '- <l by a victorious and 

Kaoous ' way to return again, 

Wt by (Drving Tiicir idY through an immense 
tadt of the cBcmy's country. But their valor 
tmd tisolutiaa ma^tervil all these difhculties ; 
•J at *fUr of a {towrrful anny, which pursued 
' (hem all the way, they made good 
for iiU miles througli the provinces 

belonging to the enemy, iind got safe to the 
Greek cities on the Euxine Sea. This retreat, 
tlie longest that ever was made through an ene- 
hiy's country, was conducted at first by Clear- 
clius ; but he being cut off, through the treachery 
of Tissaphemes, Xenophon was chosen in his 
room. Sec Xunophon. The vtar with Cyrus 
was scarcely ended, wjien another broke out 
with the Spartans, on the following account : — 
Tiss;iphcrnes being appointed to succeed Cyrus 
in all his power, to which was added all which 
he himself possessed formerly, began to oppress 
the Greek cities in .Vsia in a most cruel manner. 
On this they sent ambassadors to Sparta, desiring 
assistance The Spartans, having ended their 
long war with the Athenians, willingly laid hold 
of this opportunity of breaking with the Persians, 
and therefore sent against them an army under 
the command of Tliimbro, who, being strengthened 
by the forces which returned under Xenophon, 
took the field against Tissaphemes. But, Thimbro 
being recalled, Uercyllidas, a brave oiKcer, was 
appointed to succeed him ; and he carried on the 
war to much more advantage. Finding that Tis- 
saphemes was at variance with another governor 
named Pharnabazus, he concluded a truce with 
the former, and, marching against Phamabazits, 
drove him quite out of ./V.olis, and took sever.d 
cities in other parts. Tlie latter rtitaired to tlie 
Persian court, complained against 'Tissaphemes, 
and advised the king to equip a powerful fleet, 
and give the commaud of it to Conon the Athe- 
nian, by which he would obstruct the passage of 
further recruits from Greece ; and thus soon put 
an end to the power of the Spartans in Asia. 
The king accordingly ordered 500 talents for the 
equipment of a fleet, and appointed Conon com- 
maader of it. The S|)artans, hearing of this, sent 
over Agesilaus, one of their kings, and a most 
experienced commander, into Asia. Thb was 
done with such secrecy that Agesilaus arrived at 
Kphesus before the Persians had the least notice 
of his designs, lie took the field with 10,000 
foot and 4000 horse, and, falling upon the enemy 
while totally unprepared, carried every thing be- 
fore him. Tissaphemes deceived him into a 
truce till he got his troops assembled, but gained 
little by his treachery ; for Agesilaus deceived 
him in his tum, and, while Tissaphemes marched 
his troops into Caria, the Greeks invaded and 
plundered Phrygia. Af^er various deceptive 
manoeuvres on each side, Agesilaus led his troops 
against Sardis; and Tissaphemes having de- 
spatched a body of horse to its relief, Agesilaus 
fell upon them before the foot could come to 
their assistance. The Persians were routed at 
the first onset ; after which Agesilaus over-ran the 
whole country, enriching his army with the spoils. 
By this continued ill fortune Artaxerxes was so 
much provoked against Tissaphemes that he 
cauiied nim to be put to death. Tilhraustus, who 
was appointed to succeed him, sent large presents 
to Agesilaus, to bribe him to abandon his con- 
quests ; but, finding him determined not to re- 
linquish the war, he sent Timocrates of Rhodes 
into Greece, with money to bribe the leading 
men in the cities, and rekindle a war against the 
Spartans. Accordingly the cities of Thebes, Ar- 
go», Corinth, &c., entering into a confederacy, 



obiiffml them to recall Agesilaus to defend Spata. 
After his departure, which happened A.A.C 
354, the Spartan power received a severe blow 
-at Cnidos, where their fleet was entirely defeated 
. by llial of Artaxcrxes under Conon, fifty of their 
ihips beint; taken in the engagement ; after which 
Conon and Phamabazus, being masters of the 
sea, sailed round the islands and coasts of Asiu, 
taking the cities there which had been reduced 
by the Spartans. Sestos and Abydos only held 
[ out, and resisted the utmost efforts of the enemy, 
though they had been besieged both by sea and 
land. Next year Conon, having assembled a 
powerful fleet, again took Phamabazus on beard, 
and reduced the island of Melos, whence he 
made a descent on the coasts of Lycaonia, pil- 
laging all the maritime provinces, and loadmg 
his fleet with an immense booty. After this 
Conon obtained leave to return to Athens, with 
eighty ships and fifty talents, to rebuild the 
walls of that city. Having a great number of 
hands, the work was soon completed, and the 
city not only restored to its former splendor, 
but rendered more formidable than ever. The 
Spartans were soon reduced to the necessity 
of making peace. The terras were, that all the 
Greek cities in Asia should be subject to the 
king of Persia, also the islands of Cyprus and 
' C'lazomena; that Scyros, Lemnos, and Imbros, 
should be restored to the Athenians, and all the 
cities of Greece declared free. 

Artaxerxes enzaged to join those who accepted 
these terms, and to assist them against such as 
sliould reject them. Being now disengaged from 
the Grecian war, he turned his amis gainst 
Kvagoras, king of Cyprus, who was descended 
♦oro the ancient kings of Salaminc, the capital 
of Cyprus. His ancestors had reigned there for 
many ages, but were at last driven out by the 
Persians, who reduced the island to a Persian 
province. Kvagoras, however, being a man of 
an enterprising genius, drove out the Persian 
governor. Artaxerxes therefore attempted to ex- 
pel him ; but Conon, by means of Clesias, chief 
physician to Artaxerxes, got all dilTerencss accom- 
modated. Rvagoots tiiea gradually reduced un- 
der his subjection almost the whole of the island. 
Some towns, however, held out, and applie<l to 
I Artaxerxes for assistance: who, as soon as the 
^war was at an end, Ijcnt all his force ai^ainst 
[•livagoras. The Athenians, notwithstanding the 
j.fevors conferred upon them by Artaxerxes, could 
iBot forbear assisting their old ally in hht enier- 
( jency, and sent ten men of war iindtT I'hilo- 
r crates; but the fleet commanded by Taleniins, 
T brother to Agesilaux, falling m with them near 
tlUiodes, surrounded them so that not uiiF ship 
MCMMr The Athenians sent Chabrias wiili 
MMVMF'flevI and IhmJv of land forces wiih which 
lie quickly reduced the whole island. Uiit the 
Atlicniiins Ix-ing soon after obliged, by a treaty 
concludad with the IVr»iaii», to rvcall Chabnas, 
Aftaxencs attacked the island with 300,000 iii<-n 
and 300 ships. Kva^orus omilicd to the I'gyp- 
tiaas, Lybian-., Ar.ilnam, T_vri:ins, and other 
Mtions, from whom he trrciveil supplies both nf 
[ men and money ; and liltrd out a fleet, with 
which h« tienlurcd an Piik.-4gvnieiil with that 
••f Artaxentv But being dcfcattd, and obliged 

to shut himself up in Salamine, he was clotdjr 
besieged, and at last was obliged to capiluUlei 
and give up the whole island except Sal.iiniite, 
which he held as a king tributary to Art-ixerxes. 
Tlie Cyprian war being ended, Artaxerxes turned 
his arms against the Cadusians, whose countiy 
lay between the Euxine and Caspian Seas, but 
was obliged to abandon the project, after liavinf 
lost a great number of troops and all his lionet. 
In his Egyptian expedition, which hui'jicned 
immediately after the Cadusian war, li<> w-a« 
attended with little better success, owini; i<i the 
bad conduct of Pharnabazus. Tliis eomuiaiidrt 
sent an ambassador to Athens, demanding Iphi- 
crates, the best general of his time, to comiiiiind 
the Greek mercenaries in the Persian sentce. 
This the Athenians complied with; and Iphi- 
crates having mustered his troops, so exert:t*ed 
them in all the arts of war, that they became famous 
among the Greeks under the name of I phicratesiui 
soldiers. But the Persians were so stow in ihetr 
preparations that two whole years elapsed before 
tliey were ready to take the field. Artaxerxi^, (hat 
he might d raw the more mercenaries out oft ifrfix-, 
sent ambassadors to the diflerent slates in it, en- 
joining them to live at peace with each other, on tb* 
terras of the treaty lately concluded. ITi 
were mustered at the city then called 
since called Ptolemais ; where they ami • 
300,000 Persians under Phamabazus, and Si 
Greeks led by Iphicrates. The fleet consi: 
.300 galleys, besides a vast number of other res- 
sels which followed witli provisions. Tlii.' Hedj 
and army T>-^an to move at the same time ; and 
separated as little as possible. Having roailc m\ 
descent at one of the mouths of the Nile, tluryi 
took a fortress, and put all the Egyptians m it 
the sword. Iphicrates then proposed erabarkii 
the troops without loss of lime, and attackii 
Memphis, the capital, which would have rcti' 
dered it easy to reduce the whole country ; li 
Phamabazus would undertake nothing before tlir 
rest of the forces were come up ; neither woul 
he permit Iphicrates to attack the place with 
Greek mercenaries only, from a mean jm' 
of the honor which he might accjuire; mi 
the Egyptians recovered courage to put tl 
selves in such a pasture of defence that 
could not be attacked with any probab 
success ; and tJie Nile, oveiflowing its 
obliged ihem to return to Ph<»nice. 'The 
dition was again undertaken twelve yean 
but without success. The last \r-^--- "f \ 
erxes were greatly disiurbeil h\ 
his family ; and he died in the niiiL. 
of his nge, and forly-siifh of bis mgn. 

He was succeeded by one of his »»ns 

Artaxerxes (Jehus, who behaved with mtrll 
cruelty that almost one half of his dominiooa 
revolted as soon as he came to the ihnnie. Bi 
by the dissensions of die rpMs among ihemtel' 
all of Iheiii were redin ' ' 

the SidoniiUis, tituliiii.' 
themselves, to the ir. . i 

with their wives and < ' >« 

having qiiellc<l all iIh ■...-. .mmedi 

set himself about reducing Kcypt. and ft 
purpose procured a reinforcement of other I 
metccnarifs ffotn Greece. Oti tlitstnaKh he t 



men in t)ie lake S«rbonU. 

blows lliij lake is said to 

vHlh sand in such a nianoer 

Ak m oat could distinfuith it from the firm 

hil Srreral parties of Oihus's army were lost 

a « far wmni of proper guides ; and whole ar- 

^iB kB*« sooictimes perished in it. When he 

aii'tU ia Egypt he detached three bodies to in- 

^■4* ll.« (ountnr ; each commanded by a Persian 

nd >C(«d[. The fir^t was led by Lachares the 

ThdhaB,UKl Horaces governor of Lydia and Ionia; 

1W tttttni bv Nicostratus the llieban and Aris- 

tiaaa ; die liiird by Mentor the Rhodian and Ba- 

■«■ as coaocb. The main body of the army he 

Mfl wnh boMelf, and encamped near Pelusium, 

••vMch ikeeveutsofthe war. I'he event was suc- 

•■rfaLaBidOchiu, ba^in^ reduced the whole coun- 

■y, liwHWnf ted their strong holds, plundered llie 

lOBflef, uad rrtumed to Babylon loaded with 

htlKy ; v{l«v be conferred high rewards on those 

^m had disltoeuished themselves. To Mentor 

^ Rlirtittifi be gave 100 talents, and other pre- 

tmtti apprtioled him ^vemor of all the coasts 

rfAKi, aiaii cocnmitled to his care the whole 

aaaaKCDml of the war which he was still car- 

trwof wm. mad, either by stratagem or by force, 

it tf kM reiluccd all the provinces that had rc- 

^^ti. flchos tbeo gave his attention to nothing 

W Wa pleenires, leaving the admini.stration of 

Aks cDtinl/ to Bagoas the eunuch, and to 

Mmor. Thrae lwx> agreeing to share t)ie power 

kftaa tban, tlvc former had t'pper Asia, and 

^faOer all the rest. Dugoas, being an Egyp- 

ItaD, Itad a great real for the religion of his 

canny, and FnHcnvoured, on the conquest cf 

ZcfC, to the king in favor of the 

tfjyuaa ' . but Orhus not only re- 

Ca«4 hi ron.^U, Lui killed the sacred bull, the 

fhlrm of Apis, plundered the temples, and 

omH awa} their v.icred records. Bagoa.s in 

I imttipt |>oisoDed his master and benefactor in 

B||^MmbI> '■-• nflu<) reign; kept the king's 

^^^^^Kcau< ' to he buried in it3 stead ; 

H^BPaatati.. .: had caused his attendants 

W at tlx flf «h of .\pu, Bagoas cut his body in 
laerv*, and i^ve it so mangled to be devoured 
m tala, siakaiK handles for swords of his bones. 
Be (km placea Ane« the youngest of the de- 
oaaed Itiog'* sons on the throne, that he might 
Aa nore euily preserve the whole power to 

Aiata did not long enjoy even the shadow of 
■aaar a>tedk Bagoas allowed him, being mur- 
iocd ia the aeconil year of his reign by that 

amb«n.iit< ' ■ who now conferred the 

a««a oo loinanus, a relation of the 

laill baii . ; . ndin^' that he would not 

Mhr ktmailf 1' ; l>y him in all things, 

l^aaa brouvh' h poisonous potion ; 

i^iaa Darius imiciised upon him his own arti- 
iaa, caasni7 mm to drink the poison which he 
haggkt. <^hed Darius in the throne 

mtu m ■ ■•' internal enemies could do 

v; but n !c time his dominions were 

wradH, ■' nquered, by Alexander the 

Coal, la- pi.'tif.ulirs of that hero's conquests 
a* talUad atMer Ma< chom : we shall therefore 
laai oalj lake notice of the hte of Uarius him- 
mU, wMh abicb the Persian empire concluded 

for many ages. AOer the battle of Arbvla, Alex- 
andcr took and plundered Persepolis, whence he 
marched into NIedia, in pursuit of Darius, who 
had fled to Ecbalana the capital. This prince 
had still an army of 30,000 foot, among whom 
were 4000 Greeks, who continued Faithful to 
the last. Besides these he had 40'X) slingers 
and .3000 horse, most of them Bacthaiu, com- 
manded by Beisus. When Darius heard that 
Alexander had marched to Ecbatana, he retired 
into Bactria, with a design to raise another 
nrrny ; but soon after he determined to venture 
a Dattie with the forces he still had left. On 
this Bessus, governor of Bactria, and Nabar- 
zanes, n Persian lord, formed a conspiracy 
to seize his person, and, if Alexander pursued 
them, to gain his friendship by betraying their 
master into his hands ; but if ihev escaped, 
their design was to murder him, and usorp the 
crown. The troops were easily gained over ; but 
Darius himself, when informed of their proceed- 
ings, and solicited to trust his person among the 
Greeks, could not give ciedit to the report. The 
consequence was that he was in a few days 
seized by the traitors; who bound him with 
golden chains, and, shutting him. up in a covered 
carl, fled with him towards Bactria. The cart 
was covered with skins, and strangers appointed 
to drive it without knowing who the prisoner 
was. Bessus was proclaimed commander and 
chief by the Bactrian horse ; but Artabazus and 
his sons, with the forces they commanded, and 
the Greeks, under one patron, retired from the 
army under Be»sus, and marched over the moun- 
tains towards Parthicne. Alexander, arriving at 
Ecbatana, was told that Darius had lefl the place 
five days before. He then despatched orders to 
Clitus, who had fallen sick at Susa, to repair, as 
soon as he recovered, to Ecbatana, and thence to 
follow him into Parthia with the cavalry and 
C0(X) Macedonians, who were led in Ecbatana. 
Alexander himself, with the rest of the army, 
pursued Darius; and the eleventh day arrived at 
Uhages, having marched in that time 3300 fur- 
longs. Most of those who accompanied him 
died through fatigue ; insomuch that, on his ar- 
rival at Rbages, he could scarcely muster sixty 
horsemeh. Finding that he could not come up 
with Darius, who had passed the Caspian slniits, 
he staid five days at Uhages, to refresh his army, 
and settle the aflairs of Media. Thence he 
marched into Purthia, and encamped near the 
Caspian straits, which he passed next day with- 
out opposition. He bad scarcely entered Parthia, 
when he was informed tliat Bessus and Nabar- 
zanes had conspired against Darius, and de- 
signed to seize him. Hereupon, leaving the 
main body of the army with Cralerus, he ad- 
vanced w ith a small troop of horse, and. having 
marched day and night, he came on the third 
day to a village where Bessus with his Bactrians 
had encamped the day before. At this place he 
Iramt that Darius had been seized by the trai- 
tors ; that Bessus had caused him to be shut up 
in a close cart, and that the whole army, except 
Artabazus and the Greeks, obeyed Bessus. Al 
last Alexander came in sight of the barbarians, 
who were marching in great confusion. His 
unexpected appearance struck them, though f»i 



iUperior in number, with siicli terror, that they 
immecluiely fled ; and, because Daiius refused to 
(•follow ihetn, beasus, and those who were about 
him, dischar)B;ed their darts at the unfortunate 
prince, leaving him wallowing in his bloo<i. 
After this they all fled dilTerent ways, and were 
pursued by the Macedonians with great slauchter. 
In the mean time the horses that drew the cart 
in which Darius was, stopped ; for the drivers 
bad been lulled by Bessus, near a villaire about 
'our furlongs from the highway ; and F'olysttatus, 
Macedonian, being pressed with thirst, was di- 
id by the inhabitants to a fountain near the 
place. As he was filling his helmet with water, 
he heard the groans of a dying man ; and, 
looking round him, discovered a cart with a 
team of wounded horses, unable to move. Ap- 
proaching it, he perceived Darius lying in the cart, 
having several darts in his body, lie had enough 
of strength however, left to call for some water, 
■which Polystraius brought him ; and after drink- 
ing, turned to the Macedonian, and with a faint 
voice told him, that, in the deplomble state 
to which he was reduced, it no small com- 
fort to him that his last words would not be 
lost : he then charged him to return his hearty 
thanks to Alexander for the kindness lie had 
shown to his wife and f.iinily, and to acquaint 
him, that, with his last bteatli, he besought the 
gods to prosper him, and make him sole monarch 
of the world. He added, that it did not so nnuch 
concern hira as Alexander to pursue and bring 
to condign punishment those traitors who had 
treated their lawful sovereign with such cruelty. 
Then taking Colyslraius by the hand, ' Give Alex- 
ander your hand,' says he, 'as I give you nnine, 
and carry him, in my name, the only pledge 
I am able to give, in this condition, of my grati- 
tude and affection.' Having uttered these words, 
he expired in the arms of Polystraius. Alexander 
coming up, a few minutes after, bewailed hit 
death, and caused his body to be interred with 
the highest honors, llie traitor Dessus, being at 
la*! reduced lo extreme difficulties, was delivered 
up liy (lit own men, naked and bound, into the 
hands of thr .Macedonians ; on which Alexander 
gave him to ()xyalhr<?s the brother of I^arius, to 
suffer what punisliineiit he should think proper, 
riuiarch tells us that he was executed in the fol- 
lowine manner : — Several tree* being by main 
forte Wnl down to the ground, and one of the 
traitor's limbs iie<l to each of them, the treei, as 
they were suffered to tctum to their natural 
poaiiiun, flew back wilh ouch vi tlenre that each 
carried with it a limb. Thus ended the ancient 
empire of Persia, 209 yean after it had beeo 
founded by Cyrus. 

After the death of Alexander, the Persian 
dominions became subject to Seleucus Nicutor, 
and his successors, for sixty -two yt-ars, when the 
Parthiani revolted, and conquered the greatest 
part of them. To the Parthiaiu they continued 
lubjcct for i'S yrun, when the sovereignty was 
again r*jlored lo the Per»ian5, as related under 
Partiii4. 'Hie restorer of the P»r»i»n monarchy 
was Artaxerxcs, or Artatartt. who w-*s not only 
a private person, hut of spurious birili. How- 
ever, he po«M«MtJ great ulenls, and took the 
pompous litlo of king of kiiigx. lie gave notice 

to the Roman governors of the provinces border 
ing on his dominions, that he had a just right,* 
the successor of Cyrus, to all llie Lesser Asia; 
which he commanded them immediately to qiw, 
as well as those on the frontiers of the ancient 
Parthian kingdom. The consequence of this 
was a war with Alexander Sevcrus, tlie Uointui 
emperor. Of the event of this war there »• 
very different accounts. It is certain, however, 
that on account of his exploits against Artaxares, 
Severus took the titles of Parthicus and Persicua; 
though, it would seem with no great rea.sou, w 
the Persian monarch lost none of his dominioos, 
and his successors were equally ready with him- 
self to invade the Roman territory. 

Artaxares dying, after a reign of twelve or fif^ 
teen years, was succeeded by his son Sapor, 
a prince alsoof great abilities, but fierce, haughty, 
and untractable. He was no sooner seated on 
the throne than he begdn a new war with the 
Romans, in which at the beginning he was un- 
successful, being obliged by Gordian to wiilidraw 
from the Roman dominions, and even invadtrd in 
his turn; but, in a short time, Gordian beiog 
murdered by Philip, the new emperor mad« 
pence with him upon terms very advanlageotu 
to the Persians. Sapor now renewed bis incuiw 
slons, and made such alarming progress that th* 
emperor Valerian, at tlie age of seventy, marched 
against him in person with a numerous wiDjr. 
An engagement ensued, in which the imperial 
troops were defeated, and Valerian taken pnsoner. 
Sapor pursued his advantages with such cruelly 
that the people of the provinces look arms, fint 
under Callistus, a Roman general, and then 
under Odeoatus, prince of Palmyrenc. Tlie re- 
sult was that they not only protected ihemselvef 
from llie insults of tlie Persians, but even gamed 
many victories over them, and drove Sapor with 
disgrace into his own territory. In his march h« 
is said to have made use of the bodies of hia 
unfortunate prisoners lo fill up the hollow roada, 
and to facilitate the passage of his carriages over 
several rivers. On his return lo Persia, he wai 
solicited, but in vain, by several neighbouring 
princes, lo set \'alerian at liberty. On the con- 
trary he Irraled him daily with studied indig- 
nities ; set hi:i foot upon his neck when be 
mounted his horse, and tinally, after some yetnt 
cotifinemenl, flayed him alive; and caused his 
skin to be tanned, and preserved as a trophy of 
Ins victory over the Romans. This extreme in- 
solence and cruelty was followed by an uninter- 
rupted course of misfortune. Odenatus deCMted 
him in every engagement, and even seemed leady 
to overthrow his empire : after him Auifliaa 
took ample vengeance for the captivity of Vi 
nan. Savior died A. D. 273, after having rei[ 
thirty-om- yvars : mid was succeeded by hia 
tlormitdas, and he by X'aranes I. The foi 
reigned a year and ten days, and the latter thrca 
vears ; after whit li he left the or»>wn lo V'aranes 
1 1 ., who seems to have been so much awed by 
the Koiiiun |>ower lliat he il\ir*t undertake 
nothing. The lust of the Pii v, to the 

overthrow of the empire by '. ^.affords 

nothing but nn account of tlui: loiiiiutu-d inva- 
sions of the tmpifr, whicji more profM-rly belongs 
lo the history of KvMi; and CussTaMiKori.t, 


I we iherefoTe refer. Thp liul of tlie 
», of the line of Artaxares, was 
fur Iexdeg«nl, who was contemporary 
a^'Oour. the secoDd caliph af\i!r Mahomet. 
Hb^B icweeiy seated on the throne when he 
immi hiroirif attacked by a powerful army 
tf juaaeat tuuier the cominand of one Sad, who 
vndcd tW cooDtry through Chaldea. The Per- 
■M §eB<tBl nude every effort to hnrais the 
AakB on llieir march; and, bavins an army 
le tbem in oambers, employed them 
~ to skirmishes : but Sad, perceiving 
liDgerinc war would destroy his army. 
to force the enemy to a gciier.>l 
Dl; which he at last accompli.shed with 
Of, after a battle lliat lasted three 
I three aigfats. Thus the capital, and the 
■rl of the dominions of Persia, fell into 
of the Arabs; along with the king's 
■Wts, wliich were immense ; A. I). 643. 

Mtf tkts battle Jezdeaerd retired into Cho- 
tMHa,*MKt« he reigned as king, over it and the 
<«o pfnrince^ of Herman and Se^estan. But, 
ttm ibonl ntneteen years, the eovemor of Me- 
MBtouajed It 10 the Turks. Jezdegerd imme- 
Aarff marched against the rebels and their 
ifiohtat '"■»» defeated ; and, having with much 
tBmitf (eaelied the river, while he wa:i bargain- 
■f wiA (he ferryinan about hi* fare, a parly of 
AaniM bone came up, and killed him. This 
mt m ftS7. Jezdegerd left behind him a son 
■■■I Firaoz, and a daughter, Dara. The latter 
aipoacd Bortenay, whom the rabbinical writers 
■Mf dte bead of the captivity ; and who, in 
fa, tns Ihe prii>ce of the Jews settled in Chal- 
ks. Aa for Firoui, he siill presene<l a little 
fMamalMy; and, when he died, left a daughter 
■OMS tbui Afrid. who married Walid, the son 
«f (W ^fiph Abdalmaiek, by whom she had 
a taa ii»iii»il Void, who became caliph, and 
•••Uijfu of Penia ; and who, claiming the title 
4Bi««d btm ht> mother, constantly styled him- 
ikc WW of Kliosrou, kine of Persia, the 
I at caliph Maroan, and among whose 
aaonlan urn Ihe side of the mother were the Ro- 
■aa tnipvror and the khacan. Persia con- 
(■■•d to be snbject to the Arabs till the decline 
af Ibe Saracen empire ; beiniz zovemcd by depu- 
■■S aMMM aultans, under the grand khalifs. 
Bat JB p i o ceas of time the sullans of Persia, 
, fcc~, quarrelled among themselves, and 
•eveial revolutions, and fluctuations 
tf yumtt, the consequence of which was the 
mmia^ im of the Turks. Tansrolopix, their 
ladar, «aei|aered the sultan of Persia in 1030, 
mi aaMmad die government. He was succeeded 
fcy a race of Turkish princes for about 100 years, 
*kaa tlw Tartan invaded Persia, drove out the 
Tm^ an<l a new dyi>asly of Tartarian princes 
Itaemitd : after which it was seized by various 
■■Hfim. till the time nf Jenghiz Khan, who 
liw)ai wil it. with almost all the rest of Asia. 

AJItf the d«ih of Jen^liii Khan, which hap- 
fmmi m ' r.ia and the neighbouring 

Mnalnaa - ned by officers appointed 

ky Wa ••t<»-»v>r^, "iio reigned at Kerakorom, in 
■aauMrayatu of Ti<ri;try, till 12,S3, when it 
haeia» one* more the seat of a considerable em- 
ftM Wider Uaalen, or Hulaku the Mogul, who, 

in 1256, abolished the khalifit, by tjdcini Dngdad 
After the death of llulaku his son Abaka suc- 
ceeded to his extensive dominions ; who, in the 
very beginning of his reign, was invaded by 
llarkan Khan, of the race of Jagatay, the son of 
Jen^hiz Khan, from Great Bukharia, with an 
army of 300,000 men ; but, happily for Abaka, 
Barkan died before the armies came to an en- 
gagement, upon which the invaders returned to 
Tartary. In 1264 Armenia and Anatolia were 
ravaged by the Mamelukes from Kgjpt, but they 
were obliged to fly from Abaka; who thus seemed 
to be established in an empire almost as exten- 
sive as that of the ancient Persian kings. But in 
1268 his dominions were invaded by Borak 
Khan, another descendant of Jagatay, with an 
army of 100,000 men. He quickly reduced ilie 
province of C'horassan, and in 1269 advanced as 
far as Aderbijan, where Abaka had the bulk of 
his forces. A bloody battle ensued, in which 
Abaka was victorious, and Borak obliged to fly 
into Tartary, with the loss of ail his baggage, 
and great part of his army. Abaka died in Ii82, 
after a glorious reign of seventeen years, and was 
succeeded by his brother Achmed Khan. He 
was Ihe first of the family of Jenghiz Khan who 
embraced Mahometanism ; but neither he nor 
his successors appear to have been much versed 
in the arts of government ; for the Persian his- 
tory, from this period, becomes only an account 
of insunections, murders, and rebellions, till the 
year 1 337 ; when, upon the death of Abusaid, it 
split to pieces, and was possessed by a great 
number of petty princes ; all of whom were at 
perpetual war witn each other till the lime of 
Timur Beg, or Taiaerlane, who once more, about 
A. n. 1400, reduced them under one jurisdiction. 
After the death of Tamerlane Persia continued 
to be governed by his son Shah Rukh, or Mirza, 
a wise and valiant prince: but it did not remain 
in the family above six short reigns: after con- 
tinual dissensions among themselves, the last of 
them w-ds defeated and slain in 1472, by Usum 
Cassan, an Armenian prince. There were live 
princes of this line ; after which the empire was 
held by a great number of petty tyrants, till the 
beginning of the sixteentli century, when it was 
conquered by Shah Ismael Sail, Sofi, or Sophi ; 
whose father was Sheykh Haydcr, the nineteenth 
in a direct line from Ali the son-in-law of Ma- 
homet. When Tamerlane returned from the de- 
feat of Bajazel, the Turkish sultan, he carried 
with him a great number of captives out of Kara- 
mania and Anatolia, intending to put them to 
death ; and with this intent he entered Ardebil, 
a city of Arderbijan, twenty-five miles east of 
Taurus, where he continued for some days. At 
this time lived in that city the Sheykh Sesi, re- 
puted by the inhabitants to be a saint ; and as 
such was much reverenced by them. Prom the 
fame of his sanctity, Tamerlane paid him fre- 
quent visits ; and, when he was about to depart, 
promised In grant whatever (avor he should ask ; 
Sesi requested that he would spare the lives of 
his captives. Tamerlane granted this request ; 
upon which the Sheykh furnished them with 
clothes and other necessaries, and sent them 
home. The people were so much afl'e:ted with 
this extraordinary" instnnre of virtue that they 



■uterwardii repaired in greaJ numbers lo Spsi, 
brining \t ith them considerable presents. Tli<^ 
\he descendants of the Sheykh made a con- 
spicuous figure till 1486, when they were all 
destroyed by the Turks except Ismael, who fled 
to Ghilan ; where he lived for some time under 
the protection of the king of that country. There 
was at that time a vast number of different setts 
of Mahometans dispersed over Asia; and, 
among lliese, a party who followed Hayder, the 
father of Ismael. Ismael, therefore, finding that 
Persia was in confusion, and hearing tiiat tliere 
was a great number of the Hayderian sect in Ka- 
raroaoia, removed thither, and collected 70O0 of 
his party, by whase aid he conquered Shirwan. 
After this he pursued his conquests ; and, as his 
antagonists never united lo oppose him, had 
conquered the greatest part of Persia, and re- 
duced llie city of Bagdad in 1310. But in 1511 
he received a great defeat from Sclira I., who 
took Tauris, and would probably have crushed 
the new Persian empire in its infancy, had he 
not thought the conquest of HgypI more impor- 

MoDERK Persia. — Ismael died in 1523, leaving 
the crown to his eldest son Thamasp I , a man of 
very limited abilities, and who was invaded by the 
Turks on his accession to the throne. However, 
they were obliged to retreat by an inundation, 
which oveiflowed their camp. Inamasp then re- 
duced Georgia to a province of the empire, which 
liad previously been divided among a number of 
petty princes. The reigns of the succeeding 
princes afford nothing remarkable till the time of 
iihah Abbas I., sumamed the Great. He ay- 
cended the throne in 1584 ; and began with de- 
claring war against the Tartars, who had seized 
the finest part of Chorassan. Having raised a 
powerful army, he entered that province, where 
he was met by Abd.illah Khan, the chief of the 
I'xbeck Tartars, whom he attacked and defeated. 
Here he continued three years; and, on leaving 
Chorassan, fixed the seat of government at Ispa- 
han, where it has continu^ ever since. Hii 
next expedition was against the Turks, from 
whom he look the city of Tauris, after defeating 
the garrison ; on which most of the other adjacent 
places submitted. One city only, called tJrumi, 
being strongly situated, resisted all the efforts of 
Abbas ; but was at last taken by the assistance 
of the Curds, whom he gained over by promising 
to iharc tbe plunder with them. Instead of this, 
however, he invited their chiefs to dine with him; 
and, having brought them to a tent, the entrance 
to which had several tumingi, he stationed on 
the inside two executioners, who cut off the 
heads of the guests as soon as they entered. 
After this barbarous piece of treachery. Abbas 
considerably enlarged his dominions, and re- 
pelled two dangerous invasions of the Turks. 
MP attempted aI»o to promote cominiTce, and 
cifilise hii subjects; but stained all his great ac- 
tions by abominable cnielties. He look tlie isle 
of Onnus from the Portuguese, who had kepi it 
once l.'>07, by the assistance of some English 
ihipt in 1622; and died fix y«an aAer, aged 

Th« t>rinc«s who succeeded Abbas werv re- 
markable only fur ibn«« CTMltiM tad At- 

baucheries which occasioned a revolution to 
1710, when Shall Hussein was detluooed by ibt 
Afehauns or Pattans ; who, being oppressed b^ 
the ininisten, revolted, under the conduct of ov 
Mereweis. The princes of the .\fghauo race e» 
joyed the sovereignty only sixteen years, when 
Ashraff, the reigning shah, was dethroned by on* 
of his officers. <Jn this Thamasp, otherwist 
called lliamas, the only survivor of the fiunily 
of Abbas, assembling an army, invited into hts 
service Nadir Khan, who had obtained gTMl 
reputation for his valor and conduct. No soonet 
had Nadir got the command of the Persian arm/ 
tlian he attacked and defeated the usurper EsriBf 
put him to death, and recovered all the place* 
th" Turks and Kussiaos had taken during the 
rebellion, when prince Thamas seemed to be 
established on the throne : but Nadir, to whom 
Tliamas had given llie namet>f Thamas Kouli, 
that is, the Slave of Thamas, thinking his ser- 
vices not sufficiently rewarded, and pretending 
tliat the king had a design against his life, con- 
spired against his sovereign, put him to death, 
and usurped the throne, styling himself Shah 
Nadir. He afterwards laid siege to Candahar, 
of which a son of Mereweis had possessed him- 
self. While at this siege, the court of the Great 
Mogul being distracted with factions, one v( llie 
parties invited Shall Nadir to come to their as- 
sistance, and betrayed the Mogul into his hniids. 
He thereupon marched to Delhi, the of 
India, summoning all the viceroys and governor* 
of provinces to attend him, and bring with tlicm 
all the treasures they could raise; those that did 
not bring as much as he expected he tortured 
and put 10 death. Having thus amassed an im- 
mense treasure, he relumed to Persia, giving tb* 
Mogul his liberty on condition of his resigning 
the provinces on the west side of the Indus u> 
Persia. He afterwards made a conquest of U»- 
beck Tartary, and plundered Bochara the capitaL 
Then he marched against the Uagisun TartM*; 
but lost great part of his army in their moun- 
tains. He defeated the Turks in several enga^ 
menu; but, laying siege to Bagdad, was twiow 
compelled to raise it. He proceeded lo chang* 
the religion of Persia lo that of Gmar, hanged 
the chief priests, put his own son lo death, 
w-as guilty of such cruelly thai he wa.s at lei 
assassinated by his own relations io 1747. 

Upon the death of Shah Nadir a contest en- 
sued among his relations for the crown, which 
rendered Persia a scene of the moNl horhhl* 
confusion for upwards of forty years. 
reader will fonn some notion of the iroublM 
this unhappy countn' from the following »ei 
of pretenucra to the throne, between the deolli at 
Nadir and ihe accession of Kenm Khan: — Th«»r 
reigns, or more properly the length of time thrjr 
respectively governed with their piirty, vtm •• 
follows;—!. Adil Shall, nine months. 2. Ilim- 
him Shah, six months. 3. Shall Itokh Shah, af- 
ter a rariety of revolutions, at length rrgainvd 
the city of Slcscbid ; he was alive in 1787, and 
alwve ciithty years of age, reigning in Khorasan, 
under the direction of his son I^ussir I llab 
Me«rxa. 4. Sulerman Sbah. and 5 Ismael Stiali. 
in about forty days w«i* both cut off. almost a* 
*ww as they were aleTaiad. 0. AtttI hhan 



^•a* of Keria Kiuii's most formirlable 

nub mi competitor}, was subiluel by him, 

Vm^fTBOoa IQ Sliinuz, and died there a na- 

tmt 4Mh. 7. Ilussun Khan Kejar, another of 

SOBfthaa'* coaipelilor^ was besieging Shi- 

■i^akM btt armjr suddenly mutinied and de- 

mti li^ Tbe nauuoy was attributed to their 

«« <i pay. A party sent by Keriin Khan took 

ka pnaeotr ; his head was instantly cut oif, 

mi fmented to Kerim Khan. His family were 

Im^^ captives to Shiriuz; they were well 

nd tbeir liberty given them soon 

I obligation not to quit the city. 

I Khan was killed by a musket- 

1 miking on the ramparts of Mos- 

his men. 9. Kerim Khan 

, b]r liinh a (^wdislan, was a favorite officer 

tf Itadcr Shah, •Ad at the time of his death was 

■ ifar soothefB proiinces. Shiraux and other 

pteto had declared for him. AOer various en- 

■■■>■•, ht vompletely subdued all his rivals, 

md ^iMf mabiahtd himielf ruler of all Persia. 

Bi «1B M power about thirty years ; the latter 

fBB 4f '•tech be governed Hertia under the ap- 

■^■iaa of vaked or regent, for he never would 

VA* 4v tide of shah. He made Shirauz the 

^H oly af hts residence, in gratitude for the 

tmamBi he haid received from its inhabitants 

wt ikaK of the southern provinces. He died 

■ tTTV^ nsretted by all his subjects, who es- 

MiBid ail honore d Itim as the glory of Persia. 

Wlaa (he death of Kerim Khan was announced 

a ^11 city mach coofusion aroic ; twenty-two 

foaei^ flAcers of the army, men of high rank, 

I of tbe ciudel, with a resolution 

■triedge .\bul Futtah Khan (the eldest 

«• ^ Ihe ble rakeel) as their sovereign, upon 

•tich Zifcaa Khan, a relation of the late vakeel 

ty Aa ■other's side, possessed of immense 

ted a great part of the army into his 

Khaa tiras of the tribe of Zund (or 

a), a man remarkably proud, cruel, 

wt tiaiihiillng. Having assembled a large 

My af Iroopa, be marched to the citadel, and 

hiB doar «f^ to it for three days ; at tlip expi- 

Vaa at which, finding he could not take it by 

haeiv he had recourse to treachery. To each 

4f IW pnacspal khans he sent a written paper, 

~* *^ ' he iwore upon the Koran, that if they 

ne ovi and »ubmit to him, not a hair of 

ia should be touched, and, they should 

r aflects sectire'l to ihem. Upon this a 

was held by tli«m ; and as they 

obaist many days longer, they wreed 

, relying on Zitiea's promises. Zikea, 

time, gave private orders for the 

^M la be Kited, and brought separately before 

^ as they came on! of the citadel. His orders 

«» tinctly obeyed, and the^e deluded men 

avcail aiaiaii ml in bis presence. Zikea Khan's 

avMajr hiiainr «>on intolerable, and he was cut 

' ky bat own ' I. when Abul Futtali 

• imp, was proclaimed 

J by the imanmin'ii vmce of the troops, whom 

(■■laadkMly led back to Shirauz. On his ar- 

^M h» waa adotowledged as sovereign by all 

tmk» ct people, and look quiet possession of 

Mahomed Sadick Khan, only brother of (he 
late Kerim Khan, who had during that prince's 
life filled the high office of beslerbeg of Pars, 
and had been appointed guardian of his son 
Abul P'uttah Khan, was at this period governor 
of Bussora, which had been taicn by the Per- 
sians, previous to the vakeel's death. Upon 
hearing of his brother's decease he began to form 
schemes for the destruction of his nephew ; but, 
as it was necessary for him to be on the ."ipot, he 
withdrew the Persian garrison from Bussoni, 
who were all devoted to his interest; evacuated 
the place, and marched immediately for Shiraut. 
The news of Sadick Khan's approach threw the 
inhabitants of this city into the greatest conster- 
nation; some, from his public character, ex- 
pected he would fulfil the commands of his 
decea.sed brother; others expected he would set 
up for himself, which proved to be the case ; for, 
having entered Shirauz a very few days after, 
he caused .\bul Futtah Khan to be deprived of 
sight, and put into close confinement. After this 
Sadick Khan openly assumed the government. 
As soon as the inlclliiience reached Ali Murad 
Khan, who was at Ispahan, he instantly rebelled ; 
deeming himself to have an equal right to the 
government with Sadick Khan. Persia was thus 
again involved in all the horrors of a civil war. 
Ali Murad Khan indeed took possession of Shi- 
rauz, assumed the government, and gave to the 
empire the flattering prospect of being settled 
under the government of one man; but this 
prospect was soon obscured by' tlie power and 
credit acquired by Akau Mahomed. (Jn the 
night following Kerim Khan's death this man 
found means to make his escape from Shirauz, 
and Hed to the northward, where, collecting 
some troops, he soon made himself master of 
Mazandenin and Gliilan, and was proclaimed 
nearly about the time that Ali Murad Khan had 
taken Shirauz. Ali Mutad, hearing of his suc- 
cess, determined to go against him ; but, as he 
was previously proceeding to Ispahan to suppress 
a rebellion, he fell suddenly from his horse and 
expired. At this period Jaafar Khan, the eldest 
and only surviving son of Sadick, was governor of 
Khums : he deemed this a favorable opportunity 
to assert his pretensions to the government, and 
immediately marched with what few troops he 
had to Ispahan ; where, soon after his arrival, he 
was joined by the greater part of the malcontents 
who were then in arms. In this situation he re- 
mained some time ; but, Akau Mahomed coming 
down upon him with his array, he was obliged to 
risk his fate in a battle, and, being defeated, fled 
to Shirauz. Soon after he ventured a second en- 
gagement with his opponent ; and for this pur- 
pose ipsrched with his army towards Ispahan ; 
the two armies met near Yezdekhast, when a 
battle ensued ; and, Akau Mahomed's superior 
fortune again prevailing, .laafer was defeated, and 
retired to Shirauz, which he quitted on the 25th 
of June, 1787, and shortly after marched his 
army to th northward. 

Akau, or Aga Mahomet's fortunes finally 
prevailed ; and he transmitted the throne of Per- 
sia to his nephew, the present shah, Futtah Ali, 
who is descnbed as an accomplished prince; his 



eldest son is also said to be an able chiefhim, 
and has distinguished himself in the late cot>tests 
with Russia. 

MoDEKN Statistics op Persia. — On the em- 
pire once of this name the great modem en- 
croachments have been those of the Afghan ns on 
the east (see AroHAUSiSTAUN), the Turks on the 

west, or in the direction of the riven F.uphr 
and Tigris, and the Russians in Ct^n^ia. 
rious tribes have also rendered themselves iad^l 
i>endcnt in the great Caucasian chain. Mr.] 
Kenneir, one of the ablest modem writers on dwl 
geography of Persia, includes the following pn^T 
Tinces as forming its present dominion : — 


Ancienl Names. 

Chief Towns. 

Fars, or Fasistan 


Irak, or Irakadjemi 



Lar, or Laristan 





Kurdistan (part of) 

Assyria Proper 




Gela . . • . 



Hyrcania (part of) 



Margiana and Aria 


Herman (western part) 



One of the most prominent geographical fea- 
tures of this empire is the grand Caucasian chain, 
which some writers consider as the root of all 
its ranges of mountains. It belongs, however, 
itself rather to the frontier than the interior, es- 
pecially of late years, and since the success of 
the Russian arms in this quarter. Southwards 
from this chain spread the mountains of Arme- 
nia and Koordi^tan, which connect them$«lves 
with Mount Taurus ; also frontier and debate- 
able ground, i. e. between the Persian and Turkish 
empires. From the highest part of them, a great 
chain, under the name of Elwand or Elbruz, 
makes a circuit round the southern shore of the 
Caspian, leaving between itself and that sea a 
fertile plain. Mount Dcmaveiid, its loftiest 
peak, here rises to upwards of 10,000 feet ; and 
near it is supposed to be that remarkable pass 
to which the ancients gave the name of the Cas- 
pian Gates, which for twenty-eight miles allowed 
only a narrow road between high rucks for a sin- 
gle chariot. The Klbruz is continued alon<z the 
southern frontier of Khorassan,and, though (here 
lost sight of, is thought to unite with the moun- 
tains of Paraporoisus, and through them with the 
t^IIindoo Cooash and ilimmaleh. Chains of in- 
ferior height traverse the provinces of Khusistan 
and Fanstan, on the south. 

Nearly the whole empire may be said to be 
traversed by a table land, compoted of succes- 
sive ranges of mountains, with narrow plains at 
their bases, some of which exceed tOO miles in 
length. The distinguishing feature [>erhaps is 
the great deserts which occupy all the wide- 
spread tracts. The most noted is that calletl the 
Great Salt Desert, extending from the vicinity 
of Koom and Ka^han, to the sea of Durni. 
termed also the Lake of /crrah : and fronn tlie 
[province of Kerman lo that of Marandemii. Its 
I length is therefore about 400 miles, and its 
tlireaclih more than 'H)0. Hiis may be said to 
Bin the deserts of Kerman and Sentan, which 
lltrvtch further to the east, and, like thom* of 
I'Araliia, are all imprrcnalcd with nitrr. The 
precise nature of ttic»e wante* is wanelv known, 
but they are inter^porMHl with salt lAes ; and 
inaoy p^rls the surliice is covered with a cmst 
■ brittle earth, or a succession of hills, contut- 
iag of particles of the fliiest red sand, so ll|^>l as 
lo M almost impil|iablr, which the violent winds 

of the desert oden raise into a moving ctond^ 
destructive to all life. Smaller deserts occiipjf 
other parts. 

Modem Persia is singularly poor in riven, fcr 
the Indus, Oxus, Euphrates, and Tigris, as wdt 
as the Ileirmund, which feeds tlie lake of Zetn^ 
are now all beyond her frontier. None that reisaia 
are navigable for above three or four miles. W# 
may mention the Karoon, the Kerah, and the Ani» 
or Araxes, as the principal. Various smaller 
streams descend from the mountains, but u* 
generally soon lost in the dry sandy plan*; 
some few reach the southern shores of the CMi 
plan. On the banks of these streams, h o w Wj 
are some of the most beautiful and fertile plains 
of the world. 

Persia contains several extensive salt la 
The largest is that of Urumea, near the city of 
name, between tlie Caspian and the wt0 
frontier. Its circumference is computed at 
miles. The shape of this lake is oval, and 
waters very salt and clear, emitting a di*a|p 
able sulphureous smell. Mr. Kinneir did no^ 
however, find them encrusted with salt, as mi 
writorv have asserted. It contains numi 
islands, one of which forms a peninsula 
the water is low, and is almut twenty-five 
in circuit, inhabited by wild asses, and deer, aaA' 
other game. Anottier of these salt lakes is Bak' 
tegun, ten miles south-east of Sliiraz, ami noted 
for the purity of its salt. Its shape is li>ii>; and 
narrow, and its circuit aliout seventy-five milva. 
It is nearly dry in summer, when the people 
who live on its liorders collect the salt from the 
bottom. It is the final receptacle of the nvc» 
that posses Ispahan. Tlie great lakv of /■•trati 
is at present chielly included m the dominions oT 
Cabiil, aiwl oolv touches the eastern coiiliiies ol 
Persia. 'Ilie I'kiisian Gi Ly will be found CM- 
ticiil by us distinctly. 

The climate partakes of a variety >iiiill»t, 
though arising from verr diflcrent causes, to that 
of our own country, anu the order of tlie wtaoaa 
is very similar tooun. From the end of May to 
llial ol September, the heat in the low ({rounds and 
sandy dnvru of the intKrior is frequently «x» 
1 :iiountains and 

|H!ak« are (till 
i<nriiM] \%i[ii .iiKv., uiL' ^iiiiiiii^'r IS mild axiQ 
agrerabl*. At Teheran, the present reetropdia, 




I <# ioaaiDer b lo intense that the kin; 

tlK capital, and enciinp>s on tlie 

■« : hal th< winters, to the north of 

^■■d la hi^iher laijtnde», are often severe. 

llhii 11 I iiilj lit Ti til I III and Tahreez, that 

I beiweeo these towns and the 

rilbges b fte<]iientl)r suspended 

§ttm^at iBvcks. Tlie winds iliat lilon over the 

tm ^eats oAm tai<« the teinjterature of the 

■^Mm dwaictSL At Kashan, the heat ha.s been 

CaaJ to caeeed rhti at the Yillage of Kohrood, 

^■M twcBtT-Are miles diitant, by 20° of Fah- 

m^ea ; a rfifficmice which can only be ac- 

maaatti fat hy the pros imity to the former place 

« AcbnatSalt Doert From a meteorological 

^utai, k«|il by Dr. Jukes at Bushire, a port 

m tte "ff* pari of the Persian Gulf, in 1807, 

Jl sfMfS thai ia June, July, AiiKuit, and Sep- 

tovacr, Fakrcahal'v tiiermometer often rose to 

9^,aMl wat oercf lower than 80'. I'hrout^hoiit 

A> vMb «f October it did not sink below 72°. 

i rae atmve 90°. (^n the '20th of 

1806. liw thermometer fell to 30", 

ta* 4aBac oearijr the whole of the month 

k hrf tanged from 40° to upwards of 72°. 

Dir fhn where the observations were made 

^ a peninsula, exposed to the cooling 

mtidtmltaea. Id rocnt places the difference 

tma Ae temrrnture of the day and night is 

t; *ti'' !ien springs up in the 

■■C • '''« whole night, and 

■■i aucb a ffolinut warm clothing is 

MOM* (MTMSvuT- Sir John Malcolm says, 

! yotf R': hcamped on the plain 

ia the water in my tent 

I naarij tai an im h thick on the 17lh of 

. Tb» lat. was 36° N., and Fahrenheit's 

aix A. M.. stood at 34°.' The 

I IrOto beat to cold is sometimes very 

liiiu uldnm falls except in the pro- 

rid Mazanderan. On the 

-y, the atmosphere almost 

I^Madau, aad the country, perhaps, the most 

|viB]r a the eozl. As lo little ram falls, the 

*!■• m lea* eimious than in Hindostan. 

TW tad parlaltes the divenity of the climate: 

b oaciR and touth are and in a high degree, 

. aatmly d«atitute of trees ; while, on the 

) al Ac Caspian, timber is abundant. The 

a«flae4 pwos of Ohilan and M:izanderdn 
Ike wufar-caae in eoo«nlcrabk- plenty ; but 
lai tfaa tpatns of the lempenite climates can 
1^1* raw! ><ltll)l^^;lr•l liy artificial Watering, 
Nnoen In w lolence of the Persian 

VM doa D« lo apply. A vast ex- 

4kitf (be cnif re aoandoned to pas- 

•% laii tenao .niide tribes, like those 

whRary aaJ AiAm. 'Hiis portion has un- 
iMaatm acquired a great extension, in conse- 
■■cv 01 tte political calamities and internal 
■fc t» whadi Ihb country Iku been long ex- 

W ika MMMl fcro re d districts a traveller above 

■iaaBa*k«>— 'The v .tu... .,f (he central pro- 

^ j of I^a■a at"> 11 the rarest and 

— i l li nMt Tn;*t:i_ . 1.11^. and might 

I tiMiawaiad ia any extent . ; e grounds 

i'ttiA coimtij IK Doit fu- \ any lands 

I m Am wwrid. Ttt«i ai« seldom iound except 

near towns and villages ; but lite luxuriance with 
whirh they grow, wherever planted, shows that 
the climate is congenial to them. The orchards 
of I'ersia produce all the fruits of the temperate 
tone, and its wilds abound with Howers that can 
only be reared by care and cultivation in the 
gardens of Europe.' The plain of .Schirai is the 
boast of Persia, and indeed of the eastern world ; 
that of Is[>ahan is only second to it. The fruit 
every where may be said to be most excellent, 
and the gardens are cultivated wiili the greatest 
care. Tlie vine flourishes in several provinces. 
The wine of .Schiruz is considered superior to 
any other in Asia : that produced on tlie indps of 
the Caucasian mountains is also highly e.steemed. 
Cotton, indigo, and tobacco, are also raised in 
various parts. Among the common vegetables 
are peas, beans, carrots, turnips, and cucuinbets: 
and the |>otato has been lately introduced. 
Khubarb, opium, senna, saffron, assafxtid,!. and 
other drugs, are also found. 

In the northern provinces the mulberry is so 
extremely abundant as to render silk the staple 
produce of the empire. In these provinces con- 
siderable traces of the superior culture of former 
times abound. Throughout tlie country the 
husbandman, ruined by war or oppression, has 
often deserted his fields, and w^ndenng tribes 
have dcicended from the mountains to occupy 
his place. Territories therefore formerly dis- 
tinguished for fertility are now rendered wholly 
unfit for culture. ITie artificial canals, which 
supplied them willi the necessary moisture, have 
been suffered to dry up: and the salt, with which 
the soil and waters are every « here impregnated, 
has often accumulate<l and formed a species of 
crust on the surface of the ground, so as lo ren- 
der it capable of producine only soda and saline 
plants. Scarcely any where does the liu.'.lKiiidinan 
enjoy a moment's security from clicejiaos or the 
forays of freebooters. Sir. Morier, being at- 
tacked by a predatory chief, in the plain of 
Shuslcr, defeated and carried him prisoner to 
Ram Ilormuz. The governor of that place, how- 
ever, assured him that he could not with safety 
take any violent measures against so powerful 
an individual, (le even advised Mr. M. to take 
advantage of the incident, by engaging this per- 
son to conduct him safely through ihe rest of his 
journey, on condition of regaining his liberty; 
and thus was found in fact the only safe measure. 

I'ersia is noted both for its horses and doss: 
the former, although neither so swift nor so beau- 
tiful as tho>e of Arabia, excel them in size and 
strength. The most .valuable are of the Turco- 
man breed ; and a chupper or courier has been 
known to travel from Teheran to Bushire, a dus- 
lance of 700 miles, on the same horse, in ten 
days. Superior mules, asses, and camels, are 
also u.sed. The mules are small, but well shaped 
and strong. The camels equal those of Arabia, 
and are much used in all the eastern and desert 
part of the country ; but the western regions are 
too mountainous for this animal. Buffaloes are 
found, together with large flocks of goats and 
sheep, in the up'ands : lions, tigers, and bears, 
in the forests of (>liezsiii and Mazanderan ; while 
beautiful zebras roam wild over many of the 
plains of tlie interior. 'l"hey arc extremely dilli- 




cult to Ink*. Mo»l of llie poultry of Europe 
is al.Ho bred II 'ctsia, except tlielurlcey. Insects 
•l>ound in the damp and niarsliy pbces on llie 
borders of the Caspian, the shores uf the 
PerMian gulf, anil towitrds the bunks of the Ti- 
f^rif, and locusts, snakes, aod scorpions, visit 
the southern parts. 

The most extraordinary mineral production of 
Persia is that of naphtha or bitumen, found in 
pits three feet in diameter, and ten or twelve 
deep, which fill of themselves alter a certain 
period. This forms a most excellent substitute 
for pitch. The bottoms of most of the vessels 
'Which navigate the Euphrates and Ti^is are 
covered with it ; and it is used by the natives, 
instead of oil, for lamps. There is also a white 
naphtha, which, however, is suspected to be a 
diifcrent substance. It is found floating, like a 
crust, nn the surface of the water, does not pos- 
sess the qualities of pitch, but olfords a more 
aereeable light. A black and liquid petroleum, 
of an tgreeable odor, flows in small quantity 
from a mountain in Herman. The king reserves 
il for himself lo be used in presents ; and tlie 
mines are carefully sealed and guarded. The 
lurcjuoiw, a precious stone peculiar to Persia, is 
found in the mountains of Khorassan. Here 
niso the king demands a choice of all that the 
mine produces; but the merchants have found 
llic secret of evading this monopoly, and of car- 
rying olf the jewels. Silver, Irad, iron, and 
ropjier, arc met with in the provinces of Ker- 
iiun and M:uanderan. The mineral waters of 
the country are entirely neglected. 

Tlic existing government of Persia is entirely 
absolute : the reigning king being judged the 
vicegerent of the prophet, and entitled lo the 
most implicit oliedience. He is absolute master 
of tlie lives and properties of his subjects ; and 
the first man in tiie empire who disputes or neg- 
lects his commands may in.^tantly be stript of 
his dignities, and publicly ba.ttinadoed. Tlie 
pnnd vizier and lord high treasurer exercise 
generally the executive power : but in the capi- 
tal the king sits daily to administer justice. The 
punishments are very severe ; and the barbarous 
system of mutilation frequent. Many of the 
wandering trit>es, however, are ruled by their o« n 
khans, who merely pay occasional military ser- 
vice to the state. At a former period all the 
provinces were thus ruled by hereditary rulers 
who felt a solid interest in the welEue of the 
people ; but these have been removed, and the 
new officen study only lo enrich themselves. 
The weakness thus induced has probably been 
one mam cause of that scries of dcslniciivc revo- 
lutions 10 which Persia luis been subject, since 
the reign of Shah Sophi, who mude this change. 
The khans who still retain hereditary iway, hav- 
ing Bl (heir coinnianil th<> moat warlike port 
of the population, are much courted by the 

Persia ban ai the prp»cnt time scarcely any 
thing like a rrgular army The mutt rflicietit 
coatitts of lh<< royal al-nvis, as thry arc termed 
with ureal propriety. :!0<K) in number, a con- 
siderable iMr) nf whom have been disciplinMl 
aikcr tlie l.tiropmn nunru^r. Thv royal giurd«, 
Mioanlinj to l(l,0UO, have lands assigiicl Ihnii 

round the capital, and compose only a body, 
militia. The defence of Persia rests luunly 
upon the wandering tribes, who are alike excited 
by loyalty and the desire of plunder, to join the 
standard of the shah, but who often revolt to iht 
enemy. This force,coiisisUng entirely of cavaliy, 
may, it is said, by a gnsat eflbrt, be raised !■ 
150,000 or 200,000 men. The Persians have ■» 
idea of tactics. In their reviews the soldiecf 
pass along one by one, and have Iheir arm* «Df 
amined. In making war, they fly round ibe 
enemy, and endeavour to cut off his provisions 
and water; seeing him thoroughly exhausted, 
they make a sudden onset, and overwhelm linit 
Persia is always lo be easily conquere< I 
retained with didiculty. The Russians, I j >. 
ancient enemies, notwithstanding their juperwnM 
in the field, have never been able to extend ihiw 
frontier much beyond the Araxe*. 

The people, though oppressed on eveiy sid^ 
are gay, lively, and active. Their dress is OMMK 
lighter than that of their Turkish neighbours, aaf 
profusely adorned with ornaments : ostenlMlMi 
IS iadeed a reignine pnnciple. A sabre wiB 
often be made worth from 15,000 to 30,000 p(«* 
Ires. There is no country where the beaid i^< 
regarded with equal veneration. During tto 
day it is washed, repeatedly combed, and adjust- 
ed, for which purposes a pocket-mirror is con- 
stantly in use : the rich even adorn it wjl^ 

The Persians are the most learned and poMi* 
nation of the east. They employ in their col^ 
versatioo the most extravagant hyperboles ; and, 
to make their sincerity appear the greater, xiurt 
contrive, when a traveller is passing, to l^e oveiw 
heard expatiating in his praise lo a third pcnos^ 
Their whole conduct consists principally, we m 
told, of a tram of fraud and artifice ; and they 
never return to fair dealing till they find a nmn 
able to detect their impostures. Preseals u^ 
looked for wiih great avidity. 

There are two regular classes of poets, eiM 
whose theme is philosophy, and the oUier wbaa« 
lyre is devoted to love. At the head of tbe fcs^ 
mer is Sadi, of the latter Hafiz. Ther dspfD 
chiefly of course upon the beauties of the beloved 
object, which are treated in the utmost detiul, 
upon the miseries of absence, tec. Rigid Bli^ 
homelans scarcelv consider it lawful to pctMtA 
the works of Ha^t. Morality is taught by pi»- 
verb, apologue, and fables, usually clotbca ia 
verse. Tbe following is their circle of scicuci!*^ 
according to the order in which l)» d : 

grammar and syntax, theology, |<l: nia- 

thcniaiics, and finally medicine and uiruln^pr. 
Tlieir diligence in study is said to be extraoidi- 
nary, and the greatest attention is paid to ado* 
cation. The three ranks of wise men bear te 
titles of Taleb, Mollah, and Moushtehed. 

The whole nation ore MahoroctaiM, of the tttt 
of Sunnites, or All, who, on that ground, vt 
viewed by the Turks with grMtCr abhorrcnKC 

l)i:in ('tiri\ti:in« '|1).. t'> r^irinc K/MvoL.r ...■ „^ 


lii-liel. '1 he cicqitinn.prrhnpi. i« in ilieca^^of 
tlir (•u<\biit\, irt no^>lllp)x^'^ of (irr, who air no« 
■Iniust rxtir|wliid ; a rsmiuni on') of aliout 40011 



■■t h^ in Yexd, aod other tovms of Ker- 
i^K. TW Pcrsiaos K^oerally have the utmost 
•mMmtw m cfaarms, lali5mans, sentences uf All 
^■B ■pan pardiment, lucky and unlucky 

Ei I ceandenble extent they are a manu- 

BMH^ people, znd in the brilliancy of their 

•uroass the Turks, and perhaps 

I. To the latter they have com- 

tbat exquisite blue tint called ultra 

^B9«. Til* wool produced here is manufactured 

^toMdoTiaiiMU fbnn aod fineness ; and those 

^^niAad ^trpeUi, to which we give the name of 

Xw^tJ. »n in C»ct wrought principally by fc- 

^lAsof dkc Persiaa tribe:i. The wool produced 

tf Ac fBit» vf Kenaao u also made into shawls 

mti^mitttUe finenest. Silk is a great staple, 

■i4ar by aamSt, ttr mixed with cotton and wckiI ; 

tmi Am Ptrtans excel in brocade, embroidery, 

ami tt^mttj of all kinds. Muskets, pi.slols, 

tmi oabeoM, ue made and mounted in most 

«f tt* ^mml towof : and Khorassan contains a 

aanAdofy of «word blades, the founders of 

vIM a m . It b Mid, transported from Damos- 

am bf Timor. Leather, puper, and porcelain, 

matij Kpial to thai of Cnioa, are also among 

A* Masa^K'turvs- Dushire is now the only Per- 

iBB faei in thr gulf, the chief commerce of 

•teA u coTried on by way of Dussora. The 

(^■■■raal iate'tcour^ of i'crsia is, therefore, 

Ai[^ catned on by cantraos witii Turkey, 

Dkkiy* nd India. 

XkPEaSIA!^ OtJir—The Gulf of Persia 
Pertkai) i« OTitered from the Gulf of 
tkrowitb the Strait of ()rmus, eleven 
wide, "between Cane Mus^iendom and 
Bmbtruck on t)u iVr-Mn shore. This 
ht« ttTMB the II being almost 

■Maiy free from cor <iii;h it has many 

•AadL It b beyond Ok liiniisof tlie monsoons, 
bH lb* powUon »nd nature of the neighbouring 
^^mat pKM)t^ il winds, which blow 

^^d daw It tl I Ihe KeJ Sea, north- 

^m wiad* prv'-'iini;^ lur nine months, from 
QMfc* Cs July, and south-east the other three 

ki. Tbe f' - • lied by the Aral« shi- 

, lad (be i '•:-e. For about forty 

ent.;., .. ,. middle of June, the 
■ iBil blow) with great violence, and 
)>•* eruiid shimaul. In March and 
IS*- 'low very strong for 

Itwr: i inti/nnission ; and at 

Kr Um turreol sets strong up the gulf 
4MK tbm wind. During the period of the 
^tSmg ■outb^axt wind«, hard but transient 
^tofeum the Mwth-west an sometimes expe- 
■■1 tawaid* Ibe entrance of the gulf. Tlie 
t^mtm arc ohaaned to run into the gulf from 
ih^ to Sa p a ain ber ; and out during the rest of 
fc jaar. la the middle of the gulf the current 
fmimKj aeU down, but i< weak : along the 
^■■laBaU tides prevail. Tlie prevailing winds 
•OB 1Q depeia) On the nature of the neighbour- 
meaaatnri.aiid the pooitioo of the gulf north- 
9tm bmI Jondi mat. To the south-east and 
L mm aM lb* AiabiaB Sea and the sandy deserts 
^Tknai,tbe aUKMphere of which must be more 
far a greater part of llie year than that 
' I* Ae aonb aad nortlt-wrsi, where are the Ulark 

and Caspian Seas and the cold Caucasus : hence 
north-west winds prevail the greater part of the 
year, and are strongest in the summer months, 
when the air to the south is most rantied by the 
sea being vertical, and by tlie melting of the 
noithem snows and ices, producing a stream of 
condensed air. In the gulf are many springs of 
fresh water in the sea, particularly one near iho 
Isles of Bahrein. 

The Persian Gulf receives at its bead the 
united waters of the two great rivers, Tiuria und 
Euphrates, which have both their sources in the 
mountains of Caucasus, between the Caspian 
and Black Seas. Their junction takes place al 
Koma, thirty leagues above Bussora, and the 
united waters take the name of the Sliat-al-.Arab 
(lUvcr of the Arabs) to the sea, into which they 
empty themselves, amongst banks, by several 
mouths ; of which the western one alone is na- 
vigable by ships, and is distinguished from the 
others by the branches of date trees floating out 
of it with the stream : its greatest depth is 
twenty feet, and for twenty-five leaguis from 
its mouth It is free from banks. The other 
branches are only navigable by boats. The 
land at the mouth of the river is so low that 
the date trees are the first objects seen, and in 
general these trees cover the banks up to Bus- 
sora, with a few interspersed patches of rice 
ground. \'essels of seventy tons go from Bus- 
sora to Bagdad ; these vessels, from the scarcity 
of wood, are composed of pieces of every sii« 
and species, from the size of a barrel stave up- 
wards, and the whole is covered with dammer, 
a species of resin used in India instead of pitch, 
an inch thick, which keeps them from leaking. 

Tlie Arabian coast of the gulf, from the Strait 
of Ormus to Aftan River, 400 mile-s, is occupied 
by the .lochassim pirales, whose chief places of 
rendezvous are Kjmaum,a small town and good 
port, and No-wilkam, ten leagues from ICjniaum. 
rhe sheik of Julfar, whose territory is outside 
the gulf, on the west of Cape Mussendom, has 
also a number of pirate dows, mounting four to 
eigliteen puns ; but the nfost powerful of these 

£iratical chiefs is tlie Cliaub, whose capita] is 
•urac (thought to be the Siwa of Alexander), 
on the east bank of the Euphrates. 

The west shore of tlie Persian Gulf is always 
avoided by European ships, and consequently 
is little known. For a dUtance of sixty leagues 
from Cape Mussendom there is not known to 
be any place of shelter. Ilas-el-Khima is a large 
pirate town, on a sandy peninsula, and is, com- 
paratively with other Arab tov^ns, strongly for- 
tified with batteries and towers. In 1809 the 
British Indian government determined tochastise 
tliose pirates, who had long committed depreda- 
tions on the English trade, and even captured 
some of the Company's vessels of war, treating 
the crews with great cruelty ; an expedition was 
consequently sent from Bombay, and their capital. 
El Khima, was taken by assault, and tlie fortifi- 
tions dtrstroyed, togetlitr with seventy of their 
piratical dows. A considerable plunder fell into 
the hands of the captors, whose loss was only 
one officer killed, and four m^n wounded. In 
latitude about 2.5° is a place called Seer, with 
Ihr island Zire to the west ; the Pearl Bank it 




thought to commence here, and extends along 
the coast to latitude about 27". There are many 
insignificant towns on the coast, from which the 
pearl fishery is carried on. The most consider- 
able are Lahsa, on AAan Kiver ; Farut, celebrated 
for its grapes; £I-Katif, supposed to be the 
ancient Cierra, built of salt stone, and where the 
ruins of a Portuguese fort are seen; Grain, 
Gran, or Koueit, is forty leagues from El Katif ; 
the coast between is desert, and with many is- 
lands. Gran is a town of mats and poles, with 
10,000 inhabitants, engaged in the pearl fishery 
to a considerable extent. Here the East India 
Company's packets usually wait for the over-land 
despatches from England. 

Bussora, Bassora, Basra or Busra, called by 
the Arabs Al Sure, or the rocky, from the nature 
of the surrounding country, is a straggling Arab 
town, ninety miles from Uie sea, and one mile 
and a half from the west bank of the river of 
the Arabs. A creek runs from the river to the 
town, by which vessels of seventy tons ascend 
to the latter. The houses are of sun-dried 
bricks, with terraced clay roofs, and of a mean 
appearance. The country round is a level plain, 
and, except on the immediate banks of the river, 
without tree or shrub. The climate is not con- 
sidered healthy ; the summers are extremely hot, 
and the winters cold and wet : the extremes of 
the thermometer are 110° to 50°. The trade of 
Bussora is very considerable, it being the prin- 
cipal emporium of the commerce between India 
and the Turkish dominions. The English ^t 
India Company have a factory here. 

Cape Jasques, which forms the eastern side of 
the Strait of Urmus, has a square white perforated 
cliflT, like a tower, projecting into the sea. East 
of the cape a river empties itself into the north- 
west angle of Jasques Bay. Its mouth is crossed 
by a bar, with but seven or eight feet high-water, 
and four fathoms and a half within. The Per- 
sian shore of the gulf, towards its entrance, is 
occupied by Arabs, generally independent of 
the Persian dominion, who subsist by navigation, 
fishing, and piracy. Ascending the Persian shore 
of the gulf, the places of any note, in succession, 
are Mina, on the River Ibrahim. Gombroon, or 
Bender Abassi (Port of Abbas), was formerly 
a celebrated mart, but at present is nearly de- 
serted, and in ruins. It is situated at the foot 
of a hill opposite Kismish Island, is unhealthy, 
and wiiliout water, but is presen-ed in cis- 
terns from the rains. Kongon,or Kun^oon, is a 
considerable town, with some trade ; the coast 
is here lined with stupendous mountains, rugued 
and barren. Cape X erdistan, or Burdistan, lias 
a shoal running out from it three leagues to the 

Bushire (Bender Abou-scher), the principal 
fort of the Persians in the culf, is an ill-built 
town of IJOO houses, of white stone or sun- 
burnt bricks, surruundeil by a wall with some 
ba^itions, merely sufficient to protect it from the 
insults of the Arabs. It is built on a point of 
land which is insulated in high tides. X'essels 
of ten feet ilraft run up the river to the town, 
but those of burden cannot approach the river's 
mouth nearer than five miles. The water pro- 
cttied hoe is extremely biackisb, though brought 

ten miles from the town. The remains of die 
Portuguese factory and castle are still to be seen, 
as are the ruins of Reeshire, a large town in the 
time of their power, four miles south of Bu&hire. 
The English East India Company have a resident 
here. Its trade is considerable, being properly the 
seaport of Schiraz, with which it las a constant 
commereial communication by caravans, and 
from it Persia is principally supplied with 
India merchandise, for which it pays in specie. 

The Gulf of Persia has, as we have said, 
several islands of note, of which the first to- 
wards the entrance is the celebrated Ormus, six 
miles long, and two leagues from Bender- Abassi. 
It is a totally banen rock, the low parts of whidi 
are covered with a crust of salt resembling snow. 
Its inhabitants are few, and chiefly subsist bjr 
collecting sulphur, of which they furnish caisoes 
to some small vessels. They are dependent' for 
fresh water on what is preserved in cisterns in 
the rains. 

Larak Isle, a league south-west of Ormus. 

Kishroish (Uaracta), the largest island in the 
gulf, is twenty leagues long east and west, but 
not two broad ; it is populous and well cultivated, 
producing wheat and other grain. Un the east 
side is a good port named Congo, but fit onljr 
for small vessels ; it has however a spring of ex- 
cellent water, almost the only one in the fvit. 
Near the middle of the south side is Angar Isle, 
three miles long, occupied by wild sheep and hogs. 

Mamouth and Selim, also called Mamet and 
Salamet, Kaze and Nabajou, and by English 
seamen the tombs, the ancient Aradus, are two 
small isles three leagues from the west side <^ 

Poliore and Knobflore, also called Souri and 
Abou-mousa, are barren islets. Souri looks lik« 
a two masted vessel. 

Kyen, or Keish Island, is low, fruitful, and 

Busheab, or Sheik-Saib, is of considerable 
size, well inhabited, and covered with date trees 
On the east side is a town occupied by pirates. 

Karek, or Kfaaredje(Icatah), north of Bushiie, 
is three leagues long and two broad, has i 500 
inhabitants, and is tolerably cultivated, producing 
wheat, rice, and barley ; it abounds with (nnts, 
but has few other animals. On the north are the 
ruins of a Dutch factory, established between 
1750 and 1765. The island at present is sub- 
ject to the sheik of Bushire ; on its south side 
is fresh water, convenient for shipping. Pilots 
are usually taken here for Bussora. In the 
centre of the island is a hill, with coral and sea 
shells on its summit, and courses of lava are ob- 
served on its sides. The isles IJiilirein, liaha- 
rein, arc, as their name signifies, two in number; 
they lie before Aftan Kiver, five leasrues from 
the main. The lan^cst, name<l Aii»l bv the 
Arabs, the ancient Tvloi, is level, covvretl with 
date trees, and has a fortified town. Hie south- 
east, and smallest, is called Samak ; they are 
celebrated for the great [learl fishery carried on 
near them ; they are subject to the sheik of Bu- 

Persian LANCi'Acr. The claims and cha« 
meters of this imporlantdialect ofhuman s^ieech 
have been so well illustrated and enforced in mo- 



AwMM, M»<I sfMcklly by Sir W. Jones, that 
•% oiMii «itk.iaM 19 abtKlged view of them in 

Tl» ^^nty of t!i<> Prrtnan language, according 
% SrtV JouMj. amy be divided into four pe- 

la^ BccOial i-^ ''■" - "• -inder each dy- 

m»f 68<( «r4t .! '; in the dialect 

I/*, i.f-ri. ri the two lajt, 

tan" dynasties; 
r _ which any cet- 

■mooMlf mmin. 

£a tls ia&ac7 of the empire, under Caydma- 
■ ^ kn dncciuianis, it cannot be supposed 
tatiBT r>*^ pam* «»n> taken to polish the lan- 
B^^ H-TOdcrtri :< thai, even after the 

^i i#< «m, ' ijcation of the Per- 

M *nn*k, in><D 'e years to twenty, 

■aaal » atib '<s, riding, thiowing 

and ■^ of moral virtue ; 

cat I niied by Xenophon. 

ftamit Boc. bov.. ..;, '. imagined, that i)ie 
Ptruan*. r»(>«cii»lly those of the second 
*«Tr mlirc straDgen to the art of com* 
•Mlirr in »w»e or vxvst ; but what their 
r was, w}iat were their rules of versifica- 
«haT ws» the course of their studies, no 
■a yrrtm-i xc know with any shadow of 
■I. ! I > «)n icire us no assistance, 

p»R :tcned by the writers after 

tr ; It t' iiocrsjiry therefore to consult 
naa UirmMlres Vtoni the great travel- 
leam, that the old Persian is a 
h^fVr cntuely lost, in which no books are ex- 
■i& Wcbavc tberefore do account of the Persian 
I^MMtill Ifae bmc oftheSi><<anian kings, who 
faariMl frooi the openiot; of the third century to 
^■■lilh of till trrcDth. during which penod an 
^lAiMj af phytic was founded at Gandisapor, a 
^ «f Korxxan, and, as it gradually declined 
tv 4( onDlttl imtitiition, it became a school 
rf|B(rT, ractoc ?<. and the abstract 

MatsK. In th^ > the Persian tongue 

Htf ka«T tw. « u QiUcU rctined, and the rusticity 
«f ta lU Ktiom was succeeded by a pure and 
^yi<ailiit_ I ' 7 constantly spoken at 

teaartof lVt>.< n the year 351, ac- 

^■4 itm mm- v. >;>..', -r courtly, to distin- 
mA if 6aai tlMtpefaUvi, pahlavi, or tankage of 
wcaaHIr*- Thu idiom did not, hon^ever, su- 
^a^t iW anciciit dialect ; for several compo- 
waMrfariwert exunteven after Mahomet, 
^A tp^tV to have been written by order of 
k&HHiCMi pnoces. Anushirvan, sumamed 
M. vbo iTttned at the close of the sixth 
r, wMli Maboroei was horn, obtained from 
I eollccti-" 1 by his 

ft :o, which 

lov thii pur^iMw; ; ini'* tntiection he 
•■io llk« Pifclavian dialect ; about 1 40 
it «•• turned from Pehlivi into Ara- 
Md«r of Almansor, second caliph of the 
d thi. !• ill \olome now found in 
e{ ' l>>rthenameofCalila 

tt:i i'llpay. Inthereignof 

StrkiioaMPl polished the language of his 
mI, when in« battle of Cadessia gave 
m to the Persian monarchy, the whole 
■f tmi WW nduced under the power of 
dmastv : the ancient litera- 

ture of Persia, which had been promoted by tlie 
family of Sassan, \vus immediately discouraged 
by the successors of Mahomet ; because gonie 
Persian romances, brought into Arabia, were ex- 
tolled to the disparagement of the Koran, the 
people to whom they were read alleging, that 
' the stories of grifTms and giants were more 
amusing to tJieni than the moral lessons of .Maho- 
met.' Accordingly a cliapler of the Koran was 
immediately written to stop the progress of these 
opinions, and other measures were taken to check 
their diffusion. This is supposed to have been 
the moving cause of that enthusiasm of the Ma- 
hometans which induced them to bum the fa- 
mous library of Alexandria, and the records of 
the Persian empire. It was a long time before 
the native Persians could recover from the shock 
of this violent revolution; and their language 
seems to have been little cultivated under the 
caliphs, who gave greater encouragement to the 
literature of the Arabians; but when llie power 
of the Abassides began to decline, and a number 
of independent princes arose in the diSerent 
provinces of their empiie, the arts of elegance, 
and chiefly poetry, revived in Persia ; nndtliete 
was hardly a prince, or governor of a city, who 
had not several poets and men of letters in bis 
train. The Persian tongue was con5e<]uently 
restored in the tenth century; but it was very 
different from the Deh or Pelilari of the anci- 
ents ; it was mixed with the words of the Koran, 
and with expressions from the Arabian poets, 
whom the Persians considered as their m.isten, 
and affected to imitate in tlieir poetical measures, 
and the turn of their verses. 

The oldest Persian poems, of which Sir W. 
Jones obtained any knowledge, are those of Fer- 
dfisi, and which, in his account of them, are ex- 
hibited as a glorious monument of eastern 
genius and learning ; and of which he further 
says, that if it should be generally understood in 
its original language, will contest the ment of 
invention with Homer himself, whatever be 
thought of its subject, or the arrangement of its 
incidents. lie has funiishedan extract from this 
poem, and adds, that it will exhibit a specimen 
of tli« Persian tongue very little adulterated by 
a mixture with the Arabic, and in all probability 
approaching nearly to the dialect used in Persia 
in llie time of Mahomet, who admired it for its 
extreme softneM, and was heard to say, * that it 
would be spoken on that account in the gardens 
of Paradise.' Of these two language* was form- 
ed tiie modem dialect of Persia, which being 
spoken in its greatest purity by the natives of 
Pars or Karsistan, acquired the name of Parsi ; 
though it IS even called Deri by Hafii. Nearly 
in the same age, vii. at the close of Uie tenth and 
beginning of the eleventh centuries, the great 
Aleul Ola, sumamed Alilmi from his blindness, 
published his excellent odes in Arabic, in which 
he professedly imitated the poets before Maho- 
met. At this time, and soon after, the Persian 
language became altogether mixed with Arabic. 
At Shirat, called tlie Athens of Persia, flourished 
in the thirteenth century, Sadi, a native of this 
city ; who wrote several pieces, both in prose 
and verse ; and by means of an extract from his 
Oulistan. or Bed of RoMV, Sir W. Jones has 



tliown \i» how tlic Persian and Atabic lan|;uages 

Vrere mived lo?i;llier in his a^e. The jarae city 

had the honor of producnig, in the fourteenth 

I century, the ino«t ele^^anl lyric poet of Asia, 

I Shen]seddiii,sumamed llaBi; of whose jiroduc- 

I tions Sir W. Jones has transcribed twoGazals or 

f anacreontic odes, with a translation. There is 

nothing, says oar author, which afTorrls a stronger 

proof of the excellence of the Persian tongue 

I tiian that it remained uncornipted after the irrup- 

I lion of the Tartars, who at different times, and 

I Under various leaden, made themselves masters 

I of Persia ; for the Tartarian pnnces, and chiefly 

I Tamerlane, who was a patron of tiafiz, were so 

1 £ir from discouraging polite literature, like the 

I'Coths and Huns, that they adopted even the Ian- 

Iguage and religion of the conquered country, 

■ •nd promoted the fine arts with a boundless 
iinnnificenue ; and one of them, who founded the 
lUogul empire in Ilindoslan, introduced the 
IPcrsian literature into his dominions, where it 
i8ourishi;s to thij day ; and all the letters from 
l|h« Indian governors are written in the language 
■of Sadi. The Turks themselves improved their 
IvBrsh dialect by mixing it with the Persian ; and 
lUahomet II., who took Constantinople in the 
Kiniddle of the liftcenth century, was a protector 
uf the Persian poets, among whom was Noured- 

Jin Jami, whose poem On the I^ves of Joseph 
'knd Zelikha is very highly extolled by our author, 
who has given a specimen of his elegant style. 
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, under 
the family of Sesi, lh> Persian language began to 
lose its ancient purity, and even to borrow some 
nf its terms from the Turkish, which was com- 
monly spoken at court. 

The characters of the Persian language are 
written from right to left, and the language con- 
sists of thirty-two letters, which vary in their 
form as they are initials and medials, or finals, 
both connected and unconnected. For the pro- 
nunciation both of the consonants and vowels, 
we refer to Sir William Jones's Grammar, from 
which we make the following extracts. 

The short vowels are seldom written in the 

■ Persian liook<i, and the omission of them occi- 
Ftions a perplexity to the learner of tlie Unguage. 
■lie will soon perceive with pleasure a great re- 

rniblance between the Persian and Knglish lan- 
Kuages, in the facility and simplicity of their 
lorm and construction. The fonnrr, as well as 
the latter, has no difference of termination to 
mark the gender, either in substantivi-s or adjec- 
tive* : all inanimate things are neuter, and ani- 
nwtl of difftrenl sexes eitlier have ililTerenl 
M, or are diitmguuhed by certain words, 
Idcnoting male and femalf. 

The Persian suhstAntivcs, like ours, have but 
one variation of case, which is formed by adding 
k certain syllable to the nuininati>e in both nuin> 
brrs; and answer* olVen to the datitr, but gene- 
rally to the accusative case in other languogts. 
^When the accusative is osvd indefinitely, this 
jrlUble is moiited ; but when the noun is defl- 
lile or limited, that syllable is added to it. In 
Lrrrsian ther,' is no genitive case ; but when iwo 

I .iih/.i;,,.!,.,., of diflerci ' • ■■>'■'■ 1 1.-- 

■ liorl «, is .1 

i», .tiid iIh- ' _ _; >-,;_^. 

The same rule must he observed before a pro- 
noun possessive, and before an adjective. Tb* 
other cases are expressed, for the most part, 
in our language, by particles placed before 
nominative. Our article a is supplied in Pe 
by adding the letter ya, or as it is sounde<l 
a noun, which restrains it to the singular : 

The Persian plural is formed by addi i 

tain characters for syllables to the singular ; but 4 
these terminations are not, as in many languagei^ ■ 
wholly arbitrary ; on the contrary, they «re re- U 
gulated with the utmost precision. It must DM •( 
be omitted that the Arabic substantives (tf 4 
qoently have two sorts of plurals : one foi unj j ^ 
according to the analogy of the Persian novof, ■ 
and another after the irregular manner of 
Arabians; and this circumstance, besides seveni 
others, proves the impossibility of learning llic 
Persian language accurately, without a mi 
knowledge of the Arabic: and Sir ~ 
Jones advises the learner to peruse with 
the Arabic grammar of Erpenius, of whii 
are two tine editions, one by Golius, and 
ther by Albert Schultens, before be atteiD| 
translate a Persian manuscript. 

The Persian adjectives admit of no 
but in the degrees of comparison. The 
is made comparative by adding to it one 
ler for a syllable, and superlative by ro< 
another. An adjective is sometimes used': 
stantively, and forms its plural like a noiia 
It be a compound adjective, llie syllables 
ing the plural number and the oblique 
placed at the end of it. 

The personal pronouns are, i,men,l; 
sing. men. I ; plur. ma, we ; obi. mcra, ine, 
us. 2. To, thou: thus, sing. (», thou 
thumd, you or ye ; obi. ttaa, thee ; tAu/»' 
3. 0,he: thus, sing, o, he, she, or it ; \>\«i 
they; obi. tVa, him, her, or it; ithnnm. ■.!.> n 
The possessives art the same with the i" 
and are distinguished by being added ' 
substantives. Uur reciprocal pronouns, < 
ic//', are expressed in Persian by ccruiin u .rii •, 
which arc applicable to all persons an<l - \. ■ 
For the demonstrative pronouns f/iii, llir 
thoie, in the several cases singular, plu 
oblique, there are appropnatc characters uc sx- 
pressions. Certain syllables prefixed to fww* 
nouns porsonal change thero into nos~. 
and arc read with a shon vowel. Tnc ; 
and interrogatives are supplied by the m' 
pronouns Ay and the ; of which the foi 
ally relates to persons, and the latter to 

The Persians have active and neuter .__ 
like other nations; but many of their veitei 
both an active and neuter sense, which 
del«>'rinine<l only by the conslruciion. 
verb* have properly but one conjugation, 
but ihrve changes of tense, the iin(>criiivr, the 
Borml, and the preterite: all the olln ■ 
being formed by titc help of certain pan 
of the auxiUiary verbs signifying to bt, .i 
viUuift- The passive voice la foiined b> 
t' I ■( tlie verb substantive to the i>jirt: 

I ' nf the active. Our author DU 

. .... iiillcxiKiis of the iiutdiary vrrt>«, 
ilytis of all the trnsrs uf a Pitsun 
... ;r2 m what mannct tlicy are deduced 




Iwc, «kidk is properly considered by 
te^Mil fTmnmuriaiit as the spring and foun- 
aa tf iH Ute moods and tenses, and which, 
teMn, ia Arabic is called llie masdar, or the 
a^B. TW Peniaos are very fond of the par- 
a^ fnftrtVt ; and it is very often used by 
tm 4^*at wDten to connect the members of 
(■■■■at. mud to suspend the sense till the close 
d» )i^ ottioA. In poetry it sometimes is used 
Hi At lascd person preterite of a verb. Our 
■Aor has lobjotoed a table of the moods and 
■■■k ■■ tkey answer to those of European Ian- 
la tiK snaent langrnage of Persia there were 
tvy frw at DO irregularities : the imperative, 
«tin ■ o&Rt irre^lar in the modem Persian, 
■w laaMBliy fonaed from the in6nitive, by re- 
^amf ikc lensiration ttden ; for oriipnally all 
■^■■iscs coded in den, till the Arabs introduced 
ttBVftaolleonaoiMDts before that syllable, which 
^S^i Am Pcisians, who always affected a 
•■■MaeES ot ncomincialion, to change the old 
MiHHiaoa of some verbs into ten, and by de- 
^■■ft Aa oeqioal infinitives grewqtiite obsolete,' 

2^tj abU retain the ancient ioperatives, and 
anats «htcb are formed from them. This 
Cl^ invirvl'nty is the only anomalous part of 
^m ^tiii^ language, which, nevertheless, far 
Moaaa ta simplicity all other languages, as Sir 
VAaa Jooes nys, ancient or modem, of which 
Ak^k aaj knowledge. 

Um of At chief beauties of the Persian lan- 

na dM frequent nse of compound adjectives; 
variMy and elegance of which it surpasses 
■M m^kf tkc German and English but even the 
CmA. Tbcae compounds are thought so beau- 
flU kj' ibttr poets that they sometimes fill a 
dtirii «nlh Ibem. 

1W eafMnclion of the Penian tongue is very 
^mf, lad mtj be reduced to a few rules, most 
WabMJi ithas in common with other languages. 
1W aoainMive is usually placed before (he verb, 
«A«h>cfa It agreef in number and person. It 
• icaarkeil, however, that many Arabic plurals 
n ■■mill 11 1 in Persian as nouns of the singu- 
^ aasibet, and agree as such with verbs and 
i^annvs. Asother irregularity in the Persian 
qatts is, ikst the cardinal numbers are usually 
^Hiri ta Bomf and verbs in the singular. The 
l^iliii m placed after its substantive, and the 
piwaiaK Mwo is prefixed to that which it go- 
Mnt. Coatanctions which eipress conjecture, 
iMidaosi, win, motive, &c., ret]uirethe conjunc- 
Tf/OtnttM maod. Prepositions and inter- 
ar« fixed to nouns in the nominative 
Tha modem Persians borrowed their 
laatat** from the Arabs, and tliey are 
mtjttkaat and complicated, 

IW PtaMtt deity diir*!rs only in its length 
fc^ A» ada, except that (he cassideh often turns 
^aa ioAy sabjects, and the gatal comprises for 
iitmart aart ike praises of love and merriment, 
■a iW Hfhtrr ooes of Horace and Anacreon. 
tt WHIiaa Jooes, among other numerous trans- 
ferittaa, las pvea us a translation ia verse of a 
taaBtaMPcnbasongbyHafiz. Butwe must now 
MiMM mnelTes with referring to the close of 
fir WiDaa) Jooes's Penian Grammar, or to his 

Works, vol. 5, for further information on thest 
interesting topics. 

PERSIAN Wheei.. See Htdhostatics. 

PEIISICA, the peach, is by Li uncus referred 
to the same class and genus with amygdalui ; 
however, as they are reckoned different genera, 
by Touraefort and others, we shall here mention 
the three principal species of the persica most 
remarkable for the beauty of their flowers. 1. 
P. Africana, the double-flowering dwarf almond. 

2. P. humilis, the dwarf almond. These two 
reach not above the height of three or four feet, 
though their flowers are of equal beauty with tlie 

3. P. vulgarii, the common peach tree, with 
double flowers. It is a very great ornament in 
gardens, producing very large double flowers of 
a beautiful red or purple color, and growing to 
a considerable size. Numerous otlier species of 
peach trees, with their culture, tises. Sec, are de- 
scribed under AvTGnAt.vs. 

PKRSICARIA, in botany. See PoLYCo»t!>r. 

PERSICU.M Makz, or Pehsici's SI^Ds, in 
ancient geography, a part of the sea which the 
Romans called .Mare Robmm, and the Greeks 
Mare Erjthraum ; washing Arabia Felix on the 
east, between which and Carmania, entering into 
the land, it washes Persia on the south. Its large 
mouth consists of straight sides, like a neck, and 
then tlie land retiring equally a vast way, and 
the sea surrounding it m a large compass of 
shore, there is exhibited the figure of a human 
bead (Mela). Theophrastus calls this bay Sinus 

PERSIMON. See Diospyros. From the 
persimon is made a very palatable liquor in the 
following manner: — As soon as the fruit is ripe 
a sufficient quantity is gathered, which is very 
easy, as each tree is well stocked with them. 
These persimon apples are put into a dough of 
wheat or other flour, formed into cakes ; and 
put into an oven, in which they continue till 
they are quite baked and sufficiently dry, when 
they are taken out again : then, in order to brew 
the liquor, a pot full of water is put on the fire, 
and some of the cakes are put in : these become 
soft by degrees as the water grows warm, and 
crumble in pieces at last ; the pot is then taken 
from the fire, and the water in it well stirred 
about, that the cakes may mix with it: this is 
then })oured into another vessel, and they con- 
tinue to steep and break as many cakes as are 
necessary for a brewing: the majt is then in- 
fused, and they proceed as usual with the brew- 
ing. Beer thus prepared is reckoned much pre- 
ferable to other beer. They likewise niake 
brandy of this fruit in the following manner : 
Having collected a sufficient quantity of persi- 
mons in autumn they are altogether put into a 
vessel, where they lie for a week till they are 
quite soft ; then they pour water on them, and 
in that state they are left to fisrment of them- 
selves, without any addition. The brandy is 
then made in the common way, and is said to be 
very good, especially if grapes (in particular of 
the sweet sort), which are wild in tlie woods, 
be mixed with the i)ersimon fmit. Some persi- 
mons are ripe at the end of September, but 
mo>l of them later, and some not before Novem- 




bet and December, when the cold first over- 
conses their acrimony. The wood of this tree is 
very ^ood for joiners instruments, such as planes, 
handles to chisels, &c., but if after being cut 
down it lies exposed to sunshine and lain, it is 
the first wood which rots, and in a year's time 
there is nothing left but what is useless. When 
the persimon trees get once into a field, they 
are not easily got out of it again, as they spread 

PBRSIS, a Roman lady, whom St. Paul sa- 
lutes in his epistle to the Komans (xvi. 12), and 
calls his beloved sister. She is not honored by 
any church,- which is something singular. 

Persis, in ancient geography, a province of 
Persia, bounded by Media, Carmania, Susiana, 
and the Persian Gulf. It is used by some au- 
thors for Persia itself. 
PERSIST, t>. B. -J Lat. persitto ; Vt.per- 
Persist'ance, n. I. ttuter. To persevere; 
Pehsist'ency, < continue firm; not to 

Persist'ive, ad;. J desist: the noun sub- 
stantive and adjective follow these senses. 

Thou thinkest me as far in the devil's book, as 
thou and Falstaff, for obduracy and fenitttney. 

The protractive tiyals of ^reat Jove, 
To find ftrtiuive coDttancy m men. Id. 

The love of God better can consist with the inde- 
liberate commiuions of many sioi, than with an al- 
lowed peniitatue in any one. 

Gotemment of Iht Tmgm. 
If they ptniti in pointing their batteries against 
particular penoos, oo laws of war forbid the making 
reprisals. Aiditm. 

Notbiag can make a man happy but that which 
fchall last as long as he lasts : for an immortal soul 
sliall peniil in b«mg, not only when profit, pleasure, 
and honour, but when time itself sbaJl cease. 


PERSIUS Flaccus (AuIus), a Latin poet in 
the reign of Nero, celebrated for his satires. He 
was bom, according to some, at Volterra in Tus- 
cany ; and, according to others, at Tigulia, in 
the gulf of Specia, in the year 34. lie was 
educated till twelve years old at Volterra; and 
afterwards at Rome, under Palsemon the gram- 
marian, Virginius the rhetorician, and Comutus 
the stoic, who contracted a friendship for him. 
Persius consulted that illustrious friend in the 
composition of his verses. Lucian also studied 
with him under Comutus ; and was so charmed 
with his verses that be was incessantlv breaking 
out into acclamations at the beautiful passages 
in his satires. He was a steady friend, a gm)d 
■on, an affectionate brother and parent. He was 
cluute, meek, and modest: which shows how 
wrong it is to judge of a man merely by his 
writings ; for the satires of Persius are not only 
licentious, but sharp and acrimonious. Peniua 
was of a weak constitution, and troubled with a 
weak stomach, which was the cause of his death 
in the thirtieth year of his age. Six of bis sa- 
tires remain ; in their judgments of which the 
critics have been much divided, excepting as to 
their obscurity. Yet his style is grand, figura- 
tive, poetical, and suitable to the dignity of the 
stoic philosophy : and hence he shines mo>t in 
rcconimendins virtue. 

PER'SON, n. t. 
Per'sonable, atff. 
Per'sonaoe, n. t. 
Peb'sonal, at^. 

Fr. pertomie; ItaL 
Span, and Lat.|>enoaa, 
Ail individual human 
being; see the extiadi 

woma& considered as 
opposed to, or distinet 
from, things; or couh 

Persoual'ity, n. «. [from Locke; a man or 


Person i fic a'tiok, 

PERS0^'lFY, V. a. 

dered as present; one's own self, appeantnoe^ 
character, or ofiice ; in grammar, a quality of tbc 
noun which modifies the verb : personable meaiH 
of good or handsome person ; graceful : personage 
(Fr. personage), a considerable or eminent ptf 
son ; exterio.' character or appearance ; statute : 
personal belonging to a human being; proper 
to an individual ; present ; real ; corporeal ; ex- 
ternal ; ill law, that which is moveable or sap> 
{)osed appendant to the person ; not real ; not 
and : in grammar, a personal verb is that which 
has all the regular modifications of the three per- 
sons ; opposed to an impersonal one, that bat 
only the third : personality is individuality ; ia- 
dividual existence ; it is also used in modem 
parlance for personal reflection or remark : per- 
sonally follows the senses of personal : to per- 
sonate is represent ; pass for a given or supposed 
person ; hence pretend ; counterfeit ; represent ai 
m a picture ; describe : but tlie last senses ate 
disused : personation is used by Bacon for coon- 
terfeiting another's person: personification 15, ia 
rhetoric, prosopopasia, the change of things to 
persons, as ' Confusion heard his voice :' to per- 
sonify is, thus to change a thing, or give it |jef^ 
sonal attributes. 

Him that accepteth not the persont of priaces, nor 
leganlelb the rich mora than the poor. y«i. 

Uorus the more blushed at her smiliag, and iba 
the more smiled at his blushing ; because he had, 
with the remembrance of that plight he was in, 
forgot ia speaking of himwlf the third ftrum. 

It was a new sight fortune had prepared to thoat 
woods, to see these great penonagn thus ran oaa 
after the other. /<<. 

All things are lawful unto me, salth the apostle, 
•peaking, an it seemeth, in the ;»r»m of the Cbristiaa 
gentile for the maintenance of hberty in things ia* 
different. Htott. 

Every man to termed byway oifenonal diSereaoe 
obIv. Id. 

ApprobatioD not only they give, who fnomaUf 
declare their assent by voice, sign, or ac<, but alaa 
when othen do it in their names. Id. 

If I am traduced by tongues which neither know 
My faculties nor permii ; 
Tu but the fate of place, and the rough brake 
That virtue must go through. S/ukiptmn. 

For her own ptmm. 
It beggared all description. Id, 

I then did use the pmoii of your father ; 
The image of his power lay then in me : 
And in the administration of his law. 
While I was busy for the commonwealth. 
Your faighneM pleated to forget my place. Id> 
She hath made compare 
Between our statures, tlie hath urged hit height 
And with her penoitmgt, her tall ptrtonugr, 
She hath prevailed with him. Id* 

For my part, 
I know no prm'iwf cause to spurn at him ; 
Hut fur tlie general. Id. Jutiui Ctnat 

PER 41 

Hi bf nMt llMi ila atoeot king 

iks *•• ftiwrntl io the Irish war. 

r deliver to her 
me, bnt by her wooian 

id. Henry Vllt. 
r tadmi finmln Ibee. Shaktptart. 

k Atakiaf wkat I tball say ; it mtul be a yr- 
a latlre aAinst the softBeu of 
I Ikat her son N'inias bad such a sia- 
amis, who was very ptnonub't, 
I far hisi : yet it is ualikcly that she 
I IIm empire forty-two years after by 
■iaed the fight for a small tiow, 
I ahewed no want of courage. 

1 I [ nr jWM i t to make a war by my lieute- 
1l0Qm ■nrhnhnn the*^eof to you by my chan- 
vm Iktt I meao to make a war upon 
a, I will declare it to you myself. 

Id. H«iry Yll. 
it »p9earance upon the stage, in his 
■ ajniphaot or juggler instead of his 
IBVM af • priooe, he was exposed to the 
rf tte osvrlier* and the coounon people. 


n-tal hatred to the bouse of Lancas- 
Hy to the king. Id. 

BO* to ftTKinait one, tlial had been 
oat of his cradle, but a youth that 
kt on is a court, where inlinitc eyes 
bin. ii- 

me of the strongest examples of a 
mr was, it deserveth to be discovered 
the fall. Id. 

«t kind not ftrmmal, 
tA bandiury was. Davits. 

an the ftrmn not of a robber and 
•f a Initor to the state. tfai/u'unJ. 
was 8arce in courage, courtly in 
ip stately, in voice magnificent, 
i|ity of matter. Id. 

• aaajr (a research the actions of eminent 
bow aaicii they have blemished by the 
harm, aiad what was corrupted by their own 

■ whtJa she lays aside, and makes 
fartmmt* a mortal part. 6'riu'iair, 

ta m i j Tf ■ * to that ferumated devotion un- 
'j ktiKl ot impiety is disguised. Hamm. 
1 ^aved with the dosmalisl in a per- 
■eaaoa.' OUmilWt Serpiit. 

Ikaa llw cbuich which was daily in- 
tn Ika addiaoD of other pertoni received into 


and act a part long ; for, 
la aot al Ibc bottom, nature will always 

to rMnm, and will peep out and 

! tin* or other. T^iUotwn, 

■rt alooe thai you most reign ; 
her f ftmm diScnII to gain. Drydtn. 
laagia Hrans vwils all around, 
Ito Stt ncfc, coogtatolates the sound, 
Ma br thrice three days a royal feast. Jd. 
■■ ia a Ihmking intelligent being, that has 
tA ufcc liao. and can consider itself as it- 
la saaa thiakiog thing in different times and 

lyailiiat «f himielf in the first pfrxm singular 
I laiiaai i«in"uigs, his use of the first ftrim 
a milk |natBr latitude. Id. 


It could not mean, that Cain as elder had a na- 
tural dominion over Abel, for tba words are condi- 
tional ; if tliou doest well : and so perumii to Cain. 

Penan belongs only to intelligent agents, capable 
of a law, and happiness and misery : tnis ptrmnalily 
extends itself beyond present existence to what is 
past, only by consciousness, whereby it imputes to 
Itself past actions, just upon the same ground that 
it does the present. Id, 

A zeal for penoiu is far more easy to be parverted, 
than a zeal for things. Spml. 

How ditTerent is the same man from himself, as ha 
sustains the persnii of a magistrate and that of a 
friend 1 Smth. 

The great diversion is masking ; the Venetians, 
naturally |^ve, love to ^ive iulo tlie follies of such 
seasons, when disguised in a false ptnvnagt. 

l*his heroic constancy determined him to desire in 
marnage a princess, whose penonal charms were now 
become the least part of her character. Id. 

Our Saviour in his own perton, during the time of 
his humiliation, duly observed the Sabbath of the 
fourth commaadment, and all other legal rites and 
observations. White. 

This immediate andprrnma/ speaking of God Al- 
mighty to Abraham, .lob, and Moses, made not all 
bis precepts and dictates, delivered in this manner, 
simply and eternally moral ; for some of them were 
penonal, and many of them ceremonial and judicial. 

Public reproofs of sin are general, though by lliis 
they lose a great deal uf their effect ; but in private 
conversations the applications may be more penonal, 
and the proofs when so directed come home. 

The converted man u pemmally the same he wM 
before, and is neither born not created a-new in a 
proper literal sense. Id. 

To that we owe the safety of our permni and the 
propriety of our possessions. Atlertmni, 

It has been the constant practice of the .lesuits to 
send over emissaries, with instructions to penomtf 
themselves members of the several sects amuugst us. 

Some persons must be found out, already known 
by hislvry, whom we may make tlie actors and prr- 
ionogn of this fable. Bruome. 

Be a perum't attainments ever so great, he should 
always remember that he is God's creature. Clariuu. 

If he imagines there may be no penonal pride, 
vain fondness of themselves, in those that are patched 
and dressed out with so much gbtter of art or orna- 
ment, let him only make the experiment. Law. 

These fables Cicero pronounced, under the per- 
Hm of Crasaus, were of more use and authority than 
all the books of the philosopher. Ba^er on Leaminy. 
Sir Robert Walpolc rewarded him with twenty 
guineas -, a much greater sum than he afterwards 
obtained from a penon of yet higher rank. Johnim, 

His works arc such as » writer bustling in the world, 
showing himself in public, and emerging occasion- 
ally from time to time into notice, might keep alive 
by his pertonal influence. Id, 

Is it pwssible, gentlemen, that ptntmi of so acute 
unilerstandings as those who were arrayed against 
me to-day, should not see, that if a minister ought 
not to be a member of parliament, the converse 
would be e<]ually true, ilint the crown ought not 
to choose a member of parliament for its minister ! 
And what would be the consequence 1 Canning. 
I'f.rson, in grammar, is applied to such nouns 
or pronouns as, being either prefixed or und'.t 



•tood, are the nominatives in all inflections of a 
verb ; or it is the agent or patient in all finite or 
personal verbs. See Ekclish Language. 

Pf.R50N4L Amoji, in law, ij an action levied 
directly and solely against the person ; in oppo- 
I sition to a real or mixed action. See Actios. 

PtasoNAi. Goods or Chattels, in law, sig- 
nifies any moveable thing belonging to a person, 
I t»hethcr alive or dead. See Chattels. 

PEllSONAT/E, the fortieth order in Lin- 

nsiis's Fragments of Natural Method, consisting 

of plants whose flowers arc furnished with an 

irregular gaping or grinning petal, which in figure 

somewhat resembles the snout of an animal (see 

Botany, Index). Most of the genera of this 

I order are arranged under the class and order 

I didyiuunia angiospermia. The rest, although 

I'they cannot enter into that artificial class and 

order, for want of the classic character, the ine- 

' quality of the stamina; yet, in a natural method, 

I trhich admits of greater latitude, may be arranged 

with those plants which they re.««mble in their 

ktbit and general appearance, and particularly 

in the circumstances expressed in that title. 

Peksonificatiox, Pcbsokiftinc, or I'Enso- 
■ ALisiNG, the giving an inanimate being the 
figure, sentiments, and language of a person. 
See Oratory. IJr. Blair, in his Lectures on 
Khetoric, gives this account of personification. 
* It Ls a figure the use of which is very enten- 
sive, and its foundation laid deep in human 
nature. At first view, and when considered 
abstractedly, it would appear to be a figure of the 
utmost boldness, and to border on the extrava- 
gant and ridiculous. For what can seem more 
remote from the tract of reasonable thought than 
to speak of stones and trees, and fields and nvers, 
as if they were living creatures, and to attribute 
to them thought and sensation, aflcctions and 
actions ? One might imagine this to bn no more 
than childuih conceit, which no person of taste 
could relish. In fiiQj, liowever, the case is very 
(Ufferent. No such ridiculous eflect b produced 

by personification when properly employed; 
the contrary, it b found to be natural and i _ 
able, nor is any very uncommon degree of j 
sion required in order to make us relish it. 
poetry, even in its most gentle and humble fonii% • 
abounds with it. From prose it is far d ' 
ing excluded; nay, in common con> 
very frequent approaches are made to it- 
we say, the ground thirsts for rain, or the tuA 
smiles with plenty ; when we speak of ambitM 
being restless, or a disease being deceitfiil ; i 
expressions show the fiicility with which 
mind can accommodate the properties of liriiig 
creatures to things that are inanimate, or to a^ 
stract conceptions of its own forming.' IW 
Doctor goes on to investigate the nature of per- 
sonification at considerable length. And he M<1f 
a very proper caution respecting the use of it in 
prose compositions, in which this figure Teqoina ^ 
to be used with great moderation and delKS^. , 
The same liberty is not allowed to the imagiai^ ^ 
tion there as in poetry-. The same assistancM | 
cannot be obtained for raising passion to iia . 
proper height by the fort^ of numbers and tha 
glow of style. However, addresses to inanimate 
objects are not excluded from prose ; but haaa 
their place only in the higher species of oraM]r» 
A public speaker may on some occasiooi rmf 
properly address religion or virtue ; or his n^ 
tive country, or some city or province, which 
has suflere^l perhaps great calamities, or hm 
been (he scene of some memorable action. BtrtTj, 
we must remember that, as such addressa H|r 
among the highest efforts of eloquence, lbt|^ ' 
should never be attempted unless by pcnona tt 
more than ordinary genius : for if the nnMnf ' 
fails in his design of moving our passions by 
them, he is sure of being laughed at. I >f ail 
frigid things, the most frigid art* the awkwaid ' 
and unseasonable attempts sometimes made 1^ ' 
wards such kinds of jiersouification, especial!} i£ 
they be long continued.' ' 


PERSPECTIVE, B. «. Fr. ^iftttif; Lat. 
YBtrtpicia. A glass through which objects are 
l^ewed ; llie view taken: toe Kieoce of delineat- 
ling objects on a plane. 

W» h»y<< fmtfuriin boons, wbara we maka de- 
I BmnttratioDi of all lights sod radiatiom ; and out of 
[ things unrolnuivd (iid tnntparaot, we can rapmtot 
Lbnto yvn all arparatt colours. Btvn, 

I If It t«od to clanger, lh<-y turn about llw ffriprtiin 
I And abow it ao little, that Iw can scarce discern it. 

It may import n« in thia claim, to hrarWn to the 
stufDui ruiag abroad ; and by tlie \tK\\ pmft<cinm, 
to iliM"^.' if^'."' what coa»l lliry tjreak. Trmplr_ 
^ :;laM, liut turn ihr fMrrptctinr, 

Ami : lite liMMen«d ulijrct drive. 

Lofty tree*, with aacT«d ahailna. 
And fmpteiivtt of {ileaasat tladcs, 
Whtni Bvoipha uf brightcu tocm tpMar. U. 
Medal* Mvt rcpraaaala4 iMr batldlap leeordiBg 
•» tlM ratM at p iyt nlu . AHitm on UtiUU. 

Faith for reisoo'i glimmering light shall gi«a 
Her imiDortal prrtptciivi. Pi' 

How richly were my noon-tide tiancei bang 
With gorgeous tipestrica of pictured joys ! 
Joy bctiinii joy, io endlcaa pmfmiitT .' Yn 

PrasPECTiVE is a bmndi of the science 
optics which teaches how to represent th« o^ 
jects of vision on ■ plane surface. 

Vitruvius says that the first who wrote a tn^ 
tiie on this subject was Agathareus, a disciploif | 
/iMhylua, and tlial silbsvquently his pnndpkg. 
were elucidated and improved by DemocnMlB 
anil Atiinagora*. None of these treatwM of thv 
riti, how»'Vfr, have come d<ii% • l^'m 

It is to the revival of pu; -.[y 

' ■' I "^n»a 

' V Io that 

■' -.^ | la tlw 

'' Tes. 

Ill Alhaicn, who flourialMd 
about tlie year lioo, should not bt omitui, 



Imnfis, <a our catalogue of writen. Roger 
llaat alet hu work, and treats hiuuelf od the 
abpB «t<lt crcdiuble accuracy. 

iW mtiitat wiitft whose rtilei of perijjec- 

!■■ flfme t* Peter del Bor^, an Italian, who 

Ma 1443. He kuppoicd obj«ctj to be placed 

tifmi * tr^ojparent ubiet, and endeavoured to 

^B tkt iimn^iii which nji of light, emitted 

taa^MM, <»CHi]d make upon it. VVKat .success 

I llterf a lina attempt we know not, as hU book 

I im sabjact has perished. It 19, however, 

' I cooimeixled by the famous Ignatius 

riatr: omL, apoo the principles of Bonco, Al- 

■BT Ooicr constructed a macbine, by which be 

mM aac* the penpective appearance of ob- 

Baitlauar Perusu studied the writings 

fBoifo, tod cnd^vouted 10 make them more 

"■ " " To him we owe the discovery of 

of lUstance, to wliicb all lutes that make 

•a vfle o' -li" with the ground line are drawn. 

S(*C loaK aAer. anotlter Italian, Cuido L'Ibaldi, 

«k«««d tfaal all the lines that are parallel to one 

^bAs, if cbey be inclined to the ground line, 

mmftt^ M some point in the horizontal line, 

ami Ikat Aniegh this point al^o a line drawn 

%^m Ae rft, {Mfatlel to litem, will pass. These 

ftmti^^aa pu wither enabled him to make out 

a pmuy ooo^lrlc tbcory of perspective. 

^a mvrk vas pwbli^eil at resaro in 1600, 
^■rf maf ba aud to hare contained the funda- 
Mrt&d pnaofiia of the >yst«m of Gravesande 
md Ur. BruiA Taylor ; tli« outline, in fact, of 
aoly «jsii-m Morth Uie itudent's attention. 
' 10 u a science of the first importance 
br is not, at tite same lime, 10 be 
r CBofiiied to Its rule^. Nolhiog, indeed, 
be parmiitid to tie up his hands or 
l^aatiu; en the contrary, he should be 
Hj al liberty to express his idea with one 
of it» pencil ; aiid, as Fresnoy advises, 
aaes be rather in his eye.s than in 
. that way let him measure dis- 
»ary object by cnmparison — the princi- 
■t lahtch he thould own. If he is well 
with the principles of his art, he will 
> at liar dry riles 01 geometry, while his 
' > r.-t all the chief parts of his pic- 
.-cd with the whole, and, when 
^a I* anaaged, Uieu correct all tliose 
'» require it by the laws of per- 

1 vkBc, on (he one band, we arc antious 

the atiideiw aninst dwelling too much 

low mcchanicsu parts of his interesting 

aniatt un lh« uthfr, strive to impress on 

I that d knowledge and an un- 

mOti'- ' important branch of 

oaly t li>:ibl« but inJispensahle. The 

Mf of il ibiiuKl, indeed, go hand in hand 

^ itai oC anBlomjr, as oot less fundamental 

He fooSoHf of an object tlrawn upon paper 
V awna lepKocots nothing more than such 
^mtaMBAtao of (lie visual rays sent from the 
■■■MjCi of it to the eye as would arise on a 

tpq* in the pU(* of the paper or canvas. 
. (he ntoaliuo of an object al the other aide 
¥» Cb*a W-inf finrn. die dclinealinn of it in 
fc ^tai iuelf rfqmils entirely on the situation 

of the eye on this side of the glass ; in other 
words, on the rules of perspective. 

To understand these, suppose a person al a 
window looks through an upright pane of glass 
at any object beyond it, and keeping his head 
steady, draws the figure of the object upon the 
glass with a black lead pencil, as if the point of 
the pencil touched the object itself; he would 
then have a true representation of the object in 
perspective as it appears to his eye. 

To do this, let the glass be laid over with 
strong gum water, which, when dry, will be fit 
for drawing upon, and will retain the traces of 
the pencil ; and then let the student look through 
a small hole in a lliin plate of metal, fixed about 
a foot from the glass, between it and his eye, 
and keep his eye close to the hole ; otherwise he 
might stiiA the position of his head, and con- 
sequently make a false delineation of the object. 

AAer trarine out the figure of the object, he 
may go over it again with pen and ink ; and, 
when that is dry, put a sheet of paper upon it, 
and trace it thereon with n pencil ; then taking 
away the paper and laying it on a table, he may 
finish the picture by giving it the colors, lights, 
and shades, as he sees them in tlie object, of 
which he will now have a true resemblance. 

To such as have a general knowledge of the 

Jirinciplcs of optics, this must be self-e*ident : 
br as vision is occasioned by pencils of rays 
coining; in straight lines to the eye from every 
point of the visible object, it is plain that, by 
joining the points in the transparent plane, through 
which all pencils resjMvtively pass, an ex- 
act representation must be formed of the object 
as il appears to the eye in thai particular position, 
and at that determined distance ; and could pic- 
tures of things be always first drawn on trans- 
parent planes, this simple operation, with the 
principle on which it is foundt^, would comprise 
the whole theory and practice of perspective. 
As this, however, is far from being the case, rules 
must be deduced from the sciences of optics 
and geometry for drawing representations of vi- 
sible objects on opaque planes ; and the applica- 
tion of these rules constitutes what is properly 
called the art of persjieclive. 

Before we lay down the further principles of 
this art, it is proper to observe, that when a per- 
son stands directly opposite to the middle of one 
end of a long avenue, which is straightand equally 
broad throughout, the sides thereof seem to ap- 
proach nearer to each other in jiroportion as they 
are farther from his eye ; or the angles, under 
which their different parts are seen become gra- 
dually less, accordinc as the distance from his 
eye increases ; and, if the avenue be very lone, 
the sides of it at the farthest end seem to meet : 
and there an object that would cover the whole 
breadth of the avenue, and be of a height equal 
to that breadth, would appear only to be a mere 

Having made these preliminary observations, 
we DOW proceed to 

Sect. I.— Defikitiors of the Terms vsed im 

I . The horizoulal line fs that line snpposet? 'o 
be drawn parallel to the horizon tltrough liie tyc 



of die specUlor : or lather, it U a line which 
.•epaniles the heiven from the earth, and which 
)iiniu the sight. Thus A and B, plate Priisptc- 
)ive, fig. 1, are two pillars below the horizontal 
line C 1), because the eye is elevated above them ; 
On fig. 2 they are said to be equal with it; and 
fig. 3 raised above it. Thus, acconling to the 
lifferent points of view, the objects will be either 
higher or lower than the hori2ontal line. 

2. The poin< of iiglil \, fig. 4, is that which 
makes the centrical ray on the horizontal line a b ; 
or it is the pomt where ail the other visual rays 
'i, I), unite. 

3. The poinU of dutanre C, C, fig. 4, are 
oints set otf in the horizontal line at equal dis- 
mres on each side of the [Mjiiit of sight A. 

4. And in the same d^ire B B represents the 
r line m Jumiumental lint. 

5. E E i» the alirutfrncnt of the square, of 
»hlcli I), D, are the tiJcu. 

6. F, i'', the diagonat lines which go to the points 
pf distance C, C 

7. Acciilfnial fxiinls are those where the objfects 
od ; these may be cast negligently, because nei- 

JjUier drawn to the point of sight, nor to those of 
di!ii»nce,bul meeting each other in the hoiizonlal 
line. For example, two pieces of square timber, 
IC and 11, fig. .'), make the points I, I, I, I, on llie 
[horizontal line ; but go neither to the point of 
Might K, nor to the points of distance C, C ; 
llhese accidental |x>ints wrve likewise for case- 
IBienLi, iloors, wimlows, tables, chairs, &c. 

d. The /Hiint of dirtd viiw, or of the front, is 
klolieii we have the object directly before us ; in 
Iwhich cajse it shows only the fore side ; and, if 
l{>elow the horizon, a little of the top ; hut nothing 
' the Hides, unless the object be polygonous. 

9. The point of oblique view is when we see 
Isn object aside of us and as it were aslant, or 

■ with the cornet of our eye ; the eye, however, 
Itieing all the while opposite to the point of sight ; 
|i>i which we see the object laterally, and it 

tirescnti to us two sides or faces. The practice 

the tame in the side points as in the front 

aints ; a point of sight, points of distance, Stc, 

(;ing laid down iu the one as well as in the other, 

10. Projection delineates objects in piano by 
(Kieans of right lines called rays, supposed to be 

irawn from every angle of the subject, to par- 
Iticulor points. W hen the objects are angxilar, 
|tlio»« rays nccf^sarily form pyramids, having the 
Iploneorsuperficies whence they proceed for their 

■ Datis; hut, when drawn from or to circular ob- 
i», they form « cone. 
U. tckno^ruphi), or ichnographic projection, 

lb descnbed by riglit lines parallel among tliem- 
ilves and |»'r|H-iidiciiUr to tjie horiton from 
ft ' iif every object, on « i ' illcl 

, t' .11 : the iwints wlwrc tlr u- 

rU •:^ ..f — • ' ''■•' •■!:ine U.i.v. ,...1.. .1 by 

1 light linc<. '-don the lioriiontAl 

Iplane it lilk.. .... plan or seat of that 

bjirt on tlie ground plaiif. The jkhhu «r* the 

[»il''i. I'f ^i'.ll». >if llir .lrrj!«» uf tlic- ot)|cOt. The 

1 1 1 we arc 

!■■ ; rcseiitcil 

fL« ftuiHT^ti ' :|>i>o[lcd; and 

we are fur:i uf, indeed to 

lUCktsur*, iJieit let I'tai parts aud tlieir art^a*. 

12. Orthography represents lh« vertical 
tion and appearance of an object ; and hi 
thograpliic projection is trailed the c 
V\ hen we see the front of a house rep; 
we give it that term ; %vhen the side, wc 
nate it the profile. If we suppose a hoi 
other olijpct, to Ik- divided by a plane 
perpendicularly through it in a line 
angles with the point, we call it the li 
tion ; but, if the plane pass in a directitni 
with the front, it is termed a longitudinal 
If the plane pas.<es in neither of the fonni 
rectioDs (not however deviating from the 
it is said to be an oblique section. 

1 3. These afford us the means of laying dtHW 
plans, of showing the parts and the manner m 
which the interiors of edifices are ;i 

sequcntly are indispensable to tli 
surveyor, and indeed should be bin..! 
every individual connected any way ^ 
signing or building. Nor should the f. ... _ 
be neglected ; — namely, iccnoisraphi/, which 
us how •" direct the visual rays to every fioii 
part of a ,.iclure ; and tlerengraphi/, which tnahli 
us to represent solids on a plane, from geometri- 
cal projection ; whence their several dim* nsions, 
viz. length, breadth, and thickness, may all be 
represented, and correctly understood at sighL 

14. An original object is that which beconCi 
the subject of the picture, and is the parent wt 
the design. 

l.'i. Ihiginul planet or linet are the surfaces of 
the objects to be drawn; or they an? any lines of 
those surfaces ; or they are the surfaces on wliiek 
those objects stand. 

16. Pcrtpective plane is the pii iiirc ii«lf^ 
which is supposed to be a traii- 

through which we view the object _u 


17. Vanishing planet are those points 
are marked upon the picture by sn] 
to be drawn from tlie sjiectator's i ! to 
any original lines, and produced until Uii;y touck 
the picture. 

18. Ground plane is the surface of the eaftk, 
or plane of the horizon, on which the picture if 
imaginal to stand. 

19. The ground line is that formed by tlie i^ 
tersection of the picture in the ground plane. 

20. Vaniihing pointt are the points iiwit»i 
down in the picture by supposing lines to ba 
drawn from tne spectator's eye parallel to OAjr 
original lines, and produced until they touch tl« 

21. The centre of a picture is that point M 
the perspective plane where a line drawn from 
the eye perpendicular to the picture would cut 
It; consequently it is that part of ilu- picturl 
which is nearest to the eye of tlie spccintor. 

22. Hie d'ulance of the picture is tluit ftom tlw 
eye to the ifntre of the picture. IT** <li«tar>c« 
of a ^Tinishing point is the distance from die r»« 
of the spectator to that point where the txinrcr^ 
ing lines meet, and, after gradually diinint»luiig 
all die objects which come within ihvir dirvrtHMi 
and pniportion. are reduced «o as, in fact, la 
terminat* in niithiiig. All parallel tines !>•«• 
the same vanishing points; Oiat is to say, all 
sad) %» are, m building, parallel to cacll adMCi 



spot which commands a 

ibling the plane or ichno- 

Thus the view from 

or from a mountain, whence the 

of tbe nriou] objectj on the plane he- 

diminbhed, gives nearly the 

is offered to a bird flying 

hcnoc the term. Some idea of 

bt obCiiDed bjr standing on any heiglit, 

fritif bow low those objeci:> which are 

Mo will appear when compared with 

dnUnl ; taking however the pempec- 

of the latter into consideration. 

Iter las formed a scene in his 

, as is cnstomar}', that the 

§m u m et tliis scene lie close, or almost 

mm Inck of hu canvas, he is, in the 

to 6t on some point on this side of 

•ra* from which he would choose his 

ihmiH b» Kco. Bat in choosing thi<i 

•kick t* called tlie point of ti^hl, regard 

W hoi to its situation to the right or left 

■wtdlr of the canvas ; but, above all 

to its diMance and height with respect to 

tdg* of the canvas ; which edge is 

ifac Iwir line, and is parallel with the 

Udt which passes through the eye. 

ia^ (lie point of sight, and conse- 

intal line, too low, the planes 

6gures stand will appear a great 

as, by assuming it too high, 

appear too steep, so as to render the 

leu light and airy than it ought to be. 

amnott, if the point of ^iglit is taken at 

s Jr<tan' '- -■ ■':■• canvas, Uie Agures 

aM Mlmrt ot' n enough to be 5een 

«Aciai( lii -...^...^ ^ ■ and, if takvn too 

it, dW ifagiu fation will be too <|uiok and 

to liave an agreeable effect. Thus, 

I small attention is 

±i ' point. 

IS tu be placed on high, the 

Id be DisompH low. and »ice 

itui i) >l>! of lb* 


HHCK ngure wiu k«iii to oeu aguost IM MHI ' 
of the foremost, so a? to render die distance be- 
tween them far less perceptible than it would 
otherwise be. The point of sight being fixed, 
according to the situation in which the picture 
is to be placed, the point of dtilanct is next 
to be determined. In doing this a painter should 
carefully attend to three things: — first, that the 
spectator may be able to take in, at one glance, 
the whole and every part of thi composition ; 
secondly, that he may see it dutinctly; and, 
thirdly, that the degradation of the figures and 
other objects of the picture be sufficiently sen- 


1. Let every line which in the object or geo- 
metrical figure is straight, perpendicular, or pa- 
rallel to it<^ base, be so also in its scetiograpnic 
delineations, or in tlie description, in all its di- 
mensions, such as it appears to the eye ; and let 
the lines which in the object return at right an- 
gles from the fore riglit side, be drawn in like 
manner scenOKniphically from the point of sight. 

2. Let all straight lines which in the object 
return from the fore right side, run in a sceno- 
graphic figure, into the horizontal line. 

3. the object you' intend to delineate, 
standing on the nglit liand,be placed abo on the 
right hand of the [Kiint of sight ; that on the left 
hand, on that hand of the i>ame point ; and that 
which is just before, in the middle of it. 

4. Ijei thofe lines which, in the object, are 
equidistant from the returning line, be drawn in 
the scenographic figuie from that poi«t found in 
the horiiun. 

5. In setting off the altitude of columns, pe- 
destals, &c., measure the height fioin the base 
line upward in the front or fore right side ; and 
a visual ray down that |>oint in the front i^ball 
limit the altitude of the column, or pillar, all the 
way behind the front side, or orthographic ap- 
pearance, even to the point of sight, 'tins rule 
must be observed in all figures, as well where 
there is a frooi, or fore tight side, as where there 



more it is diitani either abore or below the hori- 
toii, the squares wilt be so much tlie lar^r or 

9. In dmwiog a perspective figure where many 
lines come together, to direct your eye. draw the 
diagonals in red, the visual lines in black, the 
perpendiculars in green, or any other color 
different from that which you intend the figure 
shall be. 

10. Having contidered the height, distance, 
and position of the figure, and drawn it accord- 
ingly, with its side or angle against the base, 
raise perpendiculars from the several angles or 
designed points, from the figure to the base, and 
transfer ,the length of each perpendicular, from 
the place where it touches the base, to the b,Tse 
on the side opposite to the point of distance. 
lliu.s the diametrals to the perpendiculars in the 
ba»e, by intersection with the diagonals drawn 
to the several transferred distances, will give the 
angles of the fij^res ; and so lines drawn from 
one pomt to another will circumscribe the sce- 
nographic figure. 

11. If in a landscape there be any standing 
waters, »s rivers, ponds, JScc, place the horizontal 
line level with the farthest sight or appearance 
of il. 

12. If there be houses, churches, castles, 
towers, mounU'iins, ruins. Sic, in the land- 
scape, consider their po'iiiion, that you may find 
from what point in the horiionlal lines to draw 
the front an'l 4ides of them in the picture. 

13. In drawing objects at a great distance, 
observe the proportions, both in magnitude and 
distance, in the draught, which appear from the 
object to llie eye. 

14. In coloring and shadowing near objects, 
you must make the same colors and shades in 
your picture which you observe with your eye in 
the liindirape ; but, according as the distance be- 
comes greater, the colors must be fainter, till at 
last they arc gndiially lost in a darkish sky-color. 

Sect. III. — Mecii4Sic*l Ili.i.'strhtions or 
Drawing im PEnspcciivt. 

1. Suppose LI.I) BA, fig. 6, plate Persitc- 
Tivc, a stjuare piece of pavement, coii«isiinc; of 
twenty-five pieces of marble, each a foot »/|ii;ire : 
it mmt 1» mrasureil exactly, and laid re.'ularly 
down upon |>a(>er ; and for the sake of a more 
distinct notion how every particular square will 
appear when you have a true jvrspcctive view 
of them, mark every other stone or marble block ; 
•r else nun' of them as in the figure, 

hich is'li- "quares, *very other one 

which ni.i< '.- i.....<i- to appear black, like the 
rce at the l>oiloin marked UC D : or 1, 3, 3,4, 
' uKich are markeil in tlie [ivr- 
iiiinbert. To lay your plan 
r point of "ight as yoit ob- 
; or nion: or Ic lo ilie right 
th' lit!-- K K p.inllpl to, aod at 

v!a line 

you we, 

■•■fraiDc; ihen iliaw -i liiio iiLini tiic comer K, 
«lkisll i« tlie pniiii f>f ilKtanie. to tlie opp<ii)ii« 
comer I. ; 1 ' ■' nr work. 

How draw I i r lo 

ifcc [>o«nl "i "s""! ■AT ••■>'> a» p<N, ; and. 

EflfltuweQnff to 

, lipiimicti 


ft«r left 



wherever your line of distance cuts thoM 
draw lines parallel lo the line L L, whidi 
give you the squares in perspective, or the 
fijure of every square, 'llius U. in the 
tive plan, anrwers to B in the racatui 
and 1, 2, 3, and 4, answer to their coi 
squares in the same plan. 

To raise either pillars, trees, bouses, or 
other bodies, according to Iheir respective 
at dilTerent distances and proportions, mt 
plan laid down, measure them out in per^ 
into squares of a foot or any other inp:i-i: 
one of these squares, 1, 4, in fig. 7. 
base of a pillar a foot thick. .Mark 
by the scale of the ground plan, iin 
portions or feet; u, i,r, li ; which U 
feet high, and standing on the bast, ..< -.y 
not in perspective. Then draw a line, 4 
rallel to 1 r. Join c and 5, and tlien yoti 
the front of a body three feet high and one 
wide, which is the object yon were to 
From 4 draw a line with a black lead pel 
the point of sight ; and from 3 raise a I. 
rallel to 4 5, till it touches the pencilled "" 
sing from 5 to the point of siglil, which 
you the side appearance of the column or 
as you will see it from the place where you 

Tlien, with a pencil, from r draw a liii. 
point of sight, which will determine the ' 

that bounds the persjicctive view of the ^ , „ 

a-iop. Afterwards from 2 raise a pencillei] line 
parallel to o c or 1 r, till it touches the low 
drawn from c to the point of sight; then dnv 
C 7 parallel lo c 5, and you will iiave the sqin^. 
of the top of the column as observed from iL 
which is supposed to be the place wherv yon 
stand. It is to be oliserved that tlie line drmiia 
from 2 lo 6 is only imaginary, and in consequentK 
IS to lie rubbed out, because, not being seen frooi 
the place where vou stand, it must not a]n>vxi la 
the ilrawin;;. Tfie same may be understood af 
the line drawn from 1 to 3 ; but it is in 1 1 ilMj^ 
that they appear in the draught, as they Aitwtt, 
you how to regulate the lop of your column, aof 
to place it with certainty upon its base. 

l.aslly, finish your column with lines onif^ 
that is, from 1 to c, from 4 to 3, from 3 lo 7. from 
c to 5, from 6 to 7, and from 1 to 4, " 
you will have the true r<^resentation ot 
lumii, as in fig. 8. 

When this is done, you may erect other 
on the other squares in the same manner, 
ing lo fling your shades all on one side, and] 
ing master of these few examples, which 
cost very little trouble, you will find the 
pie of liiem aj'ply to various objet-is. 

For the construction of a camera obscuiv, t. 
l)-irl..n ti... room KK, fig, 10, leaving only ■■ 
n ia the window at V, oo the «i4« 
1 I lie prospect A !)(' I). 3. In this a|irr> 

ture ht a len», either plano-convex, or cooveion 
iKith sides. .1. At a due distance, lo he deter>' 
mined by eipcrience, S]irTad a pajter or wMM 
rioili, unlets there t>« * white wall ; thro on thii» 
C» H, the desirwl objects A BC D will Iw drlirM>- 
aled inverlcdly. 4. If you woukl have tlurm 
a(>p4Mr i-nvU iiliu''' a <oncav« lens between |)m 
rviitn- and ih» focus of the firrt lens, or rfoci** 
ll.e tm-Afr vn a plane •;■.•■•' — iirlinrd to tiM 

M uuiJBU uea ut \.uiuiuj)j iiuiir~ 

— Bi'us A*D Examples ik Sceso- 
akApnii. PcKSPfcCTivE, Jcc. 

die pentagon ABDEF. fig. 1, 

' to be tepre«entetl by the rules 

•o ike tnnsparent plane V P, 

Ijr on ihe horizontat plane 

imaeined to pass from the 

■ck poiol of Ihe pentagon (.'A, C B, 

wkk* tro supposed, in their passage 

plane P V, to leave their trace> or 

BOints u, t, il, inc., on the plane, 

Mlineite the (lentajon a h d ef; 

tbe eve by the same rays that 

>a A B D E F does, will be a 

M p mt ntation of it. 

! fipearance of a tri- 
K . the eye nnd the 

nn- i> I , ivhich is called the 
Uae ; from 2 draw 2 \', representing 
dtttance of the eye above tlie it what it will ; and through 
r^l angles to i V, II K parallel to 
wfll ih* plane PUKE represent the 
plaar. on which the perspective re- 
n to be made. Next, to find the 
poitit* of the angles of tbe triangle, 
rfl pvfpandiculsrs A 1 , C 2, B 3, from the 
■ !■ ue fimdamcntal I) K ; set ofl' these 
tn «pOa the fundamental, opposite 
of iliatwice K, to K.A,C. From 1, 
)atKa to the princifial point V ; and 
poiaU A, B, and C, in the fundamentiil 
m di» ri|rt«t Iinci A K, U K, C K to the 
tmt^tttmet K ; which is so called, beca\isc 
ought to be so far remove<I from 
or puiniing, a< it is distant from 
point V. The points a, b, and c, 
Tl«aal Hoe* V I, V 3, V 3, intersect 
I e/ distance AK, BK, CK, will be 
potota of the triaagle a b c, the true 
of A B C. By proceeding in this 
aopilar poiots of any righl-lioed 

ueieiuiiiHfu. iwj wueiv lu uiciuinuuucuiai in 

let A B be erected perpendicularly, and equal to 
the true altitude ; or, if the figure have different 
altitude, let them be transferred into the iwr- 
pendicular AB; and from the points A ana B, 
and from all the points of intermediate altitudes, 
if there be any such, draw right lines to the |>oint 
of sight V : those lines A V, B \', will constitute 
a triangle with A B, within which all the points 
of altitude will be contained. Through the 

fioints u n m, draw parallels to the fundamental 
ine; and from the points a, a, Sic^ erect pcriitn- 
diculan to those parallels ; and the points where 
they intersect the lines A\', B \', as in o u, A fc, 
8ic., will determine the apparent height of the 
sl)lid in the scenographic position to the eye in 
V. In practice, these parallels and perpendicu- 
lars are easily drawn, by means of a good draw- 
ing board, or table, fitted for the purpose. 

5. To exhibit the perspective of a pavement, 
consisting of square stones, viewed directly: 
divide the side AB, fig. 4, transferred to the fun- 
damental line D E, into as many equal parts as 
there are square stones in one row. From tbe 
several points of division draw right lines to tlie 
principal point V, and from A to the point of 
distance K draw a right line A K, and from B to 
the other point of distance L draw another LB. 
Through the points of the intersections of the cor- 
responding lines draw right lines on each side, to 
be produced to the right lines AV and BV. 
Tlicn will afg 6 be the appearance of the pave- 
ment A FG B. 

6. To show the perspective appearance of a 
square A B DC, fig. 5, seen obliquely, and hav- 
ing one of its sides A B in the fiiiidamental line. 
The square being viewed obliquely, assume the 
principal point V, in the horiiontal line H K. in 
such a manner, as that a perjjendicular to iho 
fundamental line may fall without the side of the 
square A B, or at least may not bisect it ; and 
make V K the distance of the eye. Transfer tlio 
perpendiculars AC and BU to the fundamental 
[ine U E ; and draw the right lines K B, K t) ; 
as also A V and V C : then will A and B be llieir 



8. For example, the eye A, fig. 6, viewing the 
object BC, will draw the rays AB and AC, 
which give the angle BAC; so that an object 
viewed under a greater angle will appear larger, 
and another under a less angle smaller. That, 
among equal objects, those at the greatest dis- 
tance appear smallest, and consequently, that in 
all perspective the remotest objects must be 
made the smallest, will be manifest from the 
figure: theobjecte BC, DE, FG, HI, and KL, 
being all equal, but at difierent distances from the 
eye, it is evident that the angle DA E is less than 
the angle BAC, that FAG is less than DAE, 
that UAI u less than FAG, and that KAL is 
less than HAL Hence, the second, third, fourth, 
and fifth objects will appear smaller, though 
really all equal, inasmuch as the angles diminish 
in proportion as the objects recede. If the eye, 
on the other hand, were removed to M, KL 
would appear theUurgest, and BC no bigger than 

9. It follows that, as objects appear such as 
is the angle they are seen under, if several lines 
be drawn between the sides of the same triangle, 
they will all appear equal : thus all the lines 
comprised between the sides O N and O P, fig. 
7, of the triangle NOP, will appear equal to 
each other : and, as objects comprehended under 
the same angle seem equal, so all comprehended 
under a greater angle must seem greater, and all 
under a smaller angle less. 

10. This being premised, if there be a number 
of columns or pilasters to be ranged in perspec- 
tive on each side of a hall, church, or the like, 
they must of necessity be all made under the 
same angle, and stll tend to one common point 
in the horizon O, fig. 8. For instance, if from 
the points D, E, the eye being placed at A, and 
viewing the first object D F<, you draw the visual 
rays DO and EO, they will make the triangle 
DO E, which will include the columns D E, FG, 
H I, K L, M N, so as they will all appear equal. 

1 1 . What has been said of the sides is like- 
wise to be understood of the ceilings and pave- 
ments ; the diminutions of tlie angles of remote 
objects, placed either above or below, following 
the saihe rule as those placed laterally. Trees, 
being ranged by the same law, have the same ef- 
fect as the columns, &c. ; for being all compre- 
hended in the same angle, and the two rays hav- 
ing each its own angle, and all the angles meeting 
in a point, they form a third, which is the earth, 
and a fourth, which may be supposed the air, and 
thus aflbrd an elegant prospect. 

12. To exhibit the perspective of a circle, if it 
be small, circumscribe a square about it: draw 
diagonals and diameters A a and de, fie. 9, inter- 
secting each other at right angles ; and draw the 
right lines fg and be parallel to the diameter 
lie through b and f; as also through / and g 
draw right lines meeting the fundamental line in 
tlie points 3 and 4. To the principal point V 
draw right lines V 1, V 3, V 4, \' 2 ; and to the 

rints of distance L and K draw the right lines 
3 and K 1. Lastly, connect the points of in- 
tersection, a b,d,f. A, g, f, (, with the arches 
a b, bd, df. Ice. Thus will a A <// A g r c be the 
appeuance of the circle. 
, 13. If the circle be large, on the middle of the 

fundamental AB, fig. 10, descril>e a 
and from the several point* of the pe 
F, G, H, I, &C., to tlie fundamental li 
perpendiculars C 1, F2, G3, 114, 
From the points A, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c., 
lines to the principal point V ; as a 
line from B to the point of distance 
other from A to the point of distance K 
the common intersection draw right ' 
the preceding case: thus we shall 
points e,/, g, A, r, which are the repn 
of these. A, C, F, G, II, I, which 1 
nected as before give the projection 
cle. Hence it appears not only liow 
linear figure may be projected on a 
also how any pavement consisting ol 
of stones may be delineated in persp 
any complicated figure be proposed, 
be easy to apply the practical rules 
scription of every minute part ; but b) 
that figure in a regular one properly s 
and reduced into perspective, a persoi 
drawing may with ease describe the u 

Upon the whole, where the bounda 
proposed object consist of strai'.;lit 
plain surfaces, they may be described < 
the rules of perspective : but when \\v 
vilinear, either in their sides or sui 
practical rules can only serve for the i 
of such right-lined cases as may conve 
close the objects, and which » ill cuul 
dent to draw them within those kiio\ 
with a sufficient degree of exactness. 
indeed be a fruitless task, to seek, by 
cal rules of perspective, to describe a 
hollows and prominences of objects; il 
lights and shades of their parts, or tli 
windings and turnings; the infinite vai 
folds in drapery; of the boughs aiu: 
trees ; or the features and limbs of me 
mals; much less to give tlieiu that 
and softness, that force and spirit, tliui 
and freedom of posture, that expri 
grace, which are a good ]■ 

It may appear a bold assertion to s 
very short sketch now given of llie ; 
spective is a sufficient foundation of 
practice, and includes all the rules 
the problems which most generally <>i. 
the scientific foundation being siin|>li'. 
ture need not be compbix, nor swell 
volumes as have been publislicil un tl 
volumes which, by their size, deter 
perusal, and give this simple art tlii' ; 
of mystery. Thus narrowmn lll^t(•a(^ 
ing tlie knowledge of the art ; until tl 
tired of the bulk of llie volume, i 
single maxim is tediously spread ou 
principle on which it is foiindeil ki 
siKht, contents himself with a reiuci: 
the maxim, and rarely ascends t» lir«t 

We subjoin, however, for the iiili) 
those whowould wish fiirther to | \itsi 
ject an ample list of approve<l ai'ilior- 

In the I.atin language we iitid :■ 
Cantuariensis, i'ers|)cctiva, Pi-ia, 1.' 
an Italian translation of which, with 





►-; .J- 
2, ■». 


.5. « 

>- J T 

M e 








"^Wr yT 


1 I 

'Z J 



pi;HUVi<?d, by Oalucci, at Venice, 1593, folio, vols. — There have apiieared two English trunyia- 

f. \ irtcllionis, l)e Natuia, Katioiie, et Projec- tions of this, one by I'rike, 1672, 4to. — the other 

•*•;- Kidioruni Visus, Luminum, Colonim, by^Chambers, 17'J6, folio; and a German transla- 

iv^ir V"rin:iriim, qnam vulc;o Perspectivam tion by J. C. Kembold, Augs. 1710, 4to. -Ma- 

•xiDt, l:hri x. Norimb. 1551, folio, with plates, nicre Univcrselle de Gerard Desar^ies, pour 

i'-z I'r. Niceroni, Taumatunsus Opticus Stu- pratiqner la I'erspective par petit-pied comme 

;-.•■! .>5inin* IVr^pcctiva;, Paris, 1638, folio; a geomctral; ensemble les Places et Proportions 

FM;i.a tnn-\:ition of this appeared also at Paris, des fortes et foibles Touches, Teintes, ou Cou- 

sai-r th^ title of Perspective Curieus^, 1663, leurs, par Abr. Bosse, 1648, 2 vols, with 202 

■ .'. (iuido I'baldus, I'erspectiva, 1600, folio, engravings. This is one of the most extensive 

t'-:^!^?^:^-.! Honiria, Auct. Km. Maignan, Rome, and at the same time important of the works on 

*-■»■' Andrea Putel, sumamed Porzi, Perspec- perspective. It occasioned a great many other 

•.Ti PK-torusn et Architectorum (Latin and writings on the same subject, a detail of which 

Ins' .in . Rome, 169.1 — 1700, 2 voU. folio, with will be found in Lettrcs ecrites au Sieur Bosse, 

.y. •ii-jravina-t. This very useful work has also 8vo. The same Abraham Bosse has also given 

x-;».ir«l in Ijtin and German, translated into a work entitlfHl Traitd des Pratiques Gtome- 

IV Iv.trr b\ .1. Boxbath and G. C. Itodenner, trales et Perspectives, Paris, 1665, 12mo. with 

.V-c-bi:rjl'.. 1706 — 1709, folio. Strutt published seventy engravings. Optique de Portraiture et 

•_it--A:s«: aa edition in Ijitin and Knglish, Lon- de Peinture, par Fran^-ois Iluret, Paris, 1675, 

-■■■2. l''i\*3 — 1707, folio. Bernard Lamy's book folio. Trailo de la Perspective oii sont contenus 

3rr:>in-ii in 1701, in 8vo. ; and the ingenious les Fondemens de la Peinture, par le P. Bern. 

«'■ -ii.f >"Gnvesande, in 1711, in 8vo., translated Lami, Paris, 1701, 12mo. Amst. 1734, 8vo. 

■-:> Knjli^h by Stone in 1724. Ram. Ram- An English translation appearad at Lontlon in 

-.:--'■- Ixtion'es Optica, Brix. 1760, 4to., \vith 1702, 12mo. Perspective Pratique d'Architec- 

it-. r.s-rn-i plates. ture, par L. Bretetz, Paris, 1706, 1746, 1752, 

I . '•j-iait : — ^Trattato di Prospettiva di Bern, folio. Traito de la Perspective Pratique, avec 

Z--.i'- laTrc%i3i, Milan, 1524, folio. Prattica des Remarques sur I'Architecture, par le S. 

•irj i'r-j*pettiv'a, di M. Dan Barbaio, Venice, Couttonne, Paris, 1710, 1725, folio. Perspec- 

l.^v. 1 5-fj8, 166',', folio, with plates — a very ser- live Thi'orique et Pratique, par M. Ozanam, 

• "rKt"-)"!: publication. Dispareri in materia d' Paris, 1711, 8vo. Traite de la Perspective il 

-Vrr/tftTtura e di Prospettiva, Bresc. 1572, 4to. I'usage des Artistes, par E. S. Jeautat, Paris, 

Lr Hue Resole della Prospettiva prattica, di 1750, 4to, with 110 engravings. Essai sur la 

«•».-. Banazi di \ignola, con i Comment, del Perspective Pratique, par Le Roy, Paris, 1757, 

P. J.2n. Daxiti, Rome, 1583, 1611, 1644, folio, 12mo. Raisonnement sur la Perspective pour 

B.-1. 1692, folio, X'enicp, 1743, fol. La Prattica en fociliter I'usage aux Artistes, piir M. Petitot, 

•ii Prospettiva, del Car. Lor. Sirigati, \'enice, Parma, 1758, folio, in French and Italian. F^ssai 

1 '•:'•'. ie-.26, folio. Discorso Intomo al Disegno sur la Perspective Lini-aire et sur les Ombres, 

' -1 jl" Incanni del Occhio, Prospett. Prat, di par le (Chevalier de Curel, Strasb. 1766, 8vo. 

1" .Xc-lli, Kirenia, 1025, folio. Prospettiva Traite de Perspective Lineaire, par S. N. JVIichel, 

»'.-^;-.'.-3i, di IJem. Contino, \enice, 164.5, 1684. Paris), 1771, 8vo. La Perspective Acrionne 

* ■. .. !'drado>si per Praticar la Prospettiva, Soumise it des Principcs puiscs dans la Nature, 

-■•^-iri S3i*rla, da Giul. Troili, Bol. 1672, 1683, ou Nouveau Traite du Clair-obscur et de Chro- 

•■ !.•• Niioia Prattica di Prospettiva, da Paolo matiquc, a I'usage des Artistes, par M. de St. 

.\'... Pal. 1736, folio. Trattato Teoretico Morien, Paris, 1789,8vo. F.lomens de Pcrspec- 

i'ra"if'> di Prospettiva, di Kust. Zanotti, Bol. tive Pratique, a I'usage des Artistes, par \'alen 

:7-.'". 4ti». with en'jravings. Della Geometrie e ciennes, Paris, 41o. Ijivit, Perspective Lincaire. 

1': .-^-tiiia Prattica, di Bald. Orsini, Rome, In English: — Practical Perspective made 

\'Ti, :i vjis. l2mo. Easy, by Mason, 1670, folio. Architectural 

I'. Duti.h : — llet Perspcctiv Conste van John Perspective, by Peake, folio. Perspective made 

»-,.,, \'ri;<tcmann, Dmdon, 15,59, folio, Amst. F--isy, by \V. ilalfpenny, 1731,410. Stereogra- 

I'. ,'.. '1 »'.U. folio. Marolois hiLS givena French phy, or a complete Body of Perspective, in all 

• -I • -lit :'•» of this work, entitled Ij» Perspective, its Branches, by J. Hamilton, Loudon, 1733, 

<■,•.:;.. lit taut la Tli<-orio que la Pratique, Amst. 1749, folio, with 130 engravings. Humphry 

J. f.lio. Oiidtrwysinire in der Perspecliv Ditton's book, 1712, folio. 1^vo, by 

< .. .1.-. <)r«.r Ib-iir. liondiiis, Ijt Hague, 1622, Brook Taylor, one in 1715, the other in 1719. 

;• iT. iMi'i. of which a iMin translation was Oakley's Slagazine of Architecture, Perspective, 

;■. i-ii-ii al the s-i'iic place, 11)47. folio. and .Sculpture, 1730, folio. Perspective made 

I. French: — f.ivrc de l'>ectivc, iiar J. Kasy in 'theory and Practice, by . I. Kirby, lx)n- 

< ■ .m: . Pans, 1.5)iO, folio, l.'i87, 4to. i.e<,'ons don, 17.15, 17t>H, 4to. Perspective of Architec- 

.<• |v--;.rs linN pir Jaques Andrr du (."erceau, ture, (lediicwl from the principles of Brook 

I'lr-. i 'ir"-;. fuiio. la Perspe<'tive avec la Taylor, and pcrforMied by two rules only of 

l!ri .--1 di> < >ui!ire~ et di.s Miniirs, jmr Sal. De universal apiilication, by the same, London, 175,5, 

t ... I.'i;, : )M. I'il-J, loiio. 1-1 IVr<|icclivc of ITiil, 2 vols. f'.Iio. The art of Drawing in 

\i ;•■ , }' in Ijitin ami I riin.)i. Pans, lil.'i.5, lVrS!.(>ctiv«. tniide I'.a'v to those who have no 

r .■ , v. 11 I l,r:v-ri-.f iil,iti-s. l.:i IVr>iirctivc Pra- iircMous KiiowIimIw .>f Mathematics, by ,'• Fer- 

!:, . %! I -.. a tons It-s I'cintrfsOravcui-, ft ".-u^on, I omidn, 17."i."i, 1778, Rvo. Practiie of 

.\rf '■!•., pir un Ue!i/ieux d.f la ('onip. de.le- Pcrspei live, by .1. Hinhitiore, 17:i4, 4to. Theory 

f.-.l'uri-. Ii")i2,4to., 1063, 4to., and 11)79, 4to.3 of IVr^petlivt in a Method Kniirclv Nf", >>y 

Vol. -W II. ■ E 



J. L. Cowley. I^nJoil, 1760, '2 vols. 4lo. Fa- 
iiiiliiir liitrojucliou to (lie Theory and Practice 
of PerstMictive, by J. Priestley, lx)Ddon, 1770, 
8»o. Tlie Elements of Linear Perspective de- 
monstrated by (jeometrical Principles, by Ed- 
ward Noble, London, 1771, 8vo. A Complete 
Treatise on Perspective, in Tlieory and Practice, 
on tlie Principle* of Dr. Brook Taylor, by T. 
Malton, London, 1776, folio. Ware's Complete 
Uody of Architecture contains a Treatise on 
Perspective, 1760, folio. A Practical Treatise 
of Perspective on the Principles of Dr. Brook 
Taylor, by Edward Edwards, second edition, 
1806, A thin 41o., without the author's name, 
entitled A New Treatise on Perspective, Founded 
on the Simplest Piinciples, containing Universal 
Kulesfor Drawing the Kepresentation of any Ob- 
ject on a \ertieal Plane, 1810. The work of D. 
Cresswell, A. M, J8l 1, 8vo. Milne, in his Ele- 
ments of Architecture, 1812, 4to , and Mr. Hay- 
ter's work, 1813, 8vo. Martin, Muller, and 
Emer.wn, h.ive also given treatises in their 
mathematical courses. 

^^ orks on this subject, under the following 
HKnonilnation.t, Imve appeared in the German 
language : — Of Perspective, as it regards the 
Arts, 1509, folio, with thirty -seven wood-cuts, 
(iualt. Henr. Uivius, New Perspective, or The 
Tnie Foundation of the Arts of Ucstvn, Nurem- 
berg, 1.547, folio. John Lautensuk, fnstruclions 
on the Use of the Compass and Kule, particu- 
larly in Perspective, Franckf 1567, folio. Fer- 
gpectivum Corporum Kegiilarium, &c., par 
Juinilzer, Nuremberg, 1564, folio. Lud Bruns. 
Practice of Perspective, &c., Leipsic, 1615, folio, 
Lrnkart, Treatise on Perspective, Augs. 1616, 
fulio. Alberti on Perspective and Shading, 
Nurnb. 1623-7, folio. Schubler, Instructions 
on Perspective, &c., Niimb. 1719-20, 2 vols, 
'olio, with fifty engravings. Lucidum Pro- 
afpeciiviE Speculum, by P. Ileinecken, Augs. 
1727. folio, will, ninety-three engravings. Ibid. 
I75M, folio, with 126 engravings. Summary 
Instructions on I'erspective, by John Christo- 
pher Bischof, Halle, 1741, 8vo. Instructions 
t>ii the manner of tracing all Elevntioos in Per- 
spective, without having rei;ard to a plan, by J. 
II. Uimbort, Zurich, 1759, flvo., and 1774, 8vo. 
A French tran»liition appeared in 1759, Rvo. 
Manner of learning to draw bv means of Geo- 
meiry uml IVrspcctivc, by \\ erner, Erfort, 
1764, 8vo I'h;Mil''il Instructions on Perspecl- 
.ve, after an riLiy and clear method, by C. Phil. 
Jaciibr, Am>i 1767, Hvu., wilh sixty plates. 
Treatise on Perspective, by Luc. Voch, Augs. 
IT80, 8vo. Elements of Perspective for tlie 
•jse of Pajnier*, by Burja, Berlin, 1793. 8vo. 

The reader may also turn with advantaice to 
I*\on» de Perspective, par L. le Bicheur, Lu- 
dovico Cigoli, on Perspective. Perspectiva 
Pr.ictica, by Fcbdc. Dc Breuil. Tlie work of 
Albert Durer on the Proportions of the Human 
Body, Nurnberg, 1528, folio. The ni'iond book 
of ihe Architetlnn of Seb. Serlio, Pari>, l.S4.'>, 
folio. The fifth lK»k of Tratlalo dell' Arte dclla 
Pittnra, of I,omaizo, Mihin, 1.'>H5, 4to Miis(.hi 
Piiiorico, by Velasco, Madrid, :7I3, folio. Rp. 
marquM »ur le» Tableaux en jcu d'Opliqite, 
in the French Mercury for the ywr 1763, kr. 

PLBSfECTIVt, AttHAL, IS ll>c art of 
due diminution or degradation to the stm|^' 
of the light, shade, and colors of objecl■^, t^- 
cording to tlieir different distances, the quaiitily 
of light which falls on them, and the medniM 
through which they are seen. 

As the eye docs not judge of the dislancr Ot 
objects entirely by their apparent size, but > ho 
by their strength of color, and distinctioi «l 
parts ; so It is not sufficient to give an o\" ■ • ■•■ 
due apparent bulk according to the - 
stereography, unless at the same lime n 
pressed witli tliat pro|)er faintness and <lv-ri,'.i 
lion of color which the distance requires. Thin 
if the figure of a man, at a distance, w«i* 
painted of a proper magnitude for the plaocv 
but with too great a distinction of parts, or toe 
strong colors, it would appear to stand fe*- 
ward, and seem proportionally less, so as to 
represent a dwarf situated nearer the eye, and 
out of the plane on which the painter inttnilMl 
it should stand. By the i/rigiruii ciMit of an 
object is meant that color which it exhibit* Ic 
the eye when duly exposed to it in a full afMR 
uniform light, at such a moderate distance ■• Ic 
be clearly and distinctly seen. 

This color receives an alteration from tiaatf 
causes, the principal of which are the fbllowingt 
1. From the object's being removed to a greaia 
distance from the eye, whereby the rays of light 
which it reflects are less vivid, and the color 
becomes more diluted and tinged in some nioa 
sure, by the faint bluish cast, or with the dim* 
ness or haziness of the body of air through 
which the rays pass. 2. From the greater or 
less degree of light with which the object i« en- 
lightened ; the same original color having a dif* 
ferent appearance in the shade, from what it 
has in the light, although at an equal distanct 
from the eye, and so in proportion to th« 
strength of the light or shade. 8. From tb* 
color of the light itself which falls upon tl, 
whether it be fix>m the reflection of coloicd 
light from any adjacent object, or by its paoi^ 
Uirough a colored medium, which will exhibit % 
color compounded of the original color of lb* 
object, ana the other accidental colors which tb» 
light brings wiUi it. 4. From the position of 
tiie surface of the object, or of its several paru 
with res|)ect to the eye : such pans of it appear- 
ing more lively and distinct than those which 
are seen obliquely. 5. From the closeness or 
openness of the place wliere the object is »itu- 
aleil ; ihe liglil being much ninrv vanously d»> 
reeled and reflected within a room than in the 
open air. 6. Some original colors naturally 
reflect light in a greater proportion Itiaii oth*is, 
though equally exposed to tlie same degtves of 
It : whereby their degradation at several di*> 
lances will be difl'erent from that of other coion 
which reflect leas light. 

Pr.Rsrr.divE Macuixes, or conlrivanec* 
designing or drawing in peripective, tM 
various kinds. We have deacribed the 
iilriKlion nf Ihe camera obaouia, and (halt 
add inily the machine nunestad originaUy 
Dr. Bwis, and another by Mr. Kirby. 

Tl>e jilaiie of the former machine it repf*' 
scntrd fiii. 1, I'lati-r.riivi. Plule III. Ay. 9 it 
a reprettntalion of it when made use uf m draw- 



I Unci 

Mts IB penpeclire. a he/, fig. t, 
square boanl, repn^senteiJ by 
r ■ i;. t ; X and y (\ and Y ) are two 
m aliich tb* put c^i/ (C L D) is more- 
nit pMt eensuts of two arclies or por- 
itf atek* ( /■ (C L M) and <i n < (D N L), 
the top / (L), and at bottom 
I bar de{D Cl, to which one part of 
! it fixed, and the other part to a flat 
die length of the board abrf 
KF), and giaed to its uppermost side. The 
r m ike areh cml is ai d, and the centre of 
tdml h Uc. On the outer side of the 
I mtHmt m a sliding piece n (much like the nut 
[ 4/ tte wadiant of altitude belon|;ing to a com- 
I aNgMM), whicii may be moved to any part of 
' ~i fc at wee n d and / : and there is such 
tliitr, o, on the arch cm I, which may 
ke aat (« any pan between c and L A thread 
r^ ■ (C P N) is stretched tight from the centre 
• <C) lo tbe slider n (N), and such another 
ttitmd ka Wretched from the centre d (O) to the 
^dm » (O) : the ends of the threads being fas- 
^m4 la tfctn centres and sliders. 

lUm M U plaio that, by moving these sliders 

Mtfcer respective arches, the intersection p (P) 

rf Ar Ikreads may be brought to any point of 

^ *ifmm tpace wiibin the arches . I n the groove 

i(Ki ia m staight sliding bar 1 (I), which may 

It djKwn fartber out, or pu.shed farther in, at 

flmmmK. To tbe outer ena of this bar I, fig. 2, 

k Awd ite upright piece H Z, in which is a 

^■••e far icceiving the sliding piece Q. In 

As iHrtcT is a small hole r fur the eye lo look 

tkfiMgh in ming ihe machine ; and there is a long 

4tf la H Z,to let the hole r be seen through when 

Ar 4TV I* pUced behind it any height of the hole 

•bo«« the level of the bar I. 

la dalMOKting a representation, i. e. of the 
koMP f *'/>• a great way o(T, place tbe machine 
oa > atieady table, with the end K F of the hori- 
wmtai bovil, A B B F, toward the house, so that 
«iaa 9tm Gothic-like arch D LC is set upright, 
tm rU^*^** part of the open space (about I') 
«alhta it any be even with the house when you 
at aye on Z, and look at the house 
A* Mnall hole r. Then fix the corners 
€t • winua piece of paper with four wafers on 
A* aaifiKC 01 thai half of the horizontal board 
a^M^ ia t xam t ibe house ; and all is ready for 
4nivMC- Now set the arch upright, as in the 
4pHa ; «1ncb It will b« when it comes to Ihe 
a«p«adicular mde ( of the upright piece tt, 
las4 to Ilia boriionlal board behind D. Then 
|ke* jttmw eye si Z, and look through the hole r 
■ any poittt of the house, as 7, and move the 
tf^v* tt and O till you brini;tiie interseclion of 
>a ll^nailial Pdireclly between your eye and the 
■■■■• r thvn pal down the arch flat upon tne paper 
VatfM boatd.aa at S T, and the lalersection of the 
ttMada will be at W. Mark the point W on the 
aa^ir «nlll tbe dot of a black lead pencil, and 
wA dM mfek apright again, as before : then look 
t^nmfjk Ika bole r, and move the sliders N and 
O iM tW intersection of the threads comes be- 
rseati yoar eye and any other point of the house, 
^ • : than put down the arch again to the paper, 
■ad HBfca a peadl mark thereon at the intersec- 
Cas af di» tkrcads, and draw a line from that 

mark to the former one at W ; which line will 
be a true perspective representation of tbe orncr 
pi] o( the house. Proceed in the snme manii ?r 
by bringing the intersection of the threads suc- 
cessively between your eye and the other points 
of tlie outlines of the house, as r, >, &c., and put 
down the arch lo mark the points on the paper 
at the intersection of llie threads : then connect 
these points by straight lines, which will be the 
perspective outlines of the house. In like man- 
ner find the points of the comers of the door 
and windows, top of the house, chimneys, Sic, 
and draw the finishing lines from point to poii,t : 
then shade the whole, making the lights aud 
shades as you see them on the house itself, and 
you will have a true perspective figure of it. 
Great care must be tiken, dunng the »vhole time, 
that the position of the machine be not shifted 
on the table ; and, to prevent such an inconve- 
nience, the table should be very strong and 
steady, and the machine fixed to it, cither by 
screws or clamps. 

In the same way a landscape, or any number 
of objects within the field of a view through the 
arch, may be delineated, by finding a suDicien' 
number of perspective points on the paper, and 
connecting them by straight or curved lines as 
they appear to the eye. The arch ought to be at 
least a foot wide at hnttoin, thai the eye at Z 
may have a large field of view through it ; and 
the eye should then be, at least, ten inches and » 
half from the intersection of the threads at P 
when the arch is set upright. For if it he nearer 
the boundaries of vivvt at tlie sides near the foot 
of the arch will subtend an angle at Z of more 
than sixty degrees, which will not only straintbe 
eye, but will also the outermost parts of 
the drawing to have a disagreeable appearance. 
To avoid this, it will be proper to draw back 
the sliding bar I, till Z be fourteen inches and a 
half distant from F ; and then the whole field of 
view, through the fool wide arch, will not sub- 
lend an angle to the eye at Z of more than forty - 
five degrees ; which will give a more easy and 
pleasant view, not only of all the objects them- 
selves, but also of their rcpresentatiunK on the 
paper whereon they are delineated. So that, 
whatever the width of the arch be, the distance 
of the eye from it <hould be in this proportion : 
as 12 is lo the width of the arch, so is 14) to the 
distance of the eye (at Z) from it. If a pane of 
glass, laid over with gum water, be fixed into the 
arch, and set upright when dry, a person who 
looks through the hole r may delineate the objects 
upon the glass which he sees at a distance 
through and beyond it, and then transfer the 
delineation to a paper put upon the glass. Fer- 
guson's Perspective, ch. iii. 

Mr. Kirby's instrument is seen in figs. 4, 
5,6. The njler A B, fig 3, nineteen inches long, 
is graduated into nineteen equal parts ; it has a 
dovetail groove on its upper edge lo receive the 
perpendicular ruler G, which has one end fitted 
to it, so as to slide very easily ; this ruler is four- 
teen inches long, and is divided into fourteen 
equal parts, and upon the back side of it F i» a 
line drawn exactly in the middle, to whicli is 
fixed a silken line with a small plummet at tlit 
end. The ruler A B is fixed by two screws «,c, 





to Iwo pieces of lliin brass ; and these pieces of 
brass are fixed at the other endi by two screws 
d,e, to a stronger piece of brass bf, which goes 
close to tlie ruler A B, ami has a joint at X 
luining upon asctew ; below this joint is a piece 
of round brass about six inches lonp, wliich goes 
into a hole made in the top of the staff, and may 
be raised higher or lower, by means of a screw 
S : C D E represents part of this staff, the whole 
length of which is about three feet, and at the 
butioin is a rank screw made of iron and fixed 
to the staff. HI is a wire twenty-two inches 
long, with a screw si h to go into the hole b ; 
the piece of brass wire bent into the form ik \i 
fixed to the wire H I by the screw k; and the 
part i goes inio llie holc/m the brass piece bf. 
ITie small wire K L is about twelre inches long, 
and flatted at K, at which place is a little hole 
aliove nne-eighth of an inch in diameter ; this 
wife K L is fitted to the holes /, m, n, o, which 
are made in the larger wire li 1, and it may be 
placed hii^her or lower by means of a smalt 
screw. This instrument is used in the following 
manner: fix a paper upon a drawing board, as 
in fig. -4, and divide the paper lengthways into 
nineteen equal parts, ana perpendicularly into 
fourteen equal parts; making these divisions 
greater or smaller according to your design. 
Then take the staff, and fix it strongly in the 
ground by means of a screw at bottom, and at a 
convenient distance from the prospect which you 
intend to take. 

Now put the instrument together as in fig. 5, 
and fix the ruler A B exactly horizontal by means 
of the plummet on the perpendicular ruler and 

the brass joint X ; then fix the wire K L. to 
to have the eye-hole exactly level with ihe lionMn 
or equal to the height of the eye, and take care 
to have the greatest distance of the eye-hole from 
the ruler equal to the whole length of the longest 
ruler A B, and never less than the distance hi. 
Having thus fixed the instriiinent, proceed to 
make the drawing ; look through the eye-hoie, 
and then move the per|>endicul:ir ruler in th^ 
groove, till you gel one edge exactly agaioU 
some principal object; then will the parts upon 
the ruler show how high the object is from ths 
bottom of the ruler, i. e. frniii tlie bottom uf tlie 
picture, and you will also know its niparcnt 
height ; therefore transfer this to the paper iu 
those squares which correspond willi the dt>i- 
sions upon the rulers. For the breadth of object*, 
move the perpendicular ruler so as to be cvtu 
with the sides of an object, and the 'I 
upon the lower ruler will show their a, 
breadths. After the same manner, get (Ik- pU 
and apparent sizes of as many principal olije 
as are necessary for assisting you, in conipl>-lii^7 
the wliole drawing, which may be doue by thi» 
method with great exactness. When the draw- 
ing is finished, the instrument may Iw taken to 
pieces and put into a box, which may serve as a 
drawing board ; the top M may be screwed into 
the staff, which will serve as a walking-stick, and 
the stool to sit on may be made very portable : 
so that every part of this apparatus may be gm* 
ried by one person without any inconvenic 
Kirby, b. ii. p. 65, &c. This List instrun 
has been found particularly convenient in Xikwi^ 
views of extensive landscapes, or buildings. 

PERSPICA'CIOUS, ad;. > Lat. pmpicas. 
Peo-spicac'itt, n. i. ) Quicksighted ; 

sharp of sight: quickness of sight. 

lie that laid the foandatioosor the earth cannot be 
excluded the secrecy of the mountains ; nor can there 
any thing escape the pfrspkacitit of those eyes which 
w«re before light, and in whose optics there is no 
Opncity. Bnmne. 

It is as nice and tender in feeling as it can be 
fertpicacima and quick in teeing. fvtUh. 

PE'RSPICIL, n.i. Lat. ;«TM)ici7/um. Aglass 
thiough which things are viewea ; on opiic glass. 
Not used. 

Let truth be 
Ne'er so far distant, yet chronology, 
^hirp-sightad u Iba eagle's eye, that can 
Out-staie the broad-beaiDed day's meridian. 
Will have a penpieil to Sod her out, 
And through the night uf error and dark doubt, 
UiKem the dawn oi truth's eternal ray. 
At when the rosy morn buds into day. CVaj^aii'. 
The pmfM, at well as the needle, hath enlarged 
Ihe hsbilablv world. (•Ianvi(l«'i Sttfu, 

PRU.SPIC'UOUS, adj. -j Fr pcrtf, 


•• may b« seen through; lh< ', . ' i-ul noun 
aatintantive corresponding i |' < more 

■oaoonly used for rbsitness :.. nl ; nml 

taNt Ibr prtcttion of exprcuiun or langMagc. 

JOUS, lulj. ■\ Fr per,); 
■m\, adv. t Lat. /XT'; 
<Nr.\», B. I. jClrar; translucent; 
r. ' tran^p;ln•nt ; such 

The purpose is prr>pirui>uj even at lubstance, 
Whose giossnest little characters ram up. 


The case is no looner made than resolved ; if I la 
made not enwrapped, but plainly and p*npicuotulv. 


As contrary causes produce the like effecu, to 
even the tame proceed from black and white , for tJi* 
clear and ;>rri}>iru<>ui body effi-ctelfa while, -i" ' •'' •• 
white a bhtck. /'. 

As for diaphaneity and prnprviiy, it eiiju> ' < 

mnsi eraineDtlv, ai hiving itt nanhy and Kiliinnit 
paru HI ciactly resolved uaa ill body it left ini|<eT- 
ous. Bin—. 

'1 he verses containing precepts have not to aiack 
need of omameot as of prri/nciiry. /Irydta. 

PtTtpimiiy conuits in the using of proper ktai 
for tlie thoughts, which a man would have pass fR 
hit own wind iiilo llial of auother. / 

All this IS to um/firuoui, so undeniable, 
need not be over induttr'ioiu in the proof of it. 


PERSPIUF.', i>. It. Ut. pmpirv. To 
form excretion by tlie cuticiiUr pon-s. 

lUii cutneth not upon the palmt of the hinds or 
Hilet uf the (eel, which arc pnrtt niorv ^vrijoVaU* ; 
and children are not hairy, for that their ikins art 
niott prrijtintMr. tUrvA. 

<■-■.'■ i. 






of the inner sutfuce of ihu waistcoat, in llie form 
of bluck tears. U hen robbed ou paper, it ren- 
dered it transparent, and hardened on it like 
grease. It burned with a white flame, and left 
behind it a charry residuum. 

BerthoUet has concluded that the acid which 
is present is the phosphoric ; but this has not 
been proved. Fourcroy and Vanquelin have as- 
certained that the scurf which collects upon the 
skins of horses consisLi chiefly of phosphate of 
'ime, and urea is even sometimes mixed with it. 
Vccording to Thenard, however, the acid con- 
tained in sweat is the acetous; which, he like- 
wise observes, is the only free acid contained in 
urine and in milk, this acid existing in botli 
of ihem when quite fresh. 

His account of bis examination of it is as fol- 
lowi : — The sweat is more or less copious in dif- 
ferent individuals ; and its quantity is percep- 
tibly in the inverse ratio of that of the urine. 
All other circumstances being similar, much more 
is produced during digestion than during repose. 
The maximum of its production appears to be 
Iwenty-six grains and two-thirds in a minute; 
the minimum nine grains, troy weight. It is 
much inferior, however, to the pulmonary trans- 
piration ; and there is likewise a great difl'ereoce 
oelween their nature and manner of formation. 
The one is a product of a particular secretion, 
similar in some sort to that of the urine ; tlie 
other, composed of a great deal of water and car- 
bonic acid, is the product of a combustion 
g^dually effected by the atmospheric air. The 
sweat, in a healthy state, very sensibly reddens 
litmus paper or infu.iion. In certain diseases, 
and particularly in putrid fevers, it is alkaline; 
yet its taste is always rather saline, and more 
similar to that of salt than acid. Though color- 
less, it stains linen. Its smell is peculiar, and 
insupportable when it is concentrated, which 
is the case in particular during distillation. But 
before he speaks of the trials to which he sub- 
jected il, and of which lie had occasion for a 
great quantity, he describes the method he 
adapted for procunng it, which was similar lo 
that of CruicKshanka. Human sweat, according 
lo Tlienard, is formed of a great deal of water, 
free acetous acid, muriate of soda, an atom 
of phosphate of lime and oxide of iron, and an 
inappreciable quantity of animal matter, which 
approaches much nearer to gelatin than to any 
other substance. 

Ttrspiration varies in respect to, 1 . The tern- 
pfraturr vf the almotphtre. — Thus men have 
a more copious, viscid, and higher-colored aw««l 
in tummer than in winter, and in warm countrfe*, 
than in colder regions. 2. Srj. — The sweat of a 
man is said to smell more acrid than that of 
a woman. 3. Jgt. — The young are more sub- 
ject lo sweat than the aged, who, during the ex- 
eeuive heat of the summer, scarcely sweat at all. 
4. Ingctta.—Ati alliacious sweat is jHTt'eived 
from ««ting garlick ; ■ leguminous fVoin peas ; 
an acid ftom acids ; a fetid from animul food 
only : and ■ mncid sweat from fni foodv as 
is observed in fireenl.ind. A long »b»tinrnce 
from drmk r-n..... . .., acrid and colorvd 

swMl; and i' i grrai mianlity of cold 

oraivi HI Miciii 111 jnd Inin n«c9l. !>. 

Mcdicina. — ^Thc sweat of those who have I 
musk, even moderately, and assafirtida, or 
phur, smells of their respective natures. !>. 
gina of the body- — Ttie sweat of the head J 
greasy ; on the forehead it is mure aqueous ; a 
der the axillie very unguinous ; and in the inlj 
slices of the toes it is very fetid, forming in I 
most healthy man blackish surdes. 7. 
In this wspect it varies very much in 
quantity, smell, and color; for the 
gouty persons is said to turn blue 
juices to a red color. Some men 
a lucid sweat, others a sweat tinging theil 
of a cerulean color. 

PERSUADE', ». a. ^ Fr. 
Peksua'ocr, n. s. Span, and 

Pehsoa'siolf., adj. pcrnuiuiir; Ital. 

I'ersva'sihleness, n, I. L;il. ptrmaderr,) 
Persi'a'siox, n.». yiiiadco. To indu 

Persi-a'sive, luy;. brine toanopia 

Peksua'sivei.v, adv. influence by exp 

Persi'a'siveness, n. «. tulation or 
Pensi'A'soRT, uii;'. J mem; inculcatel 

argument. Or. .lohn.<on says, ' persuasion ! 
rather applicable to the passions, and 
to the reason ;' but this is not always obs 
in an obsolete sense, to treat by persuastoai 
persuader is one who thus treats or influe 
another ; an ofhcious adviser or importuner : 
suosible is to be persuaded ; the noun 
live that follows corresponding: persuasio 
act of persuading; slate of being per 
opinion to which one is persuaded : ' 
and pcrsuasory, having the power to per 
influence by argument ; the adverb and 
substantive corresponding. 

Let ev<ry man be folly pertuadtd in his own mi|| 


We are permadtd belter things uf you, and tbtfl 
that accompany ulvalioo. Hthrtitt vt. 

Joy over them that an pmuaitd to salvation. 

FjJnu tc 

They thai were with Simon, lieing ted with i 
ousnesft. were pemaded for money. 2 Mae, 

I'hiloclea's beauty not onlv r<n-niurf«rf, but so j 
tundtd IS all hearts most yield : Pamela't ben 
uwd violence, and such as no hevt could resist. 

In ptaysr. we do not so much respect what 
ccpts t/t delivrreth, touching the method of 
<inr utterance in the presence of great men, i 
doth most avail lo our own edificBtioD in piciy ait 
godly real. H-^trrA 

Toe matt certain token of evident goodness is, f 
the genarol pennMiim of all men da*» M locoUDt 1 

Twenty merchants have all jimmaiM wirh him ; 
Hut none can drive him from the envinui plrq 
Uf rurfailoie. Shak 

Ytni tie abused in loo bold a ftnmuum. Id 

The carl, tpeakInK in that impcrioas laog ^ 
whe/ein the king had wntlen, dm not iniuta t 
people, but made them conceive, by the haughtf 
of delivery of llie kini;'> errand, Ihat himself wn 
author or principal fnniadn of that counsel. &« 

Lrt Mortiiu mume hit farther discourse, 
for tlir rMnuaMM OS for the oonsnil, tnu 
meant that may conduce unto Ibe enlvpriia, 
lip aoon it roovari 

Hy *iuh ;vrtii«^n ai are bcld vprighu 

I d the (iKnufulneu ol the work being 
I Ibaad a purpose of nndertaking it, as 
nty of commands, or the prrfuofiw- 
, cr puAgciicy of menaces can be. 
Hiimmond't FundamfntaU. 

tfntd of rain images, we pertuade 
MkiDg them handle and look nearer 

I «miM It be for a mathematician 
f u t m t X f to use all- imaginable in- 
Mms, that he might prevail with 
: that three and three make «x ! 
Ilaa^c ajul thirst at once, 

dm! quickened at the scent 
m* bmit, urged me so keen. MUlan. 
The serpent with me 
■My hMk so preiailed, that I 
riMtM««L h. 

Ooa^liglgeJ, or with our fingers pectinated, 
Mil lad, and friends will pernuuU us from it. 

■ is IhiBiarwaany. Id. 

mm lib; HrtDBe, Pol)rdore, to conqu*r, 
h«t all Ifce arts of fine jm-tuation, 
^Hrl kt me know thy love's success. 

I ^ad. if 1 coald perjuade him to write 
BUick on any thing of mine ; for when 
I say af ny poems, he nukes the world 
I of twm. Drydm, 

Ma be CT«r so well pmuadid of the advan- 
lifta*. yet, till he hungers and thirsts after 
, Ins will will not be determined to any 
' t of ibis confessed great good. 

m their ectates cannot so much 
leM speak clearly and perna- 
and iha taen of practice shall ride 
IMdaadt, and triumph over their present 
(■■a I lill pimuuioH pass into knowledge, 
itednadraiKe into assurance, and all come 
IB Bi ranpleted in the beatific vision. 


hMiadUK the weight and fitness of the ai- 
ttrnnmJ*, and the light of man's intellect 
tm ffrmmtm endcnce with a suitable as- 
aaMM fallowed, nor were men thereby ac- 

■■ tm a^ffahead onr own interest in thai 
w mmlbm as tractable and pmuanhit, con- 
lac kratiaii aiabbomoeaa of the borse and 
■all iW Ptalmisi teproacbea. 

G^verruntnt of tht Tongtu, 
mm hxr* ao other certainty of being in the 
I mtt oma frwmanimt that we are so ; this 
I !■ bill OMkiag one error the gage for an- 

koaU aerioitsly ftmiadt themselves, that 
kcse BO ainding place, but are only in their 
t IW IwaTenly Jerusalem, l('aA<. 

s laac. a pro* erb, a scrap of poetry, or some 
lal abjaci, will steal into the thoughts, and 
•• aeaaoa then lon^ after it ceases to be 
fwaaaaiaa to diainua a guest that proves 
!■•■■. «■ baidW be aece ma ry ; and bodily 
tanMaMBy tka lait nnwdy for this mental 
^K Ptrcimt. 



Welsh, ptrt ; Belg. ftrt ; Fr. 
J *pptTt ; Qu . Lal paratus, ready ? 
J Lirely ; brisk ; smart ; danper : 
■aim substaotiTe corresponaing. 

PERTH. 55 

Awake the ^>rrt and nimble spirit of mirlb ; 

Turn melancholy forth to funerals. Shaiupturt. 

Yonder walls, that prrllii front vour town, 
Vond towers, whose wanton tops Ao buss the clouds, 
Must kiss their own feet. Id. 

On the tawny sands and shelves, 

Tript the pert fairies and tlie dapper elves. 

From perl to stupid sinks supinely down, 

In youth a coxcomb, and in age a clown. 


A lady bids me io a very perl manner mind my 
own affairs, and not pretend to meddle with their 
linen. Addixm. 

All servants might challenge the same liberty, and 
grow pert upon their masters ; and, when this sauci- 
ness became universal, what less mischief could ba 
expected than an old Scythian rebellion ? 
When you pertty raise your snout, 
FUcr, and giW, and laugh, and flout; 
This, amonj: Uitx^mian asses. 
For sheer wit and humaur passes. Swifi. 

There is in .Sliafirshury's works a lively permej* 
and a parade of litrralnre ; bat it is bard that wa 
should be bound to admire the reveries. ^arf«. 

PERTAIN, V. n. Lat. perdtteo. To belong; 
to relate ; appertain. 

As men hate those ihat aSect that honour by am- 
bition, which perlahulh not to them; so are thry more 
odious, who through fear betray the glory which thry 
have. Haj/ivard. 

A rhcveron or rafter of »n house, a very honour- 
able bearing, is never seen in the coal of a king, be- 
cause it penaneth lo a mechanical profession. 


PERTH, a town in Van Dieman's-land in 
Austral Asia, agreeably situated upon the banks 
of the South Esk river, twelve miles from Laan- 
ceston. It is a military station, and in the vicin- 
ity are many excellent farms and substantial 

PERTH, a town of Austral Asia, in the divi- 
sion of New Holland. It is the chief town of 
the county of Perth, is situated upon the estuary 
of the .Swan river, above (he afflux of the Can- 
iring river, and in the capital of the district usu- 
ally called the Swan river settlement. 

PERTH, at! ancient and celebrated city of 
Scotland, the capital of Perthshire, and formerly 
of the whole kingdom, is situated in a line but 
low plain on the west bank of the Tay, which 
takes a bend to the east about a mile below the 
city. The waters of the Almond are also brought 
lo the town by a canal. Portions of the plain 
north and south are called the North and South 
Inches, each of which is about a mile and a half 
in circumference, and is used both for the profit 
and pleasure of the inhabitants. On the north 
Inch is a stxxl race ground. 

The old part ofthc town is uniform in its 
plan, consisting of four streets from east to west, 
crossed b^ others at right angles. At the east 
end of High Street stood the "old town house, 
county hall and prison, now rebuilding after a 
design by Smirke, on the site of the former 
palace of »hc Gowrie family. In the High Street 
IS the guildhall, a plain building, and at the 
west end of it a modem church, with a steeple 
140 feet high. In George Street is the public 
coffee room, also a hand.some modem building. 
There are several other eood luJli in the city, 



particularly tliat of the royal arch nuson lorlge, 
uii the site of the ancient parliament hoiiiie of 
Scotland. A little to the south and west of the 
now churcli iM an old hospital, founded by James 
VI., now used as wareliouses. between the 
ilii;h Street and the South Street stands tlic 
church of St. Jolm the Haptist, a building of 
very great antiquity, with a high spire, and is 
fitted up for three places of worship called the 
Kast, Middle, and VVcst kirks. Chapels for the 
dissenters are also numerous. Tlie episcopal 
chapel in Prince's Street is a very elegant build- 

The whole of the Blackfriars ground on the 
north, and a considerable space of ground on 
the south side of the town, have within these 
twenty years been laid out for buildings, and a 
New Town may be then said to have arisen, 
containing a considerable number of streets, 
with many noble houses. Adjoining the North 
Inch is a crescent, place, and terrace, the latter 
a row of very fine buildings, in the centre of 
which is the Seminaries, a handsome fabric, 
where the various branches of education are 
taught. An elegant new theatre forms the 
western termination of the crescent, and a fine 
barrack terminates Athol Street in the same di- 
leclion. At the extremity of South Inch stands 
a depot, built by government for the reception 
of prisoners of war, now used for military stores. 
It IS considered one of the most complete and 
well arranged establishments of this kind in 
Great Uritain. Two banking companies belong 
to the town, and there ij also a branch of the 
bank of Scotland, and another of the British 
Linen Company, established here. The grammar- 
school of I'erth lias long been accounted one of 
the best in Scotland, and has produced many 
eminent statesmen and scholars. A literary anil 
antiquarian society has also been established. 

I'erth was only provided formerly with a 
wooden bridge over the Tay. lliis gave place 
in 1772 to a new one of stone, designed by 
Mr. Smeaton, and begun in 1706. It consists 
of ten arches, is 906 feel in length, and twenty- 
two in breadth, and was built at an expense of 
about £30,000. At the eaiit end of the bridge 
is the bridge end or burgh of Kiniioul. 

Tlie salmon fishery on the Tay is very exten- 
sive, and the annual rent may be estimated at 
about £7000, of which Perth shares about £l 000. 
The salmon arc sent to Ixindon, packed in ice 
or pickled; a smack sailing every tliiitl or fourth 
day during the sea.son. The stiqile inanufiicture 
of Perth is linen ; but of hue the cotton manu- 
facture has greatly rivalled it. There are up- 
wards of 2500 looms employed in the town, 
which manufacture linen and cotton ^ood.s, l>c- 
sides extensive manufactures of leather articles 
of all kinds. In the neighliourlinod are various 
manufacturing villages, of which Tulloch, Crai- 
Ree-mill, and Muirtoun of Dalhousic, arc in 
the of Perth. 

Perth is a loyal borough, and joined with 
Dundee, Forfar, Cu]>ar of Fife, and St. Andrews, 
in electing a representative in the liritish inqie- 
rial parlianirnl. It kul a royal charter frrnn 
kini: David I., who dii.-<l in 1153, and wlmli 
wa.N renewed and coiifiriiiid b\ nnotliti fmin 

king William I. in 1210, which is still i 
It IS governed by a provost, four I aitii 
three merchants and one tradesman), a.i' 
guild, treasurer, and nineteen coiinseUon. 
gave formerly tlie title of earl to the Urunm 
family, and the fonrtli earl was created dul 
Perth, by James II. By clause 4, of theSs 
B«form Act, Perth alone is privileged ta 
tdm one member to parliament. 

Various accounts are given of the i 
ancient history of this place : some ^ 
cribing its first foundation to the Uomaa ^ 
Agricola; who is said to have fixed his 
here about A. D. 70, from the resemblasB* 
the scenery to that of Rome. The sc****** 
when they first saw the river Tay, and tha? .^""^ 
cent plain, are recorded to have excl^»»"* 
' Ecce Tiber ! Ecce Campus ftlartius !' M-***"' 
the Tiber! Behold the field of .Mars ! IIer»«=^ 
Tay, we are told, was called New Tiber, 'fc».y , 
Italians; and Fordun, a Scottish historian^ t?* 
the name of Tyber-Mere, to an extensive- ■^*' 
west of the town. An aqueduct, said t«»_ *?^ 
been constructed here by Agricola, is i*-»"* 
existence. When the town was fortified iK. * 
plied the ditches. j 

Necham, an English writer, who gave l*^^^_ 
on history at Paris in 1180, describes Pef*-^^ 
a place of opulence; and, in 1210, accordi*"*?^ 
the Scottish historians, it was strongly for* *^^ 
by king William, who renewed its cmirtpr^ ,^-i' 
granted many additional privileges to the^^^^ 
At this time, and indeed until the reign om^ g4 
Stuart fiimily, Perth was reckoned the caj^^ 
city of Scotland, when kings were crowoe^^ ^ 
Scone. Between the years 1201 and 145^ ^^ 
fewer than fourteen parliaments were held h^^^s 
It wa.s then likewise, as it is still, an exten*^ ^^ 
commercial town. Fordun says that the f^^^ 
chants of Perth visited, in their own ships, xf^^ 
Ilanse Towns. 

ITie Flemings of this and the followios tM*^ 
tury also frequented the port of Perth, and inili^ 
viduats of that nation connected with the lineO 
and woollen manufactures appear to have fixeJ 
their abode in the town. King William, how- 
ever, put the foreign luerchanUs of Perth under 
restrictions ; and, to prevent the settlunient of 
foreign manufacturers there, grautetl in his char^ 
ter that the burgesses mieht have a nwrchant 
guild of their own, ' fullers and weavers ex- 
c«!pte<l.' Edward 1. of Knglaod made it the 
residence of his deimties : Koltert Bruce attacked 
this town in i:<06 and 1311, but was repulsed 
on the former occiusion by the earl of Pembroke; 
on the latter, after an obstiiuUe sii^e of six weeks, 
he sucre<Mle<I in stormiii:; the forlilic.ttion.s, which 
he Icvi-tted wiili tin- uroitiid. After tin- \t\V\v of 
Duplin these »eri.' rebuilt by lUluard Baliul. 
In 1335 our Eduard III. took {MMsessioii of 
Perth, and residetl in it. John, r.irl of Corn- 
wall, brother to that monarch, is Miid to luive 
died here in OctolM'r 1336; receiving, accuniiug 
to Fordun, his mortal uoiiud from the kind's 
own dasrucr. In 133U Perth ciidiirvd a linij; 
siiti- 1>> the regent Uoliert, and »;l« only laki-ii 
by dritninu the ditch. In 14;17 James I of 
Sri)tt:iii>l »iis iiiunU'i'tHl at llie Klurk I'' liio- 
iia-<li'rr \^\ Unbert Craliain, who uuuiidi'd liiui 



r«l want of coal, limestone, which is found in 
many parts of the county, is of little value. 
Some years ago a machine was erected for 
|ioundmg limestone for manure: but the experi- 
ment fdiled. In the higher grounds the prevail- 
ing rock is granite, and in the lower sandstone. 
On the southern ridges, or skirts of the moun- 
tains, both slate and freestone are found in 
abundance ; but here the great sandstone stratum 
of Scotland terminates, in like manner as the 
coal held does to the southward of the Ochils. 
Hence it may be remarked that Perthshire con- 
tams within itself the boundary between the 
sandstone and the granite ; for the former is only 
discovered in small patches to the north, and the 
latter seldom shows itself to tlie south, except in 
fjalloway. What is curious, the secondary 
minerals on the ridges of the Grampians, such as 
slate, limestone, and even sandstone, seem In be 
affected in their properties by the proximity, or 
intermixture, of the primary rocks. Tlius, below 
Murphy, in the parish of Little Dunkcld, is an 
inexhaustible body of a very line grained free- 
stone, which is of a light livid ash color, and so 
hard as to resist the action of the atmosphere for 
many centuries. I'he cathedral of Dunkeld was 
built of stones from this district, and fully cor- 
roborates the above assertion. In the hills of 
liirnam the slale is of a very deep blue color, 
lordcring on violet ; and the same is nearly the 
character of the limestone found at Ilannoch, 
(ilenlyon, Breadalbane, and the head of Sira- 
thcam. In Monteath is also a quarry of the 
same mineral, resembling marble, of a blue 
rround, with streaks of white. Iron stone ap- 
pears in some parts ; but no mines of that metal 
nave ever been opened, except on the southern 
side of the Ochils, about Culross. A lead mine 
was wrought for many years near Tyndrum, in 
Breadalbane, as was likewise one in Glenlyon, 
but these are now liolh abandoned. Some lead 
ore was also discovered, about twenty years 
back, in the mountain of Iten-l^di. One vein, 
on the north-east side of the mountain, was found 
to be extremely rich in silver, but its dimensions 
were too small to admit of its being wrought. 
In the hill of Birnam also several pieces of lead 
ore have been dug up. This ore was encrusted 
with a white sparry, or rather quartzose, sub- 
stance ; one piece, about six pounds in weight, 
cunsitted of unmixed compact ore, which pro- 
duced a considerable portion of pure lead. It 
was found at the base of the hill. 

SUles arc abundant in different parts of the 
county. The princital stratum commences on 
llie borders of Ix>rh Lomond, in Dunbartonshire, 
and seems to terminate near Dunkeld. They 
are of two kinds, the blue and the gray slale. 
The former, which are by far the roost valuable, 
■rv [ilenilful m Monteath, and along the north 
side of the ( k'hils. Gray slates also are found 
in vast quantities in the same districts, as well 
as in iitrathallan aiMl Siratlieam. Tlicy consist 
of Htralstone, nhs-h may be split into thin 
layers, »n fret >i|unie: and are, since the mtro- 
duciion of bliH- .laics in roofing, chiefly used for 
nialt-kilns. Hoon. un>l piivriiitnt. In the parith 
of Wester loiilis n i liliic slate quarry of prcal 
vmIik; but il IS nut »cuiivlil lo any very con- 

siderable extent, on account of its dista 
water carriage. Tlie best freestone qui 
tliose in the parish of Tulliallaii on thl 
and on the estate uf Milnfield, m til 
eastcmcorner of the county. Shell-marb 
in Stormont and Stralheam- i 

The alluvial soil on the banks of || 
is in many parts of the richest qualit| 
considerable extent. The Carse of Gal 
tract of about 1 8,000 acres, situated on 4 
and north-west banks of the Frith ol 1 
has long been celebrated for its orchard 
sizes. Perthshire has red and fallow 4 
roes, rabbits, pigeons, and poultry; ^ 
d.ince of the other game of the Highbina 
much ornamented by the numerous «^ 
proprietors, and lias two royal burghs, H 
Culross. Pcrtli is a place of great 4 
formerly the usual residence of tlie ( 
sovereigns, who were crowned at Scan 
vicinity, and the seat of parliaments aij 
of justice. Some of the most impi>rui 
in Scottish history, both of a religious |^ 
tiiry description, occurred lierc. It il 
well built thriving town, containing, ( 
about 23,000 inhabitants. About seve4 
towns and villages are scattered over thf 
the most considerable of which have beed 
described in the Encyclopedia. [ 

The chief manufactures are linenij 
leather, and paper. As well as exlensivl 
&elds, print-fields, and cotton-mills, it | 
for extracting oil from seed, and for tbei 
of flax and wool. The exports are col 
and linen-yam, cottons, boots and shocM 
and coals : and it imports lime in %hm 
ties, some of tlie materials of its vaaai 
and many domestic articles. \ 

Prmu, Abtici.ks or. The Jive aii 
Perth, so called because they were carri^ 
influence of the court and bishops at •» 
tion or assembly summoned to meet | 
August 25lh, 1618, are as follow:— I. 1 
holy sacrament should be received kne^ 
That ministers should be obliged to ad 
the sacrament in private houses to 4 
if ihey desired it. 3. That ministers iq|| 
tise children privately at home, in I 
necessity, only certifying it to the coti^ 
the next Lord's day. 4. T>iat ministe«| 
bring such children of their parish as d 
their catechism, and repeat the Lonla 
creed, and ten commandments, to tbe | 
that they might confirm them and gh 
their blessing. A. That the festivals ofl 
mas. Raster, Whitsuntide, and tlie Ajofl 
our Saviour, should for the futnre b« edj 
rated in the church of Scotland. 1| 
ordered thcM article* to be publisb*d 
market-cnxaes of the several borougfaa^j 
ministers lo read ihrm in their pulpj 
most of the ministers refused, as they m^ 
tioned by no ]>cnBlty except the king's i 
sure. l"he king, liowevrr, determining ■ 
(he ratification of parliament, iwnied d 
Illation, commanding all ministers «ho4 
them, and whii w<te prr|>«rinK a mpi 
:i'.'ain>t llirm. In leave ihe city of at 
within twenty hours. The mmisim *! 

PER 69 

I ikon a protestation against the 

HI •iflKmilioti to the memben 

■at lo ntify them, as ihey would 

Liht dtj of judgroent. The court 

ami the articles were rali- 

lo Ibe teaae of the kirk and 

.. BMasure occasioned a peraecn- 

I Ike kiogdom, and many of the 

mniotcn were fined, imprisoned, 

by the high commis^iion. Tliu^ 

jy and erudite James I. proceeded 

I lUUlution of episcopacy in Scot- 

■pe wa» still wanting for the com- 

t«ork a public lituri;y, or book of 

'ftt- An insurrection through the 

B tMSDf apprehended, he desisted 

^tliia aawtse measure, and left it to 

b]f tiif ton, whose ini|KMition of it 

^ kirit. wuliout consent of parliament or 
UcbUt, act fire to the discontents of the 
HHtk Md b«*n gathering for so many 



Latin, perttnax. 
Obstinate ; stub- 
bom ; stickling ; 
used, however, in 
'a good sense by 
resolute ; firm ; con- 
vb and noun substantive follow 
p w t in a ci ty and pertinacy also 
■tabboraitess; steadiness; see 
I Taylor. 

AaadoB to me which they f/trii- 
t to tbaoaelves. h'htg Churlti. 
M rach, that when you drive 
, dtey assume another. Dufim. 
ynyad with passioo and ptninucii, 
1 reuf. Taj/lnr. 

klMeeh) makelh them iodocile and intrac- 
RBOas better initruction, f>rrtittacwut in 
icftactory in their wayt. 

tacladcd a very grou mistake, 
kv maintained, a capital enour. 
appeared In Dr. Sanderson 
■bkiuiin and illog:ical in the dis- 
I to toy. that he had never met 
I pminaeima confidence and less 
I Wullon. 

ffm aoafiil to ease themselves of ail the 
by diapatiDg sublily against it. and 
aialaimng that afflictions are no real 
t ■■ iaagiBaiian. TiUotwH. 

I of ill fortune, in pur- 
r graves. L'h'ttrttngt. 

)Rsi*l all transmulalion ; and 
I they were turae<l into a dif- 
r do but as it were lurk un- 
I ia • atoatly. conslaat. and pc, 'inaewut 

I rally Irtds the soul into the know- 
lib a* first leiaed locked up from it. 
, Smh. 


■\ Fr. ptrtaunt ; Lit. 

/ ptrltvem, prrliruo. 

> Ilelalive ; apposite ; 

i exactly lo purpose ; 
1. J rclalin;;: , concerning : 
, and pertinentness, mean 
y; justness of relation. 

Men shall have just cause, when any thing perlu 
ntnl unto faith and religion is doubled of, the more 
willing lo incline iheit minds towards that which the 
sentence of so grave, wise and learned in that faculty 
shall judge most sound. Honker. 

My caution was more pertinent 
Than the rebuke you give it. 

ShaJupearf. Csno/iHiui. 
I set down, out of experience in business, and con- 
versation in books, what 1 thought prrlijunl to this 
business. Baam. 

Here I shall socm a little to digraa, but you will 
by and by find it pertinent. ij. 

Be modest and reserved in the presence of thy bet- 
ters, speaking little, answering prfiin«nf/y, not inter- 
posing without leave or reason. Tatilor. 
Modest, sober, and pertinent discourse would ap- 
pear far more generous and masculine, than such 
mad hectoring the Almighty, such boisterous insult- 
ing over the received laws and general notions of 
mankind. Barrow on Vain Sicenring. 

If he could find ^rt»rnl treatises of it in books» 
that would reach all the particulars of a man's beha- 
viour ; his own ill-fashioned example would spoil all, 

I have shewn the fitness and prrtineneii of tlie 
apostle's discourse to the persons he adilresml to, 
whereby it appearetli that he was no babbler, and 
did not talk at random. Bentleg. 

PRUTINAX, an illustrious Roman emperor, 
who nourished about A. P. 170. He was de- 
scended of a mean family ; and like his lather, 
who was either a slave or the son of a slave, be 
for some time followcil the employment of male 
ing churcoal. liis poverty did not, however 
prevent him from receiving a liberal education. 
Vor some time he was employed in leaching the 
Cireek and the Roman languages in Elruria. He 
nevl became a soldier, and by his valor rose to 
the highest offices in the army, and was made 
consul by iM. Aurelius. He was afterwards 
made governor of .Miesia, and at length of Rome 
itself W hen Commodus was murdered, Per- 
liiiax was universally chosen to succeed to the 
imperial dignity. He complied with reluctance; 
but his mildness, his economy, and popularity, 
convinced the senate and people of the propriety 
of their choice. He forbad his name lo be in- 
scribed on any part of the imperial domains, 
insisting that they belonged not to him but lo 
the public. He melted the silver statues which 
had been raised to Commodus, and sold all his 
concubines, horses, arms, and other inslru- 
mems of his pleasure. With the money thus 
raised, he abolished all the taxes which that 
prince had imposed. These patriotic actions 
gained him the affection of the worthiest of his 
subjects ; but, when he attempted lo introduce 
among the prelorian guards proper discipline, 
the minds of the soldiers were totally ilienaied. 
Pertinax wa.s apprized of their mutinying ; but, 
instead of flying, he boldly addressed them; 
and they had be>ruii to retire, when one of the 
most setlilious advance, and darting a javelin at 
his breast, exclaiming, 'The soldiers send you 
this.' The rest followed the bloody example ; 
and Pertinax, muffling up his head, and calling 
upon Jupiter to aven;e his death, was inime- 
diately despatched. This abominable murder 
happened A. O. 103. It was no sooner known 
tlian the enraged populace flocked from all 



quurtsrs, and utterini; drcad^l menaces apiinst 
llie authors of his death, ran up and down the 
Ktreets in quest of tliem ; but the senate had not 
the courage to avenge it. Such was the lamented 
end of Pertinax, af^er he had lived sixty-six 
years, seven months, and tn-enly-six days ; and 
reigned, according to Dio Cassius, only eighty- 
seven days. His remains were interred with 
great pomp by Uidius Julianus, his successor. 
Septimius Scverus assumed the name of I'erti- 
nax, and punished with great severity all who 
had been accessory to his death ; disbande<l the 
l'ra?torian gtiarils, pronounced his panegyric, and 
caused him to be ranked amone the pods, ap- 
pointing his son chief priest The day of his 
accession and his birthday were celebrated for 
many years. 

I'EIITI'IS, in mililiiry affairs, a narrow pas- 
sage which is made in the shallow parts of a 
civer, for the facility of navigation. Tliis passage 
is sometimes confined with tlood-gatcs, in order 
In raise or lower the waters according to circura- 

PKRTUISANE, a halbert which has o lonyjer 
nnd broader iron at the end than the common 
halberts have. They have been disused since 
the close of the seventh century. 

I'KKTt 1{B'. t>. a. > Lat. perturho. To 
I'lRTrR'sATE, I', o. ^ disquiet; to disturb; 
I'Fp.TtiiiBA'TioN, n. J. J disorder ; deprive of 
Irinquillity : perturbation is disturbance; rest- 
lessness; disquiet; cause of disauiet. Bui wc 
only find it in Shakspeare in this last seoie. 

Mis wasting flesh with anguish bums. 
And his periurhed soul within him mourns. Safu/y<. 
Kest, rest, periuHmi spirit. Shaktftare, 

t) polishrd yerturhtition f qoltlen care! 
Th.u krpp'ft the ports of slumlwr ojmjti wide, 
'Jo many a watchful night : slwp with it now, 
^ cl not tu sound, and half so tliteply twe«t, 
.Vs lie. whose brow with homely bigg<u bound, 
C>Ui-|m out the watrh of night. Id. Hnrii I V. 
Nat\irc4 that havf.' much heat, and great and vio- 
lent drsim and perturbaltout, are nut ripe for aL-tion, 
til! they hive passed the mendioii uf their yvai.%. 

Ucstore yourselves unto your temper, falhcn; 
And, without ptrivrbatiaii^ hear me spvak. 

Jien Jonmn. 

1'hey are content to sofler the penalties minexed, 
rather \!h%n fnurb the public peace. Kmp I'harln. 
l.ove was not in their looks, either tn Ciod, 

Nor to each other ; but apparent guilt, 

And thune, asd pn-turlutim, and despair. 


*l*bc inaervirnt and brutal faculties cootrouled the 
^uggrstinns of truth ; pleasure and proAt overswiy- 
ing the tnft'.rui:tioos ol hoo«sty, and sensuality per- 
litihui;^ ihr rriuionabtc ruinmand&uf virtue. Brmtrnt, 

1'hf toul. as it IS mure immediately and strongly 
affected by this part, so doth it manifest all its pas- 
sions and p^rturfMiiiwrif by it. Ray. 

I'EKTUSION, ».». Utt. pcTtutus. The act 
of iiiercintr or punching. 

\n empty pot without earth in it, may lie put over 

fruit Uie Letter, if Konir few ptriustmit Im imule in 
he pnt. lia£xnt. 

The manner of opening a vein in llippoiratn't 
bnie, was by stabbing or frTlu$imt, as it is pi-i(oinied 
a liones. JrAMfAnW. 

t'EUTUStS,chuicuugh, Sc^MtniciM., Indrk. 


PERU, once the largest of the S| 
royalties in Soulli Amenca, is at \ 
independent state, whose natural featur 
much of whose political history we Im' 
given in the article America, Surni 
V\ e need only observe here that it is 
rally considered as situated between 3" 
21° 30' S. lat, and 65" and 81° 10* V 
It is bounded on the north by the repi 
Columbia ; east by Brasil ; south by thi 
of Atacama, which separates it from Ch, 
by the I'niled Provinces of South A 
and west by the Pacific Ocean. Its 
from north to south is about 750 mi 
mean breadth about t)60, the area 
495,000. But the sinuosities of the 
considerable as to give a cout^te of 
1000 miles. 

The Andes penetrate this territory 
east to north-west nearly parallel with It 
in three principal ridges or cordilleras, wh 
tinue till about 6° of S. lat., where they w 
a single chain. Along the whole coast c 
side is a narrow plain, from thirty-five 
miles wide, called the country of Vi 
sisting of a siKcession of barren santi 
Immediately east of this is the lower i 
ridge of the Andes, reaching the whoh 
Peru ; not in one unbroken elevation 
Cordillera of Mexico, but composed 
sive sumiuils of immense height, betsi 
the eastern inhabitants find a laborio 
to the country of Valles. Between ll 
and central ridges there is a series 
varying in width from 100 to 170 mile 
generally 8000 or 10,000 feet above \ 
the ocean, and separated from eacit 
deep valleys. The central cordill 
also of separate summits, less broken 
western, and has an average height oj 
feel. Beyond the eastern cordillera tl unexplored plains, which 
Brasil, and traversed from south to 
principal mountain tributaries of tlie 
So rar as the cultivation of the c( 
has extended, it is powerfully aided 
of manure peculiar to this part of 
whosic qualities seem to be derived 
singular circumstance of no rain fallii 
< )n the islands, the resting-places of i 
aquatic birds, their dung has accumud 
course of ace5, so iis to form hills of 
100 feel in height, close to the ahore» 
is C(>n\cyed liy small vessels to the i 
Tlie dung tlius collcctol, not liatia 
dduted by rain, mid lieing but sligUl 
by the sun, ha.s retained, according to 
sis of Sir Humphry Davy, a greater 
of ammonia ttian anv substance tiM 
been applied to Una as manure. I 
Inct most of the tropical fruits can b( 
the bank* «f the small streams, or 
artificial irrigation. 

Tl c sides of the Andes neantt 
Ocean are covered with fomi 
iiiH>em.'tralile by the nunirrous 
which twinr rounil the Imis, 
yield acacias, mangle trm, aih 
aiul fvru> ; akm and other 



tm, m OriM UNS of ^gaiitic magni- 
■■rjr kind* of cbonv. and other uin- 

ftma» Icmccn \\ie Aifleaare perpe- 
■t ; and ifae grains, the vegetables, 
it> of Europe, Hunnsli here amidst 
p Mmid tamt. ^^ ine, oil, and sugar, 
I «ahnlile productions of the coast ; 
iMUPlnntan bark, and cacao, of the 


■ oa the west side of (he Andes are 
Mia itieiius of short course ; on the 
nae the Arngon and iu tributaries, 
dbtncts are of far-famed 
Bccenlly the number of gold 
lags worked in Peru was sixty- 
' at «ilier mines 784, of quick- 
, wt MMier four, and of lead twelve. 
I pfouce of the whole is valued at 
dattMs, of which silver constitutes 
bL These rich mines, however, have 
• oadar bad management, and their 
kaaoc very inferior to what it might 
Thoie that are most productive are 
if ftaeo. in the province of Tarma. 
Med on a high table land, which 
D 1 3,000 feet above the level of the 
diaroreRd in 1030, by liuari Ca- 
Tbe metalliferous bed is not 
as the pits are only from 
deep. Water i« then met with, 
|i:reBt expense to remove it, 
■0A« to be abacdoned. This mine 
ieet long, and 721 7 broad ; and 
-CDgines, and according to the 
(«a(tised in Europe, it would 
ive as the celebrated mines of 
in Mexico. I'he annual produce 
ijOOO ll>». troy. The mountain of 
in sihich these mines are situated, 
■iiai from Pasco, and contains an 
«f ftoe porous brown iron-stone, 
!fMd throughout with pure sil- 
'it or nine marks of the metal 

Bh uiidi e d weight of the ore. There 
vakiof friable while metallic argil, 
» from two to ten |>ounds of silver 
ni weight. The mines of Choco, 
HR discovered by Don Hodrigues 
fe Eaappean, m 1771 : bat in the time 
Perovians obtained metal from 
L The mine^ in the I'ariido of Choco, 
tackid^rj under the aiipelliilion of 
have sometime!! suppiieti the pro- 
maj of Tnixillo wiih mure than 
Wey «f pare silver annually. These 
(hat thaa those of Fotasi,and are si- 
t hrighl of 13,.386 feel above the level 
kOnait. The mines of Huantnjaya, 
lada vt Aries, in a desert nrar the 
at li|uiqne, are famed fur their larve 
•dier. Two piece* were not 
fanad, th* one wcichini: two. and the 
' ■ -T iiies are also sur- 
. and ll«'ir vthole 

id u. ::.mi 42,000 lbs. to 

lauBrnve we;iltli li.i? likewise 

ia Mntr^l othi-r pl.ii-en. At 

Karar. ahemcrthc turf u turned up. 

for more than half a square league. Iilament.<i of 
silver are found adhering to the rouLs of the grass, 
and sometimes large pieies of native metal ap- 
pe.v. At present iiiusi of the I'cnivian gold 
comes from I'ataz and lluilies, in Tarmar, where 
it is met with in veins of quartz, traversing the 
primitive rock, and from the banks of the Maranon 
Alto, or higher Alaranon, where it is procured by 
washing the alluvial soil. Emeralds and oilier 
precious ■ttonps are obtained in variou.s places m 
this viceroyally. The annual produce, as esti- 
mated from llie royal revenues, between 1708 
and 1789, was £768,424. The coinage of goUl 
and silver in the royal mint at Lima, from 1791 
to 1801, amounted to £1,113,000 per annum, of 
which 17-20 lbs. were gold, and 285,000 lbs. silver. 

Among the most valuable animals of the^e 
elevated regions are the llama, the guaniico, the 
vicuna, and the alpacu ; which arc considered as 
the camels of America, and are of great use 
both as beasts of burden, and for their wool. 

In the country of Valles, included between 
the western cordillera and the coast, rain, tinm 
der.-uid lightning are entirely unknown. During 
the winter, however, which lasts from .luly lo 
November, the ground is almost constantly co- 
vered with a thick fog, which, towards the close 
of the day, generally dissolves into a very small 
mist, or dew, and moistens the earth equably. 
During the summer the sun's rays occasion an 
intense heat throughout all this region ; the more 
so as they are received \i\m\\ a sandy soil, whence 
they are strongly reflected, lliis low region is 
far from being healthy ; malignant, intermittent, 
and catarrhal fevers, pleurisies, and constipations, 
are the mast common diseases, and rage con- 
stantly at Lima A great part of I'cru, Iwtween 
the Western coast of the Andes and the ^llo^cs of 
the Pacific, supplies one of the most perfect ex- 
amples of what is called a hot and dry climate; 
as for the space of about 400 Icatnies along the 
coast, rain is wholly unknown. The Andes in- 
tercept Uie clouds, which i>our their contents on 
the mountain districts, often accompanie<l by lr«;- 
mendous thunder and lightning, while near the 
sea not a drop falls to moisten the parched soil. 
The air in all this tract is, therefore, unif 'rinly 
hot. During the winter at Lima, Fahrenheit s 
thermometer never sinks below 00°, and seldom 
rises above 85°. \'egetation flourishes to the 
height of 10,000 feet. 

The elevaled plains between the western and 
central rordiilcra, called by Humboldt the high 
table-land of Peru, has scarcely any variation of 
temperature throughout t)ie year ; the mercury of 
Falirenhcit's thermometer always standing at 
al)Out 6i° or 00° ; the climate is here mild and 
genial. The only distinction of seasons arises 
from the rain?, which prevail from November till 
May. The highest Andes are perpetually co- 
vered wiih snow, and experience an uninterrupted 
winler lielween tlie tropics. Ilereare also many 
volcanoes which are flaming within, while Oieir 
summits and all Iheir apertures are clothed wiili 

Pcni labors under great disadvantages in re- 
gard to inland communication. The deep vnllc\» 
which se|>araie the elevated plains, and the lofty 
mountains which rise between the tuble-laod miJ 



rtie coaM, render tnveltini; difficult. In m:uiy 
parts lliere i» a lolal wan! of roads as well as 
Dndges, and in others the paths lie along the 
edges of steep and rugged precipices, so narrow 
that mules alone pass in security. In the most 
mountainous districts it is customary for those 
who can afford it to travel on the barks of 
Indians ; in this way they are earned for fifteen 
or twenty days together. Nor is the Pacific 
(icean here favorable to commerce. < )n the 
whole extent of its western coast there is no har- 
bour except that of Callao, the port of Lima, 
which can be entered by a vessel of such a size 
ns is fit for the navigation round Cape Horn. 
The wind blows constantly firom the southward, 
varying only as the coast tends ; wherever, 
therefore, there is a high projecting headland 
there is shelter, and sometimes good anchopdc^ 
to the northwanl, as at Ylo, Iquequc, kc. Hut 
on every part of the shore the swell from the sea 
causes such a tremendous surf that no commu- 
nication can be liad with the shore by the boats 
of European ships. The natives pass this surf, 
on what is called a balsa, constructed of two 
skins of the largest sized seals, inflated and lashed 
side by side. The native sits on a small plat- 
form fixed between them, with a pipe made 
of the entrails of the seal, communicatinir air to 
each of the inflated skins as he finds it necessary. 
On these contrivances the natives fear no waves 
or breakers, and freauently proceeil to such a 
distance as to lose signt of land : sometimes Ihey 
add a paddle, and occasionally a small sail. 
Other vessels of this name are used for lonaer 
voyages, and consist of an unequal number 
of trees of light wood, squared, and l.ished toge- 
ther, but so loosely as to admit the action of the 
waves between tliem. Tlic centre tree is longer 
than the others, and serves the purpose of a 
prow. Some of these vessels are more than 100 
feet in length, have huls constructed ufwn them 
for the crew, and pass with security from the 
shores of Peru to the ports of Gtiyaquil and 

The native manufactures of Peru consist of 
homely articles, such as woollen and cotton 
<loths of inferior texture. But in dyeing the 
cloths, whether of woollen or cotton, the naiives 
show ingenuity, and make use of plants scarce- 
ly known in Europe. They have a root railed 
reilbon, resembling madder, but with a smaller 
leaf, an infusion of which makes a fine red. 
A plant called poquel, a kinil of female «juth- 
em-wood, with green chequered leaves, is 
used for yellow colors, as i» also the stem for 
dyeing green. A wild indigo yields them a blue 
dye, and the panqiic a hUck. The drcs« of the 
natives is simple, coiuistm; of a square cloth, 
with a hole in the ct-ntrc, throuzh winch the 
liead is thrust, and which (lillj licforc and helniid. 
The head is generally covned with a large 
made of the straw of the mai/e. 

The Peruvians «rrc laiivht ny their cclehroted 
Msnco to adore ihi' < — ^om they denomi- 
nated Pac* Camac, ' .'iice whKh uni- 
natcd the world. 11,.. .. ,.^ mi built temples. 
Of oAnd sacrifices to him. One temple, how- 
•rar, dedicated to a kind of unknown gwi, the 
Spwiiards found at their *niinil,er*«ted in ■ val- 

ley, thence named the valley of Pnea 
Tixe sacrifices instituted in honor of the >. 
sisted chiefly of hmbs ; lie^ides wfa 
offered all sorts of cattle, fowls, 
even burnt tlieir finest cloths on the i 
of incense. They had drink offering 
maize, steeped in water. They also 
kind of veneration to the images of ■ 
mals and vegetables that had a place 
temples. Besides the scilemnitie* 
moon, four jrand festivals were celeh 
ally. The first, called Kayrai, «as 1 
not only in honor of tlie sun. but of I 
inca, Manca Capac, and Coya Ma 
wife and sister, whom the incas 
their first parents, descended imme 
the sun. At this festival all the vie 
rals, governors, and nobility, assemble 
and tlie inca ofhciated in per«on as hiij 
though on other occasions the regular | 
who was usii.illy the uncle or brother of tl 
ofliciated. On the morning of the Pa 
inca, accompanied by his near relatio 
of their seniority, went barefoot in 
day-break, to the market-place, wii 
mained looking attentively toward* ( 
luminary no sooner appeared thani 
prostrate on their faces in the most 
veneration, and acknowledged if In be ik 
and father. The vaisal princes and nobilH 
were not of the blood royal, did the 
another square. The priests then oflirvdl 
lamb, in sacrifice, first turning its head I 
the east. From the entrails of the Tit 
drew prognostics of peace and war, i 
Peruvians believed in the iiumortallljT' 
soul. The incas taught them that, on 
this world, they should enter into a state t 
piness, provided for them by their god i 
the sun. 

Before the arrival of the Spaniards the ( 
were acquainted with some points of i 
They had observed the various roolioni i 
planet Venus, and the difl'ereni pha 
moon. The people divided the year by < 
sons; but the incas, who had discovet«4 I 
volution of the sun, markeil out the nimn 
winter solstices by high towen, whh 
erected on the cast and west of Cuioo. 
the sun rose directly opposite to four ofl 
towers, on the east side of the city, 
against thoscof the west, it was then llici 
solstice ; when it roM" and w>i aguinM . 
it was the winter solstice. 'I'htT'l 
erected marble pillari on the grtal i 
the temple of the sun, by wliicli they i 
the equinoxes, under the equator, when 
l>eing vcrticaU the pilhin i-.i^t no ihade. 
times they crowned tlu- itillarH Mtth gar) 
flowers and odoriferous licflin, and celr~ 
festival to the sun. They distimruii 
months by the muon, and theirweok* w«l«4 

Quarters of the moon ; the days of the ■uih 
i.'<iiiiiniishe<l, as first, second, ke. Wlim 
sun wa«t>clipsed,they concluHiil il\>'u4r>ii iut«tt| 

of llw ir illn iJl.r, rlti.n,- ll,|.. .,!.. i . . .|| K'f OQ M 

ti-ti <i'UeMlki 

tern 'I lh« n»«i| 

thry apprehended tluit Vit- »:■• ».ck »m1 liJ^^ 



iWlttiijfAcn, who taught morals, cul- 
IM^ fan, ml compoaed pluyj, vrhicli were 
•eal Mb tte knie by the great men of the 
«KAn,kc. They were acquainted with 
^m^wi Mtoary ; but in all the implements 
W aMMc «t> ibey were extremely deficient. 
t^ mtj ■oldsmhhs were constantly em- 
ff^ 4(y kaa ecrer inveDted an anvil of any 
•■(, tat aid a faaid stone, and beat their 
•i •*& imad pieces of copper instead of 
ct kaa they any files or graving 
r CMpenters had no other tools than 
irfeoppct or flint ; nor had they learned 
•f ma; ihou{(h the country afibids 
lit iL TKeir knives were also made of 

tuj was first made known to Europe 
■oil KOTemor of Santa Maria, in Da- 
I de Balboa, who accidentally learned 
(■ iMBf caciqiie that there was a country 
~ mik gold about six days' journey to 
BUboa set out, therefore, on the 1st 
t, 1513, about the lime that the 
t» began to abate. He had only 
I along with him ; but all of them 
, lanied to the climate of America, 
ted to their leader: 1000 
I them, with their fierce dogs, to 
lh> MovitioDs and other necessaries. 
ipin) journey of twenty-five days, Bal- 
■■id at tiw South Sea; when he went 
t^ 10 ike middle, and took possession of 
kMd oceui in the name of the king of 
1W pari of the South Sea he called 
Ti^ Sl Michael ; a name it still relams. 
I if the caciques he extorted provisions 
■■ iCDt him presents voluntarily, 
gk hi* followers to Santa Maria, 
, taA sent an account to the court 
III (heoDpoitaotdiacoveTy he had made, 
t tOOO Bwa to conquer the new country 
But the king appointed 
Dkfila to supersede him, with the 
•f fiAeen stout vessels and 1200 
Byboa submitted to the king's plea- 
air governor tried him for some 
I HMTttlarities committed before bis ar- 
tfata ban of almost all he was worth. 
the Spaniards, paying no re- 
9 concluded by Balboa with 
^idadend and destroyed them mdis- 
1^ fian lbs gulf of Darien to lake Ni- 
lew comers had also arrived 
Idle of the wet season, when the 
I produced the most fatal diseases. 
) }oiMd an extteme scarcity of provi- 
IMl is a month above 600 Spaniards 
Balboa fcnl remonstrances to Spain 
I aew governor; on which tlie king 
BaDxB to supersede him with very 
ittr ; enjoining I'edrarias to sup- 
ia aii bis enterprises. But though a 
-- - look pUce m appeaiance, so far 
■ aj ie wl to give nis daughter in 
I lo tHf*"**, he soon afler had him con- 
aod cacoited on pretence of disloyalty. 
baith of Balboa, further disroverirs were 
; (bt aoaM time; but there were three 
. 1^ Paaama who determined to eo in 

quest of this country. Tlie^e were Francis Pi- 
zarro, Diego de Almagro, and llernand Luquc. 
We have adverted already to the general histury 
of their proceedings here, but some further par- 
ticulars will gratify such of our readers as wish 
to understand the spirit of the Spanish conquests. 
Piiarro and Almagro were soldiers of fortune, 
and Luque was an ecclesiastic, who acted at Pa- 
nama as a priest and schoolmaster. Their con- 
federacy was authorised by Pedrarias ; and each 
engaged to employ his whole fortune in the ad- 
venture. Pizano, being the least wealthy, en- 
gaged to take upon himself the greatest share nf 
the fatigue and danger, and to command the ar- 
mament. Almagro offered to conduct the su|>- 
plies of provisions and reinforcements; and 
Luque was to remain at Panama, to superintend 
their general interests. In 1524 Pizarro set 
sail from Panama with a single vessel of small 
burden, and 1 12 men, selecting the most impro- 
per season of the whole year, i.e. when the pe- 
riodical winds, which were then set in, were 
directly opposed to his course. The consequence 
was, that, after beating about for seventy days, 
with much danger and fatigue, he had advanced 
scarcely as far to the south-east as a skilful na- 
vigator will now make in three days. He touched 
at several places of Terra Firma, however, and 
at the Pearl Islands, where he was found by Al- 
magro, who had set out in quest of him with a 
reinforcement of seventy men, and had suffered 
similar distresses. But the country of Popayan, 
showing a better aspect, and the inhabitants be- 
ing more friendly, they determinwl not to aban- 
don their scheme. Almagro relumed lo Panama, 
but the bad accounts of the service gave his 
countrymen such an unfavorable idea of it, that 
Almagro could levy only eighty men. The dis- 
asters and disappointments they met with, io 
this new attempt, were scarcely inferior to those 
they had already experienced, when part of the 
armament at last reached the bay of St. Matthew 
on the coast of Quito, and landed at Tacamez, 
where they met with a more fertile country than 
any they had yet seen ; the natives also being 
more civilised, and clothed in cotton or woollen 
stuffs, adorned with gold and silver. But some 
of the adventurers had informed their friends of 
their many dangers and losses, which weiehed so 
much with Peter de los Kios, the successor of 
Pedrarias, that he prohibited (he raising of new 
recruits, and even despatched a vessel to bring 
home Pizarro and his companions from Oallo. 
Almagro and Luque advised Pizarro not to relin- 
quish an enterprise on which they had built all 
their hopes, ne therefore refiised to obey the 
governor's orders, and entreated his men not to 
abandon him. But the calamities to which they 
had been exposed had such an effect, that when 
he drew a Ime upon the sand wiih his sword, 
telhng such as wished to return, that they might 
pass over it, only thirteen remained with hira. 
Pizarro with his little troop now fixed their resi- 
dence on the island of Oorgona, where ihey con- 
tinued five months, in the most unwholesome 
climate, when a vessel arrived from Panama, Al- 
magro and Luque having prevailed on the gover- 
nor to send them relief, lie now therefore sailed 
to the south-east, and in twenty days landed on 



Uie roast of Peni, at Tumliei, rcmatkalile for its 
stalely temple, anil a )>alace of tlie inciis or 
sovereigns of the country. Here they found tlie 
re^iorts concerning the riches of the country were 
true; not only ornaments and sacred vessels 
being mad'.- of gold and silver, but even such as 
were for common use. Yet to attempt the con- 
quest of this opulent empire with their slender 
force would have been madness ; they contented 
themselves with viewing it, procuring two of the 
beasts called LUmas, some vessels of Kold and 
silver, and two young men, whom they instructed 
in the C'astilian language. With these Piiarro 
airived at Panama in 1527. 

Iluana Capac, the twelfth monarch from the 
founder of the native empire, was at this time 
on the throne ; a prince no less conspicuous for 
his abilities in war than for his pacific virtues. 
By him the kingdom of (juito was subdued, which 
almost doubled the extent of the Peruvian empire. 
. Huana married the daughter of the conquered 
monarch, by whom he had a son named Ata- 
liualpa, or Atabalipa, to whom, at his deatii in 
1529, he left the kingdom of Quito, bestowing 
the rest of his dominions on Hua-Hcar, his eldest 
son, by a motlier of tlie royal race. This pro- 
duced a civil war, in whicii Atubalipu proved 
victorious, and afterwards, to secure himself on 
the throne, put to deatli all the descendants of 
Manco ; but he spared the life of his rival 
Iluascar, who was taken prisoner, that, by is- 
suing orders in his name, he might establish his 
own authority. Tliis contest had now so much 
engaged the attention of the Peruvians, that, on 
the return of the Spaniards, they never attempted 
to check their progress. The finst intelligence 
i'izarro received of it was a message from 
Iluascar, asking his asisistance aj^inst Atabalipa. 
Pizarro, therefore, determined to push forward, 
while intestine discord put it out of the power 
of the Peruvians to attack him with their whole 
force. Leaving a garrison in St. Michael, he 
began Ins march with only sixty-two horsemen, 
and lO'i foot. He proceeded to Caxamalca, 
where Atabalipa was encamped, and was met 
by an officer with a vahutble present from the 
Inca, accompanied with a proffer of his alliance. 
Piiarro pretended to come as the ambassador of 
a very powerful monarch, who wished to aid 
him against his enemies. As the object of the 
Spaniards in entering iheir country was othcr- 
v.i<4: iiliosether incomprehensible, the J'eruvians 
had (i>rni«<l \arious conjectures concerning IL 
I'icarro's declanilions of his pacitic intentions, 
lK>w, therefore, removed all the Inca's fears. 
The S|>aniards were thus allowed to inarch across 
the sandy dcvn hriwcrn St. Michael and Mi>- 

lujie, aiiu thr" in the mountains so 

iiamiw and i'- ■ ili:it a few nii-ii might 

liave defended it. \i they approtkched to Cax- 
nmalca, Atabali|)a sent them prc'^cnts of still 
grcatpr value. On ciitenng (axanuilui, Pizarro 
look possession of a large court, on unc side of 
which was a p.ilace of thr lnc«, und oi? the 
other a temple of th* «uii, «urmundcj with a 

Strom- rii.,i,,il \\ I,.-,, 1.. I,.,l , lii, iriiopi 

in ' .icliol 111 r- 

n:iii I ■ -^1 iiid, to Ihr 

Okicp of the looB, to 6eun an inlcrvinr. Herv 

they were treated with respertnil 
and Atabalipa promised to visit the j 
inander next day. The dci-cnt 1I4 
the Peruvian monarch, the order 1 
and the reverence with which his sub 
his commands, a^to^lshed the S|H 
their eyes were more powerfully atl 
vast profusion of wealth which thi 
On their return to Caxamalca, tliey 
description of it as coiifirtned Pizai 
lulion which he had already taken, 
it was perfidious. lie determined 1 
self of Atabalipa's unsuspicious si 
seize his person. Dividing his cava] 
into three squadrons, under his bro( 
and, Soto, and Benalcaziar; and 
infantry into one body, except iwi 
tried courage, whore he kept near 
son ; he placed his artillery, coiui 
field-pieces, and the cross-bow men 
the avenue by which Atabali])a was 
Early in the morning, the Peruvian 
motion. But as Atabali]ia was suli 
pear with the greatest splendor 
cence in his first iiiteniew with Oie 
day was far advanced before he bcgi 
At length the inca approached. Fa 
40U men in uniform, as harbingers, 
sitting on a throne, almost covertl 
silver, and precious stones, was cl 
shoulders of his principal altendai 
him came his chief oRicers. Sere 
singers and dancers accom|>anied tl 
and the whole plain was covered 
amounting to about 30,000 men. 
drew near the Spanish quartern, fit 
\'alverede, chaplain to the cxpeditii 
with a crucifix in one liand, and 
the other, and in a long discours 
to announce the true doctrine of 
the fall of Adam, the incarnation, < 
and resurrection of Jesus Christ, 
nient of St. Peter as God's vicegen 
the transmission of his apostolic p< 
cession to the popes, and the donal 
the king of Castile by pope Alexand 
regions in the New World. In c< 
required Atabalipa to embrace tl 
faith, to acknowledge the jurisdic 

ftopc, and to submit to the king 
lis lawful sovereign ; promising, if 
that the Castiltan monarch would 
dominions, and |iermit hiin to coc 
authority ; but, if he »hniilil inipiou 
iiliey this summons, he denounced 
him ill his master's name, 'lliis 
rangue, unfaldiiig deep myntrries, 1 
to unknown facts, of which do p< 
qiK'iice could have conveyed a dirt 
an American, was so lamely irjitl 
unskilful interpreter, that it was ini 
ble in Alaloilipa. But some {>arts 
vious meaning, filled lilin with astoni 
iinlignalion. His reply, however, wi 
He said lliat he was lord of his owi 
by hrrodiuury right ; th^t lin could 
hiiw .1 fureign priest should prclrn 
of Inrritohw which did niH beloiig I 
lir, bring the rightful poiHWMM, rai 



lt;Mki •mU not fonake tlie service of 
(■MaortAl divinity v»hom lie revered, 
t to God of ihc S))aniiinls, who wa^ 
'i : that with respect to other mat- 
Ik lirf aeTer beard of tbein before, he 
r where he had learned lhina> so 
• In this book,' answered \'al- 
out to him bis breviary. The 
It, and turning over the leaves, 
I ««r : * This,' says he, ' i» silent ; it 
and threw it with disdain to 
! enraged monk, running to his 
( cried ont, * To arm-i, (.'liristians, to 
of God is insulted ! avenge 
I ma theae impious dogs.' Pizarro 
f^n* the signal of assault. At once 
Me (track up, the canivm and 
BfBt lo fire, the horse sallied out 
I atmtry rathed on, sword in h;inU. 
, aftonished at the unexpected at- 
I wnk oaiTcnal consternation, without 
lo ddend themselves. I'lzarro, at 
1 rf kif dnsen band, advanced directly 
t riM vna : and though his nobles crowded 
hiB with leaJ, and fell in numbers at his 
r^Moianl* soon penetrated to the royal 
■I Foam, seizing the inca by the arm, 
to the ground, and carried him a 
tit i^narters. The fate of the mo- 
1 the precipitate tlight of bis fol- 
"Hk Spaniards pur^ied them towards 
i, with deliberate and unrelenl- 
j, eootinned to slaughter the wretched 
teitires. Above 4000 Peruvians 
. Not a single Spaniard fell, we are 
one wouraled but Pizarro himself 
IW plunder taken was immease, but 
' I were still unsatisfied ; which being 
I Ijr Ifae inca, be endeavoured lo apply 
ftilhrtr ruling jKission, ararice, to obtain 
', therefore, offered such a ransom 
them. The apartment in 
eoDBoed was Iwenty-iwo feet in 
tteoi in brcndth ; all this space he 
[ft VI with vesseis of gold as high as he 
TV pioposal was eagerly caught 
Hi I line wa* drawn upon the walls 
t rtpnlated height. 

I for bij liberty, immediately 

Kngers into all parts of the em- 

Ae quantity of gold which he 

H the unfortun.ite mo- 

l-i of his enemies, such 

iiii'>n wiiKh his subjects had for 

ICftes were obeyed with as great ala- 

tfaadbceri • ' " ' ' 'rly. In a short 

> leeeiTri k that Almagro 

I It Sl Mil . -■■■■■ a reinforcement. 

la Batter of no umall vexation to Ata- 
• now considered his kingdom as in 
{ tottlly overrun by the^e strangers. 
be ordered bis brother Huascar 
|to dMtt, lest he should join against 
time, the Indians daily ar- 
•tamlca with vast quantities of Irea- 
Imfcl gf which so mnch inflamed the 
I All theytnti^^ upon an immediate 
dkb being complied with, tliere 


fell to the shore of each horseman 8000 peios, 
worth as many pounds sterling, and half as 
much to each foot soldier, Pizarro and his offi- 
cers receiving shares proportionable lo their dig- 
nity. \ fifth part was reserved for the emperor, 
together with some vessels of curious workman- 
ship. After this, At;il>alipa was very importunate 
with Pirarro to recover his liberty ; but the 
Spaniard, with unparalleled treachery and cruelty, 
had now determined to put him to death. But, 
to give some show of justice to this detestable 
action, Fizarro instituted a court of judicature 
for trying him. He appointed himself and Al- 
magro, with iwo asnisiants, as judijcs ; an attor- 
ney-general to carry on the prosecution in the 
kings name; counsellops to assist the prisoner 
in bis defence ; and clerks to record the pro- 
ceedings, liefore this strange tribunal, a charge 
was exhibited still more amazing. That Ataba- 
llpa, though a bastard, had usurped the royal 
power ; that he bad put his brother and lawfiil 
sovereign to death ; that he was an idolaler, and 
had offered up human sacrifices; that he had a 
great numberof concubines, ike. (Jn these heads 
they proceeded to try the sovereign of a great 
empire, over whom they bad no iorisdiclion. 
To all these charges the inca pleaded not guilty. 
He called heaven and eartli to witness the inte- 
grity of his conduct, and how faithfully he per- 
formed his engagements, and the perfidity of his 
accusers. He desired to be sent over to Spain, 
to lake his trial before the emperor ; but no regard 
was paid to his entreaties. He wits condemned lo 
be burnt alive ; which cruel sentence was miti- 
gated to stmngling ; and the unhappy monarch 
was executed without mercy. Hideous cries 
were set up by his women ■« the funeral pioces- 
sion passed by their apartment ; many offered to 
bury themselves alive wilh him ; and, on being 
hindered, strangled themselves out of grief. The 
whole town of Caxanialca was filled with la- 
mentations, which quickly extended over the 
whole kingdom. 

Yet this murder of AtalKilipa did no service 
to the Spaniards, l-'riends and enemies accused 
them of inhumanity and treachery. Loads of 
gold tliat were coming to Caxamalca by order of 
the deceased inca were now stopped ; this was 
the first consequence of their late iniquitous 
conduct. The two factions of Indians also 
united a^inst Pizarro ; and many of the Spa- 
niards not only exclaimed against tlie cruelly of 
the judges, hut would even have mutinied, had 
not a sense of the impending danger kept them 
quiet. At ("uzco the friends of Huncar pro- 
claimed Mango (.'apac, the legitimate brother of 
the late inca : on which F'izarro set up Taparpa, 
the son of Atabalipa. Immediately he set out 
for C'uzco. An army of Indians opposed his 
progress, but the Spanish cavalry bore down 
every thing before them. The conquerors gained 
a great booty; and Pizarro despatched Almagro 
lo reduce Cuzco, while he himself founded a 
new colony in Xauna. Ferdinand Soto was de- 
tached wiih sixty horse to Cuzco, to clear the 
road for the remainder of the army. Meantime 
Taparpa died ; and, as the Spaniards set up no 
person in his room, the title of Manco Capac 




was nnivenally acknowledged. A new supply 
of soldiers arriTing from Spain, Benatcazar, go- 
vernor of St. Michael, undertook an expedition 
against Quito, where Atabalipa had left the 
greatest part of his treasure. lie accomplished 
his purpose with difficulty, but found that the 
inhabitants had carried off all their gold and 
silver. About the same time Alvaiado, governor 
of Guatimala, invaded Chili. In this expedition 
his troops endured such hardships, and suffered 
so much from the cold among the Andes, that 
a fifth part of the men and all the horses died, 
and the rest were so much dispirited and ema- 
ciated that they became quite unfit for service. 
Alvarado then returned to his government, but 
most of his followers enlisted under Piiarro. In 
the mean time Ferdinand Pizarro had landed in 
Spain, where he produced such immense quan- 
tities of gold and silver as astonished the court. 
The general's authority was confirmed with new 
powers ; Almagro had the title of governor con- 
ferred upon him, with jurisdiction over 300 
leagues of a country lying south of the province 
allotted to Pizarro. Pizarro then settlea the in- 
ternal policy of his province, and remtwed the 
seat of government from Cuzco to Lima. 

Meantime Almagro had set out on his expe- 
dition to Chili. Pizarro encouraged his most 
distinguished officers to invade thc»e provinces 
which had not yet been visited by the Spaniards. 
No sooner did Manco Capac perceive the Spa- 
niards thus dividing their forces, than he seized 
the opportunity of making one vigorous effort to 
redress the wrongs of his countrymen, and expel 
the cruel invaders. Though strictly guarded by 
the Spaniards, he found means to communicate 
his intentions to the chief men of his nation, 
whom he joined in 1536, under pretence of cele- 
brating a festival which he had obtained liberty 
from Pizarro to attend. Upon this an army of 
200,000 men collected. Many Spaniards were 
massacred, and several detachments cut off: 
while this vast army laid siege to Cuzco, another 
formidable body invested Lima, and kept the 
governor shut up. The greatest effort, however, 
was made agaist Cuzco, which was defended by 
Pizarro and his two brothers, with only 170 
men. The siege lasted nine months; many Spa- 
niards were killed; among whom was John 
Pizarro, the general's brother. The rest were 
reduced to the most desperate situation, when 
Almagro appeared near Cuzco. He had now 
received the royal patent, creating him governor 
of Chili. On bis arrival, his assistance was so- 
licited by both parties. The inca made many 
advantageous proposals ; but at length attacked 
him in the night by surprise. But the Spanish 
valor and discipline prevailed, and the Peru- 
vians were repulsed with such slaughter that 
the remainder disperjcd, and Almagro advanced 
to Cuzco. Pizarro's brother took measures to 
oppose his entrance; but, while prudence re- 
strained both parties from entering into a civil 
war, each leader endeavoured to corrupt the fol- 
lowers of his antagoiust. In this Almagro had 
the advantage ; and so many of Pizarro's troops 
deserted in the niglit that Almagro was en- 
couraged to advance towards the city, where 
be surprised the sentinels; and, investing the 

house where the two brothers W' 
compelled them, after an obst 
to surrender. Almagro's author! 
was now immediately recognised. 
Pizarro having dispersed the 1 
invested Lima, and received con; 
forcements .from other provinces 
men, under Alonso de Alvarado 
Cuzco to relieve his brothers. Ali 
him by surprise, defeated and 
army, taking himself and some o 
officers prisoners. This victory sei 
and Almagro was advised to mak 
ting to death Gonzalo and I'erd 
and Alvarado. This advice, liowei 
from humanity ; and, instead of m; 
gainst Pizarro, he retired to Cu/ 
his adversary time to recollect hi 
magro again suffered himself to. I 
pretended offers of pacification, 
tions were protracted for several 
zalo Pizarro and Alvarado liribi 
who guarded them, and e.scH)H'd 
Almagro's men. Tlie general 
that all disputes should be sub; 
sovereign ; and, on this principl( 
leased those whom Pizarro »an 
had no sooner done, than the lat 
Cuzco with an army of 700 nier 
magro had only 50O to op|)o^e. 
without obstruction, and an ent 
followed, in which Alma);r(> \«:t 
taken prisoner. The conquerors 
great cruelty, massacring a );ri-at 
jiccrs. llie Indians had a>seii 
numbers to see the little, with ; 
join the vanquished; but were 
awed by the Spaniards that thf 
the battle was over, and thus lo> 
portunity they ever had of cxpellii 
Almagro was at length tried -j 
by Pizarro; and he wa.s first si 
son, and then beheaded. He lef) 
Indian woman, whom he appoin 
sor. As during these dissen^ion; 
with Spain ceased, it was some t 
accounts of the civil war nere rc( 
The first intelligence was gi^en 
magro's soldiers, who had left / 
ruin of their cause ; and they did 
present the injustice ami violenc 
their proper colors, which siroi 
the emperor against him. In a s 
ever, Ferdinand Pizarro arrive 
voured to give matters a new lur 
ror was uncertain which of tlieiii 
resolved to send over one he en 
vestij^te the matter. Mpuntiiiie 
arrested at Madrid, and cmiti! 
where he remained twenty >ear; 
nominated to this impoit;inl trii 
pher \aca I)i Castro. W bile 

}>reparing for bis voyaiiP, l'i/:ir 
liuiself as the unrivalled master »l 
ed to parcel out its territorie-. aim 
rors; and, had tliis.diviMun bem 
degree of im|)artiatity, the e\t< 
which he had to IhwIow uus siiI 
gratified his friend.s, and to lia>e 



urn. tt PnaiTo conducted thU transaction 
i «* ii thoal tpitil of a party-leader. Lartre 
^ I pf1> of the country most cultivated 
jtm, vere set apart as his own pro- 
icpncdtoliia brothers, his adherents 
To others, lots less Viiluable and 
latngned. The followers of Alma- 
wham were many of the original 
• M«iiOMtiilor Pizarro wa« indebted 
voe totally excluded. l°heythere- 
I iniecret,and meditated revenge. 
I At procress of the Spaniards in 
had been since Pizarro landed 
I tar BTidily of dominion was not yet 
Dm afficcn to whom Ferdinand Pi- 
I ikt commaod of different delach- 
aUiied into several new provinces ; 
laposed to great hardsliips in the 
I of the Andes, and amidst the woods 
,lbfy made considerable discoveries 
Peter de Valdivia re-a^sumcd 
l^atdifine of invading Chili; and made 
ia the conquest of the country, 
I <bradtd the city of St. Jago. But the 
I «/ i.ionzales Piiarro was the most re- 
H< wt out from tjuito at the head 
lnUien, Dearly one-half of whom were 
,*iih 4000 Indians. Excess of cold 
iimitird fatal to the greater part of 
ffa* Spaniards, though more robust, 
ladtnbly ; but, when they descended 
llmcaantry, their distress increased. 
" B It rained incessantly, with- 
t bltnal of f.iiT weather to dry their 
TV upon which they were 

ijut inhabitants, or oc- 
f tit iwiat and lea.<t industrious trills 
Worid, yielded little subsistence. 
ant advance a step but through 
i ir mt.'ha- Such incessant toil, and 
of loud, would have dispirited any 
ISui Um foni'ude and perseverance of 
I fc ipBBzdi were inaooerable. They pcr- 
'fm Mranling on, <inlil they reached the 
■ lltiw Napo,oiie of llie large rivers which 
lkt> the Maragnon There, with infinite 
built a bark, which was manned 
rwii&Os, under Francis Orellana. The 
them down with such rapidity 
itK toon far a-head of their country- 
jbltrrwed slowly by land. At this 
m his commander, Orellana formed 
\ of distinguishing himself, by follow- 
1 of the Maragnon until it joined 
d by (urveying the vast regions 
b il flows. This scheme was as 
H ■wiw* CMacbcKms. For, if he violated 
' to hii caauDander, and abandoned his 
I in ■ paibleu desert, his crime is 
MCrd oy the glory of having ven- 
■Bvi^liaa of nearly 2000 leasrue^, 
tmm MtioM, in a vessel hastily 
1 with gntn tiniher, and by very uii- 
, without provtson-s, without a coin- 
But bis courage and .lUicrity 
iwtty defect. Committing himself 
to ihc guidance of the stream, the 
•long to the south until he 
tdiainicl of the Maragnon. lie 

sometimes seized by force the provisions of the 
fierce savages seated on its banks, and sometimes 
procured a supply of food by a friendly inter- 
course. After a long scries of dangers and dis- 
tresses, which he encountered with amazing 
magnanimity, he reached the ocean, where new 
perils awaited him. These he likewise sur- 
mounted, and got safe to the Spanish settle- 
ments in the island of Cubagua ; whence be 
sailed to Spain. 

Tlie vanity natural to travellers who visit re- 
gions unknown to tlie rest of mankind prompted 
him to mingle an extraordinary proportion of 
the marvellous in the narrative of his voyage. 
He pretended to have discovered nations so rich 
that the roofs of their temples were covered with 
plates of gold ; and described a republic of 
Amazons so warlike and powerful as to have ex- 
tended their dominion over a considerable tract 
of the frrtilc pbins sHiich he had visited ; fables 
hardly yet exploded. The voyage, however, de- 
serves to be recorded, not only as one of the 
most memorable occurrences in that adventurous 
age, but as the first event that led to any certain 
knowledge of those immense regions that stretch 
east from the Andes to the ocean. No words tan 
describe the consternation of Pizarro, when he 
did nol find tlie bark at the confluence of the 
Napo and Maragnon, where he had ordered 
Orellana to wait for him. But, imputing his ali- 
sense from the place of rendezvous to some un- 
known accident, he advanced above fifty leagues 
along the banks of the Maragnon, expecting every 
moment to see the bark appear with a supply of 
provisions. At length he came up with an officer 
whom Orellana had left to perisn in the desert, 
because he had remonstrated against his perfidy. 
F'rom him he learned the extent of Orellana's 
crime ; and his followers perceived at once their 
own desperate situation. Tlie spirit of the stoutest 
hearted veteran sank within him; and all de- 
manded to be led back instantly. Pizarro was 
now 1200 miles from Quito; and in that long 
march the Spaniards encountered hardships 
greater than those they had endured in their pro- 
gress outward. Hunger compelled them to feed 
on roots and berries, to eat all their dogs and 
horses, to devour the most loathsome reptiles, 
and even to gnaw the leather of their saddles and 
sword belts: 4000 Indians, and 210 Spaniards, 
perished in this wild and disastrous expedition, 
which continued nearly two years ; and, as fifty 
men were aboard the bark with Orellana, only 
eighty got back to Quito. These were naked 
like sa^'ages, and so emaciated with famine or 
worn out with fatigue, that they liad more the 
appearance of spectres than of men. But Pizarro, 
on enlenni: (juito, received accounts of a state 
of things that threatened calamities more dread- 
ful than tliose through which he had passed. 
From the time that his brother made the partial 
division of his conquests above-mentioned, the 
adherents of Almagro no longer entertained any 
hope of bettering their condition. Great num- 
bers in despair resorted to Lima, where the house 
of young Almagro was always open to them : 
and the slender (lortion of his father's fortune, 
which he enjoyed, was spent in affording them 
subsistence. Die warm attachment with which 




every person wlio liiid served under the elder Al- 
magro devoted liimself lo his interests, was trans- 
ferred to his son, who vviis now grown up to 
maiilmod, and possessed all tlic qualities which 
captivute the affectiona of soldiers. Of a grace- 
ful appearance, dexterous a( all murtiul exercises, 
.bold, open, ecnerous, he seemed to be formed 
• command ; and the accomplishments he had 
quired heightened the respect of his followers. 
The Almagrians, looking up to him as their 
head, were ready lo undertake any thing for his 
advancement. Nor was aflcction for Almagro 
their only incitement; they were urged on by 
their OH u distresses. Many of them, destitute of 
common nece.tsanes, and weary of loitering away 
life, a burden lo their chief, began to deliberate 
how tliey might be avenged on the author of all 
their mi.serv. Their frequent cabals did not pass 
u nobserveff ; and the governor was warned to 
be on his guard against men who mectitaled some 
des|terate deed, and had resolution to execute it. 
nut either from his native intrepidity, or from 
contempt of persons whose poverty rendered 
their machinations of little consequence, he dis- 
regarded the admonitions of his friends. This 
gave the Almagrians full leisure to digest and 
ripen their scheme ; and John de llerrada, an 
officer of great abilities, who had the charge of 
Almagro's education, took tjie lead in their con- 
.siiltations. On Sunday tlie 20lli of June, at 
mid-day, Hcrrada, at the head of eighteen of the 
most determined conspirators, sallied out of .\1- 
magro's house in armour; and drawing their 
swonls, as they advanced hastily towards the 
governor's palace, cried out, ' Long live the king, 
but let the tyrant die.' Though Pizarro was 
usually surrounded by a numerous Iruin of atten- 
dants, yet, as he was just ri^en from table, and 
most of his domestics had retired to their owu 
apartments, the conspirators were at the bottom of 
the staircase before a page in waiting could give the 
alarm. Tlie governor, whom no form of danger 
could appal, starling up, c;dled for arras, and 
commanded Fmncis de Chaves lo make fast the 
door. But that officer, runniiiij lo the tO[i of the 
staircase, wildly a.Hked ihe conspirators what they 
meant.' Instead of an.swerin:, lliey stabbed him 
lo the heart, and burst into the tiall. A few, 
drawing their swords, followed I'izarro into an 
inner apaitment, 'Die conspirators rushed for- 
ward aner them. I'izarro, witli no other arms 
than his sword and Imckler, defended the entry, 
and, supported by hi* hnlf-brolher .Mcanl-ira and 
liis friends, inaintaintMl the unequal contest with 
the vigor of a youthful combatant. But the 
armor of the conspirnlun protected them, while 
rvery llirust they inude look effect. AlcanLiri 
fell dead at hu brother's feet ; hu other defen- 
dants were mortally wounded ; Vkd the govcninr, 
no longer able lo parry the many wca|ions furi- 
ously aimed at him, trt-eivcd a deadly ihrusi full 
III Ins throat, sunk, .ind cxpirc^l. As soon as he 
wsis slain, the a.ssa'ctinsran oul into thr»iTrr!5,.ind 
w aving their bliKMly swords,] ' ah 

of the lyranr Aliovir20iiof tl ■ ig 

joined them, they coml' in 

'olemn pmcessioii thri" ii- 

bliiigthe magistnilo and piincip^il liu;' 
prlled them to acknowledge him as lau 

cessor to his father in his gore 
of Pizarro, and the houses of 1 
pillaged by the sohliers. 
marched into the heart of the t 
such places as refused to acknoi 
rily. A multitude of ruffians j 
march. 1 1 is army breathed nolhi 
and plunder ; every thing gave ' 
the military talents of the gem 
the ardor of his troops, the war 
Unhappily for Alinagro, he had I 
John de llerrada. His inexpei 
fall into the snares that were 
Peter Alvares, who had put bin 
of the op|>osile parly. In the 
V)i Castro, who had been sent 
try the murderers of old Aln 
Peru. As he was appointed to 
vernment in case Piittrro was i 
had not sold themselves to the 
to acknowledge him. Castro ii 
against the enemy. The an 
Chapas on the 16lh of Sepiei 
fought with inexpressible obsl 
decided in favor of Castro. 1 
rebels who were most guilty, ( 
provoked the conquerors to mu; 
out. It was I who killed Piz% 
was taken prisoner and died on 
While these scenes of hornjr 
in America, the Spaniards in 1 
ployed in finding oui expedic 
them ; lliough no measures ha 
prevent them. Peru had only 
ject lo the audience of Panam 
remote. A supreme tribunal v 
Lima for the dispensation of ju 
rity lo enforce and reward a t 
the laws. Blasco Nunez \'ela, 
it as viceroy, arrived in 1.S44, 
subordinates in oflice, and foui 
the most dreadful disorder. 1 
the tumults which now subsiste 
quired a profound genius, and 
lilie.s which are seldom united, 
of these advanlai^es. lie inde( 
buy, firmness, and ardor. Wi 
which weie almost defects in 
began to fulfil his commission, 
places, persons, or circumstanc 
tlie opinion of all inlelligeol pei 
that he should wnii for fresh 
Europe, he publuthed ordlnanci 
that the lands the conquerors ' 
not pass to ihrir desreiidanls. 
possessed those who had taken 
conimoliuiis. All Ihe Penivia 
enslaved by (nonko, l>ishopi,ani 
inu to the tovcrnineni were 
OlhiT l)ijnnK;il rslablishmcnt! 
have \»tn prti>ieril>eil ; and ilte 
were on the eve of l>eing sheltet 
tectiuii of laws which would ■ 
perid Ihe nnors of the right d 
llicy liad not entirely repflirtui 
them ; but the Spinish gorer 
unfoitunal« rven in the good 
A clian^e so unexpaci* 
: nation who saw thai 



I Itina. From astonishment they 
I imlif nation, murmuring, and sedi- 
ktCTtoy was degraded, put in irons, 
'Itoiilesert inland, litl he could be 
iS^n. Gonzales Piiarro was then 
I hn hazardous expedition, which 
bim long enough to prevent him 
I > )»it 10 those revolutions which 
'Hj lueceeded each other. The 
Itmi (nerailing at his return in- 
1 the idea of seizing itie supreme 
rHa hjii<> and his forces made it im- 
I llni ihould be refused him ; but his 
I narked with so many enormities 
»lled. lie was recalled from 
cted a sufficient number of 
I to take the held. Civil com- 
(lenewed with extreme fury by 
^ quarter was asked or given on 
'Imlians took part in this as they 
Itx preceding wars ; some tanged 
"et the standard of the viceroy, 
( liM banners of Gonzales. From 
) of these unhappy wretches, who 
about in each army, dragged up 
tlle<l the roads, carried the bag- 
jred one another. Their con- 
ht them to be sanguinary. After 
Ivutagvs for a long time altemate- 
aoe at length favored the re- 
' the walls of Quito, in January, 
; with the greatest part of his 
Piiarro took the road of 
r were deliberating on the cere- 
hch they should receive him. Gon- 
I himself with making his entrance 
i preceded by his lieutenant, who 
Four bishops and the magis- 
fctm . The streets were strewn 
_ : air resounded with music. 
illy tamed the head of a man 
, and of confine<l ideas. Had 
Ixjth judgment and modera- 
f h»»e rendered himself indepen- 
njnl persons of his party wished 
'ihis, he acted with blind crudly, 
r, and unbounded pride. Even 
Jintcrests were connected with 
kni wished for a deliverer. Such 
ntd from Kurope in the person of 
The squadron and the pro- 
immediately declared 
I inrested with a lawful au- 
titem. Those who had lived 
», caverns, and forests, joined 
I mri the royal army, and attacked 
; of I j<8. One of his lieutenants, 
»ndonc<l at the first charge by bis 
I, *<Iti><iI him to throw himself into 
■.nd perish like a; 
-» rather to surrender, 
.i,,i,l ; I'arrajal, a more 
>iis than himself, 
■ u he was expiring, 
massacred with his own 
!'« and 20,1X10 Indians. Such 
' of a traeedy of which every 
with blood. The govern- 
laooo^h not to continue the 

proscriptions ; and the remembrance of the 
horrid calamities they had suffered kept the 
Spaniards iti subjection. The commotion insen- 
sibly sunk into a calm; and the country re- 
mained quiet from this lime for three 
With regard to the Peruvians, the most cruel 
measures were taken to render it impossible for 
them to rebel. Tupac Amaru, the heir of their 
last king, had taken refuge in some remote 
mountains, where he lived in peace. Tliere he 
was so closely surrounded by tlie troops sent out 
against him that he was forced to surrender. The 
viceroy Francis de Toledo caused him to be ac- 
cused of several pretended crimes, and he was 
beheaded in 1571. All the other descendants of 
the incas shared a similar fate. The horror of 
these enormities excited so universal an indigna- 
tion, both in the GId and the New World, that 
Phiilp II. disavowed them; but the infamous 
policy of this prince was so notorious that no 
credit was given to this pretence to justice 
and humanity. Only one attempt was aAer- 
wards made by the Peruvians to recover their 
independence, and throw off tlie Spanish yoke : 
that which we have noticed as taking place lu 

Peru, a township of the United Slates, in 
Bennington county, Vermont. — 2. A township 
of the United Stales, in Uerks county, Massa- 
chusetts. — 3. A township of the United Slates, 
in Clinton county. New York, on Lake Cham- 
plain, 140 miles north of Albany. 

Peri-, B.vlsam or. A substance obtained 
from the myroxylon peruiferum, which grows in 
the warm parts of South America. The tree is 
full of resin, and the balsam is obtained by boil- 
ing the twigs in water. It has the consistency of 
honey, a brown color, an agreeable smell, and a 
hot acrid laste. 

PF.RVAOK', t.fl. J Lsti. ptrvttdo. To jiass 

Perva'mon, n. *. Mfarough an aperture; to 
permeate : the act of passing through. 

If f'lsion be made rather by the ingress and Irans- 
cursioDi of the alums uf fire, than by the bare propa- 
gation of that motion, with which fire beats u|>on the 
outsides of the vesseU, that contain the matter to be 
melted ; both those kinds of fluidity, ascribed to i>alt- 
petre, will appear to be caused by the pertaiion of a 
foreign body. Biijitr. 

Paper dipped in water or oil, the ocului mundi 
stone steeped in water, linen cloth oiled or vainished, 
and many other subManccs soaked in such liquora as 
will intimately ptnwdt their little pores, become by 
that means mote transparent thin otherwise. 

The laboured chyle pmvda the pores 

In all the arterial perforated shores. Blaftmart. 

IMatter, once bereaved of motion, cannot of itself 
acnuire it seain, nor till it be struck by some other 
bony from without, or be intrinsically moved by to 
immaterial self-active substance, that can penetrate 
and jfemodr it, Benilcy. 

What but God. 

Perzada, adjusts and tgitites Uie whole 1 


PERVENCHERES, a town in the north of 
France, department of the f )mc, with BOO inha- 
bitants. Nine miles soulh-«est of Mortagne, 
and fourteen north-e s of Al n- o . 




PEdVERSE', adj. 
Pe*v£bsb ly, adv. 
Perverse'iiess, n. $. 
Pebveht', v. a. 
Perveb'teb, b. (. 
Perver'tible, <k$. 

Fr. ptrven; Ital. 
Span, and Pen. per- 
verto ; Lat. perver$tt$. 

.Distorted ; froward ; 

'untractable ; petulant ; 
obstinate : perversely 
and perverseness fol- 
low these senses : per- 

version- is used for both the act of perverting and 
the state of being perverted : perversity is syno- 
nymous with perverseness : to pervert is to dis- 
tort ; corrupt ; turn from the right ; opposed to 
convert, which is to turn from the wrong : per> 
vertible is apt or easy to be perverted. 

Pervme lips put far {rem thee. Prm. iv. 24. 
If thou aeest the oppression of the poor, and vio- 
lent penertittg of justice in a province, marvel not 

Eeelut. V. 8. 
Wilt thou not cease to }wiwr< the right ways of 
the Loid T ^ctt. xiti. 10. 

Instead of good they may work ill, and pervert 
justice to extreme iojaslice. 

Spenter's Suue rf IrOand. 
O gentle Romeo, 
If thou dost love, pronounce it faithfully ; 
Or if you think I am too quickly won, 
I'll frown and be pervme, and say thee nay. 
So thou wilt wooe : but else not for the world. 

Neither can this be meant of evil govemouira or 
tyrants ; for thev are often established as lawful po- 
tentates ; but of some ptmrteneu and defection in 
the nation itself. Bacon. 

Women to govern men, slaves freemen, are much 
in the same degree -, all being total violations and 
paternotu of the laws of nature and nations. td. 
Virtue hath some penenenen ; for she will 
Neither believe her good, nor others ill. Dmnt. 
Men ptrrenelf take up piques and displeasures at 
others, and then every opinion of the disPiked peraoa 
must partake of his fate. Decay of Piety. 

And nature breeds 
Penerte, all monstrous, all prodigious things. 

If then his providence 
Out of our evil seek to bring forth good. 
Our labour most be to penert that end. 
And out of good still to find means of evil. Id, 
Her whom he wishes most, shall seldom gain 
Through her prmenenea ; but shall see her gained 
By a far worse. />/. Pamdiu Lo$t. 

The heinous and despiteful act 
Of Satan, done in Paradise, and how 
He in the serpent had ptrrerted Eve, 
Her husband she, to taste the fatal fruit. 
Was known in heaven. U. 

The apostles, who sometimes inveigh so tealously 
against the opposers and perxertm of truth, did in 
their private conversation and demeanour strictly ob- 
serve their own rules of abstivence from reproach . 

Ha that reads a prohibiiion in a divine law, had 
need be well satisfied about the sense he gives it, lest 
he incur the wrath of Uod, and be found a pentrttr 
of his law. Siittiug/Uet. 

To so pervtrM a sex all grace is vain, 
It gives them courage to offiind again. Vryden. 

Tlie ptrttneiuu of my fate is such, 
That lie's not mine, because he's mine too much. 

He has atrvened my meaning by his glosses ; and 
iEterpretni my words into blasphemy, « which they 
were not guilty. U, 

Men that do not pe i ve i it l g nse their won 
purpose set themselves to cavil, seldom mil 
signification of the names of simple ideas. 

What strange perternly is this of man ! 
When 'twas a crime to taste the' enlight'nia 
He could not then his hand refrain. 

Where a child finds his own parents hisp 
he cannot he so properly bom, as damned 

The subtle practices of Endozius, bishop 

stantinople, in p«rwrftiig and comiptiag t 

pious emperor Valens. iVat 

A patriot ii a dangerons post. 

When wanted by his country most, 

Pervtrmlti comes in evil times, 

Where virtues are imputed crimes. 

He supposes that whole reverend body a 
from disliking popery, that the hopes of eujo 
abbey lands would be an efieccual inciiemeni 

Porphyry has wrote a volume to explain i 
of the nymphs with more piety than judgme 
another person has peretrtid it into obscen 
both allegorically. 

We cannot charge any thing upon their 
till we take care that it is ptntrted by their e<i 

PERUGIA, the ancient Lacus Thrasj 
one of the most considerable lakes in the 
part of Italy, remarkable for the victory 
Dy IlaoDibal over the Romans, comman 
Flaminius. The scenery of its banks 

Pebvgia, a province of Italy, in the $ 
the Church, includes the ci-devant ?< 
and contains 182,000 inhabitants. It ; 
trict of great fertility, and is watered 
Tiber and some smaller streams, togetfa 
the lake of this name. 

Pebi'Gia, a large town of the central 
Italy, in the States of the Church, ttie cs 
the province of this name, stands on tt 
mit of a high hill near the Tiber ; al>out 
five miles north of Rome, and thirty N 
of Spoleto. It has a citadel and furtifi 
but is a place of hi more beauty than si 
It is the see of a bishop, and contitins 
inhabitants. The cathedral is an ini: 
building, both in its architecture and 
tions ; but some of the churches, i>art 
that of St, Peter, belonging to a lk-n< 
abbey, are splendidly ornamented. This 
ported by eighteen pillars of fine marl 
adorned with rich marble altars. Th 
interesting objects in the town are a nu: 
valuable paintings in tlie churches and 
collections by the celebrated Pietio 1' 
(a native of this place), and by his mo 
brated pupil Raphael. Here is a tuwn-l 
small university, and several hospital 
gate of the I'iazia Grimani is uf the. 
architecture, llie town has also manu 
of velvet, silks, oil, and brandy. 

PERUGINO (I'ietro Vanniicci, 11), w 
at Citia dclla I'ievc, near Perugia, in 14- 
piirent*, being in low circumstunres, plai 
at first with an inferior painter, who, h 
had discretion enough to anim.-ite his pu 
an enthusiastic attachment to his proff»i' 
thu period the fine arts were riiltivuic 
flourished eminently at Florence ; which 




for iastrucuoT) in that city, 

•' r.^j comnion accounts, 

^ )r his inalnietor, but 

jii ... ........ !iad any other master 

Bonfigli of Perujpa. His first 
Llioo was u picture of St. Jerom 
; a crucifix ; in which the figure of 
M> roortiflcd and emaciated, 
aAer a living model. His next 
nrom the Cro*s, painted for the 
. Chiara, at Florence. In this pic- 
if beautiful, and the air of the 
< disttnsuished. In one part of 
luced an admirable landscape, 
chant offered treble the sum 
pa«f for it, but the proposal was 
lae Perugrino declared himself in- 
' faiitiiDC another so well. The cele- 
ao^uiiecf procured liiin an inviia- 
Sixtus iV. to vi.<tit Home, where 
_M«enl works for that pontiff's 
return to Florence, where 
Dcumti was at that time in 
quarrclled with that great man, 
ly satirised by tlie poetj as to 
mir« to his native place. Peni- 
I u li^t, and be fini.shed his pictures 
Km iDanner was dry and stiff, and 
mcorrcct. His highest honor 
bnng the instructor of llaffaelle ; 
btlier Oiovaimi, iissistol him in 
i walks. \ asari recites the following 
r ftsj utisi : — The monks of a monastery 
I^K bg*d rngaged Penii^ino to paint in 
^^k of noed history ; and the prior, 
^Bmad to tapply the ultramarine for 
^^KctDg of a suspicious disposition, 
Hpld*d «hile it was used, lest some of 
l»V( embewled. When Perugino per- 
Aai the prior's cortstant inspection of the 
ha» «»lj oct.'^uioned by thin distrust, he 
~ pM of water near him, in which he 
^' * ha pencil, after he had loaded it 
; and the color, by its weight, 
I to the bottom. 'l"he prior observ- 
I eonsumptioii of his color, expressed 
qt; but Ferugino desired him 
: his own mind, nor indulge an 
of artists, who generally acted 
" honor ; then pouring off the 
itored to him the ultramarine 
Perugino, however, is 
t t)««n svaridaus, and that his being 
Hwx'.r ilic principal cause of 

ll, which II 1574. His capital 

l<dMtl|gbl l"i» 111 in the church 
fMar, at Pnugix, of wlilcli the subject is 
ImaioB of Christ, with the disciples in 
I IHBwJw The design is excellent, and 
wmV ri*ciited. In a chapel belonging 
cknrdi of St. Giovanni in Monte is a 
of a tiir^tii, atleinleA by several saints, 
I abe nieencd one of his best perform- 

DL'S, adj. ■\ ].atin, pcrvicax. 
11, tjv. I Spitefully obsti- 
, a. ». \ nate ; peevish , 
i contumacious. 
J Ilartly iLsed. 

But in case of the fwrciwcy of a peevish heirtic 
who would not tubniii ta the power of the church, 
itc. Tay(ar. 

Gondibert was in fight andacious, 
But in his ale mnoi innicaiwtu, Dtmlimm. 

May private devoimns be etbcacioui upon the 
mind of one of the ntost ftervKU€ion» young creatures ! 


PER'VIOLS, «// ) Lat.pfn!."uit. Admit- 
Per', n. I. ^ ting passage ; capabit 
of being permeated : quality of admitting a pas- 

The F^gyptians used to say, thai unknown dark- 
ness is the first principle of the woilii ; \>y darkneu 
tbey mean God, whose secrets are yemuiu to no eye. 

I he perr'unitntu of our receiver to a body ranch 
more subtle than air, proceeded partly from the looser 
texture of that glass the receiver was made of, and 
paitly fioni the enoimous heat, which opened the 
pores of the glass. Biiytt. 

1 here will be found another difference betides that 
of peniaumeu. HMer'i fJeuienu if Sptteh. 

Leda'ii twins, 
Conspicuous both, and both in act to throw 
'1 heir trembling lances brandished at the foe, 
Nor had they missed ; but be to thickeU fled. 
Concealed from aiming speua, nor ptniotu to the 
steed. Drvim. 

What is Ibis little, agile, pernoui fire, 
This fluttering motion which we call the mind ? 

Those lodged in other earth, more lat and perW- 
otn, decayed in tract of time, and rotted at length. 

PF.RVISSE, a town of France, in the de- 

1»artment of I.ys, and late province of Austrian 
'landers; six miles W. N.vV.of Dixmude. 
I'KKCKK', n. 1. & v. a. i Vr.ptriujiie ; Ital. 
PERi'Kt'->iAKEti, B. J. Jprrurro. A cap of 
false hair ; a i>eriwig : to dress in false hair. 
I put him on a linen cap, and bis peruJir over that. 


PERU.SE', t. o. ^ Ijit. per and use, or ;icr- 

I'ERir'sAijs, n. «. J riiMi. To read ; observe ; 

Ptau'sFR. J examine: perusal is the 

act of reading or examining: peruser, a reader; 


Vfniu this wnting here, and thou sbalt know 
The treason. ShaAtjHan. Riekari It. 

I hear the enemy ; 
Out some light boraemen, and pmat their wings. 

I've perutfd her well ; 
Beauty and honour in her aii' so mingled. 
That ihey have caught the kiug, A/. 

Ihe petitions being thus prcpareil, du you con- 
stantly set apart an hour iu a day to ;icnur those pe- 
titions, Bacm. 
Myself I then fenaei, and liuib by limb 
Surveyed. ilillan'i faradite JjnI. 
Carefully observe, whether he tastes the distin- 
guishing perfections or tlie ipociHc qualities of the 
author whom he ptrvvi. Addiimt. 
As pieces of miniature must he allowed a clusrr in- 
spection, so this treatise requires application in Uie 

ptTMtal. \\ iHHiilHtTd. 

The diSiculties and hesitation* of every one will 
be according to the capacity of each fmiter, and at 
his penetration into nature it greater or less. Id. 

It upon a new prrmal you think it is written in 
the very spirit of the ancients, it deserves your cart, 
and is capable of being improved. Ailtrturf. 




Mr. Pope told him, that he read it once over, and 
was not dupleaied with it ; that it gave him more 
pleasure at the second pmuu/, and delighted him 
still more at the third. Jolntum. 

PERUSIA, an ancient town of Etruria, on 
the Tiber, built by Oenus ; where L. Antonius 
was besieged by Augustus, till he surrendered. 
(Strabo.) It is now called Perugia. 

PKRUXIAN Bark, or Jesuits' Bark, the 
bark of the cinchona officinalis, a well known me- 
dicine. See Ci.NCUONA. The pale and the red 
are chiefly used in Britain. The pale is brought 
to us in pieces of different sizes, either flat or 
quilled, and the powder is rather of a lighter 
color than that of cinnamon. The red is ge- 
nerally in much larger, thicker, flattish pieces, 
but sometimes also in the form of quills, and its 
powder b reddish like that of Armenian bole. 
It is much more resinous, and possesses the sen- 
sible qualities of the cinchona in a much higher 
degree tlmn the other sorts ; and the more nearly 
the other kinds resemble the red bark, the better 
they are now considered. The red bark is heavy, 
firm, sound, and dry ; friable between the teeth ; 
does not separate into fibres ; and breaks, not 
shivery, but short, close, and smooth. It has 
three layers ; the outer is thin, rugged, of a red- 
dish brown color, but frequently covered with 
mossy matter: the middle is thicker, more com- 
pact, darker colored, very resinous, brittle, and 
yields first to the pestle ; the inmost is more 
woody, fibrous, and of a brighter red. The 
Peruvian bark yields its virtues both to cold 
and boiling water ; but the decoction is thicker, 
gives out its taste more readily, and forms an 
ink with a chalybeate more suddenly than tlie 
fresh cold infusion. This infusion, however, 
contains at least as much extractive matter, but 
more in a state of solution ; and its color, on 
standing some time with the chalybeate, becomes 
darker, while that of the decoction becomes more 
fitint. When they are of a certain age, the ad- 
dition of a chalybeate renders them green ; and, 
wlien this is the case, they ate in a state of fer- 
mentation, and eflete. Mild or caustic alkalies, 
or lime, precipitate the extractive matter, which 
in the case of the caustic alkali is re-dissolved 
by a farther addition of the alkali. Lime-water 
precipitates less from a fresh infusion than from 
a fresh decoction ; and in the precipitate of 
this last some mild eaith is perceptible. The 
infusion is by age reduced to the same state with 
the fresh decoction, and then they deposit nearly 
an equal quantity of mild earth and extractive 
matter; so that lime-water, as well as a chaly- 
iM-ate, may be used as a test of the relative 
strength and perishable nature of the different 
preparations, and of diflerent barks. Accord- 
ingly cold infusions are found by experiments to 
be less perishable than decoctions; infusions 
and decoction of the red bark than those of the 
pale ; those of the red bark, however, are found 
Djr leni^h of time to senarate more mild earth 
with the lime-water, and more extracted matter. 
Lime-water, as precipitating the extracted matter, 
appears an equally improper and disagreeable 
menstruum. 'Vatcrsuspcnds the resin by means 
of muoh le«s sunr than has been supposed. Kec- 
tified ipirit uf wine extracts a bittenicst, but <)o 

astriugency, from a residuum of twenty ai 
of cold water ; and w^ter extracts astrii 
but no bitterness, from the residuum of a 
affusions of rectified spirit. The residua : 
are insipid. From many ingenious expei 
made on the Peruvian bark by Dr. Irvini 
lished in a dissertation which gained the 
medal given by the Harveian Society of 
burgh for 1783, the power of diflerent me 
as acting upon Peruvian bark, is ascei 
with greater accuracy than had before 
done : and, with respect to comparative 
the fluids afler mentioned act m the oi 
which they are placed : — 1. Dulcified sp 
vitriol. 2. Caustic ley. 3. French brani 
Rhenish wine. 5. Sofl water. 6. Vineg 
water. 7. Dulcified spirit of nitre. 8. 
volatile alkali. 9. Rectified spirit of win 
Mild vegetable alkali. 11. Lime-water. 1 
tiseptic powers of vin^ar and bark unit 
double tile sum of those taken separately, 
astringent power of the bark is increased I 
of vitriol; the bitter taste is destioyed 
The officiiud preparations of the bark are, 
powder : of this the first parcel that pas 
sieve, being the most resinous and brittle 
is the strongest. 2. The extract: the watt 
spirituous extract conjoined form the mo 
per preparations of this kind. 3. The rosi 
cannot perhaps be obtained separate fn 
gummy part, nor would it be desirable. ' 
rituous tincture: this is best made with 
spirit. 5. The decoction : this preparation, 
frequently employed, is yet in many resjK 
ferior even to a simple watery infusion 
best form is that of powder; in which tl 
stituent parts are in the most effectual prop 
The cold infusion, which can be made ir 
minutes by a^tation, the spirituous tinctui 
tie extract, are likewise proper in this r 
For covering the ta:ste, different paticntji i 
different vehicles; liquorice, aromatics, 
port wine, small beer, porter, milk, butte 
&c., are frequently employed; and it n 
given in form of electuary with currant 
with brandy, or with rum. 

Peruvian Cahel. See Camelis. 
Peruvian IIare. See Lepus. 
Peruvian Sheep. See Camelus. 
PEKUZZI (Balthasar), an historical 
and architect, bom in 1481. lie went to 
and was employed by Alexander \'l., Jul 
and Leo X. lie was so ))erfect in chin 
scuro and perspective that Titian luin>elf 
his works With aMonishment. lie was in 
in 1527, when Charles \'. sacked it ; b' 
cured his liberty by paintini; a ixtrtraii 
constable, Bourbon. lie died m IciSO 

PERWANNAH, in the language of I 
an order of government, or a letter I 
man in authority. 

PERWl'lTAM, a small town of llin 
situated on the south bank of the Kiver h 
in a wild tract of country almost iiniiil 
except by the Chinsuars, 1 18 mile* sou 
llydeialiad. Red granite abounds hri 
diAmonds are found in the mountains; 
lalior is so great, and tlic chance of niveti 




>tnitl>w ceH iii«, that Ibe digging for them 

H All fbtt is a remarkiible pagoda ded icated 
!■ ii ^ oUed Matlecarjee, in showing of 
•tolfBit '■bI of mystery is observed. He 
H alind ia the back part of a building, by 
fejAarf Ugiht of a brass speculum, and of 
1^ ^ «■!* be seen a5 the fluhex fidl on 
fb 1W idM is probably nothing more,' says 
A faukoo, ' Ulan the Lingam so much 
«^Bad by (he Totanes of Siva. The reve- 
■»4Bi«i« from the resort of pilgrims are 
iAat fay a manager, who reside^ within the 
Tbece is a goddess also wor>hip|H!d 
P»hma Rumbo. The several pa- 
oourts, &c.. are enc1o:>ed by a 
ftal long, by jlO broad, the walls of 
c iwet t u by an iniiniie variety of 

antiquities, a foot or measure of 

mq the Kom-inv, equal to eleven 

itaCMaal pons. The ir«c, or foot of 

equal to one foot and 673 

> «t an nicli. 

••atjB, in archeology, a true and rea- 

djii«ta>ent of the value of all com. 

rsuor. «.». 

I ■• • okotiOB a hone makes in raising or lift- 
if^ka (an>{iurten, keeping his liiml legs upon 
^r^i±-i wttJbout stirring, /arrvr'j Dicfiofuiry. 
i^ ia music, slow, dragging. 
'.a town of Italy in tlie States of the 
I Okl (inxrince of Urbino. is situated near 
k fi^Kla. between die Adriatic and a range of 
nteraoi hiU« It is surrounded with fortihca- 
«M<»1 ae'l ^iiil!, the «treeis being clean and 
m}. Itt c - is ornamented with a 

Ammb iCii ^utue of I'tban \ III. : 

of Ite cuurilj'-' are also remarkable for 
tmttmg% arul xrchitecture. The latter are 
, La Miscncordia, and San Caroio. 
have bttle trade, but cultivate 
sadtofs country in wine, olives, figs, 
Tbc idimale was once very unhealthy 
account of the marches, which are 
Pesaru is the see of a bishop. 
• lo IP.DCiU r.iuhtccn miles E. N. E. of 
norlh-west of Cincona. 
. :i f.iinous Sicilian direr, 
; lu Kiiclier, was, from his amazing 
ling, and his perseverance under 
ihc Ash. 'This man had from 
r b»tn oMd to the sea ; and earned his 
; for corals and oys- 
he *<' :<^rs on shore. His 

iter, at, brought 
liaiMt i ek'ineot. Kircher 

«a» (i^:, - ;.!iown to spend five 

( midst of the wavet, without any other 

than tlw fish which he caught there 

raw. He often swam over from Sicily 

•Catabtbi, a terojieiluous and dangerous pas- 

cvrying letters from the king. He was 

kDn»n to i>wiin among the gulfs of 

■r> lilands, no way apprehensive of 

Sooa ntahners out at sea, one day ob- 

ac«iw<hii«n at some disl.'uice from them, 

lh*y fegarded a* a sea- monster ; but, 

M approacb, u was known to be Nidiolas, 

whom lliey took into their ship. When they 
.-tsked him whither he was going in so stormy 
and rough a sea, and at such a distance from 
land, he showed them a packet of letters, which 
he was carrying to one of the towns of Italy. 
He kept them thus company for some time in 
their voyage, conversing, and asking questions, 
and, after eating a hearty meal with them, took 
his leave, and, jumping into the sea, pursued his 
voyage alone. In order to aid these po»vers of 
enduring in the deep, nature seemed to have as- 
.sisled him in a very extraordinary manner; for 
his fingers and toes were webbed, and his chest 
became very capacious. Tlie account of so es- 
Iraoriiinary a [>erson did not fail to reach the 
king himself; who commanded Nicholas to be 
broui^ht before him. The curiosity of this mo- 
narch had been long excited by the accounts he 
had heard of the bottom of the Ciulf of Charjb- 
dis, which he now therefore commanded our 
poor diver to examine ; and, as an incitement to 
his obedience, ordered a golden cup to be flung 
into it. Nicholas was not insensible of the 
danger to which he was expose<l, and he pre- 
sumed to remonstrate : but the hoyw of the re- 
ward, the desire of pleasing the king, and the 
fleasure of showing his skill, at last prevailed, 
le instantly jumped into the gulf, and con- 
tinued for three-quarters of an hour below ; 
during which time the king and his attendants 
became very anxious for his fate ; but he at last 
appeared, holding the cup in triumph in one 
hand, and making his way good among the 
waves with the other. Having refreshed himself 
by sleeping, there were four things, he said, 
which rendered the gulf dreadful, not only to 
men, but to fish. 1. The force of the water 
bursting up from the bottom, which required 
great strength to resist. 2. Tlie abruptness of 
the rocks that on every side threatened destruc- 
tion. 3. The force of the whirlpool dashing 
against those rocks. And, 4. The numl>er and 
magnitude of the polypous fbh, some of which 
appeared as large as a man ; and which, every 
where sticking against the rocks, projected their 
fibrous arms. Being asked how he was able so 
readily to find the cup that had been thrown in, 
he replied that it happened to be flung by the 
waves into the cavity of a rock against which he 
himself was urged in his descent. Tliis account, 
however, did not satisfy the king's curiosity. 
Being requested to venture once more into the 
gulf for further discoveries, he at first refused : 
but the king repeated his solicitations ; and, to 
give them still greater weight, produced a larger 
cup than the former, and added also a purse n| 
gold. With these inducements, says hircher. 
the unfortunate diver once again plunged into 
the whirl|)ool, and was never heard of more.' 

PESHAWUn, Pr.suovR, or I'tisiioiiE, a city 
and district of Afghaunistauo, in the province of 
Cabul, formerly Bekram. It is watered by the 
Kameh or Cabul River, and surrounded on all 
sides except the east by a range of mountains, 
which defend it from the blasts of winter, but 
render it very hot during llie summer solstice, 
llie soil is a rich black niuidd, watered by an 
innumerable number of mountain streams. It 
is inhabited by fire tribes of Afgliauns, the prin 



cipal of whom are the Mohammed Zyes aud the 
Momeads ; and » said to contain 300,000 in- 
habitants. It is the fovorite residence of the 
Afghaun court in winter, is celebrated for its ex- 
tensive gardens and fruit, jnrticulariy meloiis, 
and is without doubt one of the finest spots in 
the king's dominions. The revenue is estimated 
at £100,000 sterling. 

PEsnAWL-R, the ancient capital of the above 
mentioned district, stands on an uneven surface, 
is upwards of five miles in circumference. The 
houses are of unburnt brick, in wooden frames, 
and are mostly three stories high. The streets 
are narrow, but paved, with a kennel in the 
middle. INvo or three brooks which run through 
the town, are crossed by bridges, which fiill into 
the Kameh or Cabul Uiver, which paiises some 
miles north of the city. Inhere are many 
mosques in the town, but none of them are 
worthy of notice, except a fine caravanserai, 
and the Bala Hissar or citadel, situated on a 
hill to the north, which contains some fine halls, 
and is adorned with some spacious gardens. It 
is the occasional residence of the king. Some 
other of the palaces are splendid. The city is 
inhabited by persons from all parts of the east, 
but the common languages are the Pushtoo and 
Hindostany. Pesbawur is mentioned in the 
tenth century, but was much improved by the 
emperor Akber, and has long been the residence 
of a brave tribe, called the Ilazarees, of Tartar 

PESSARY, H. I. Fr. peiiaire ; Gr. trtmafum. 
An oblong form of medicine, made to thrust up 
into the uterus. 

Of canthaiides he preicribet five in a pntary, cut- 
ting off their beads and feet, mixt with myrrh. 


Pessary, in medicine, is also a solid substance 
compoied of wool, lint, or linen, mixed with 
IMwdcr, oil, wax, &c., made round and long like 
a finger, in order to be introduced in the ex- 
terior neck of the matrix, for the cure of uterine 

PESSIERE, French, in fortification, a dam 
that ii raised for the purpose of confining a suf- 
ficient quantity of water in a reservoir, by which 
any machine may be worked, or kept in motion. 
The overflowing of the river may run over tlus 
dam without doing any injury to it. 

PEST, «. t. ■\ Fr. ptite ; Lat. pestit.'-iioi'si:, > Plague ; pestilence ; mor- 

Pestii-'crous <n$- 3 tal or destructive disease ; 
any thing mischievous or destructive : pest-house, 
a hospital ; particularly for those infected with 
the plague: pestiferous is destructive; malig- 
nant; infectious. 

Soch is thy audacious wickednesx. 
Thy lend, fnlij'mtu, and diuentioui pranks. 
The very infants prattle of thy pride. Shaktpan. 
At her words the hellish ptti 
Korbore. Millon'i Pamlut Ij—i. 

In a bodily contagion, we hold it not safe to info 
the sick peraoot to converse with the whole ; but tc- 
niovr them to »pt$' -hatat remote from the vii-inity of 
others. Uf. UaU. 

Of all virtues justire is the best ; 
Valour withuut it it a rammon pnt. Waller. 
IaI hurc Achilles 
The gud jurijiiiiate, and the fttt assuage. I'oft. 


The pert a virgin's (ace and bosom bei 
High 00 her crown a rising snake appeal 
Guards her black front, and hisses m he 

It is easy to conceive how the steams of 
bodies taint the air, while they are alive ai 

Stand aloof. 
And let the yetl'i triumphal chariot 
Have open way advancing to the tomi 
See boM he mocks the pomp and page 
Of earthly kings! 
Pest, or Pesth, a palatinate of ' 
lying chiefly along the east bank of the 
from the point where it begins to flow s 
to the borders of the palatinate of Bats, 
composed of three counties, which were 
distinct, viz. Pest, Pellsh, or Pilis, i 
That of Pilis lies to the west of the L)ai 
contains the town of Buda. These 
supply the chief branch of the revenue 
latine of Hungary. Their area is 40.i 
miles, and their population 362,000. 
bitants are a mixed race, being partly 
partly Sclavonians, Germans, \\ alacfii 
sies and Jews. The surface is gener; 
and the heath of Ketskemet (see Kt 
is one of the most remarkable tracks in 
dom ; yet in the north there are seve: 
tains. The countiy is laid out in ti 
pasturage. Wine of good quality is 
Buda. Near Pest is the plain of Kak 
the Hungarian diet used to meet. 

Pest, or Pesth, a considerable cit; 
gary, is situated on the bank of the 1>» 
course of the river being from north to s 
Pesth standing on the east bank, o 
Buda. It is only separated from that ; 
bridge of boats, three-quarters of a mile 
Buda is the residence of the vicemy 
counted consequently the capital of tlu 
but Pest is the seat of the lush courts 
and the place of meeting for the diet, 
considerably larger, having 42,01)0 ii 
It consists of the Old and New Towns 
out the whole, the streets are toU-nibl 
and regular, and the hou:>os respcciuM 
public buildings, the principal are t!i 
of invalids, the barracks, and a qiKidn 
litary edifice, begun in 1780 by .Uisfp 
the churches, the Catholics have foui 
therans, the Calvinists, and tht fullov 
(Jreek fiiith, one each. Tlic univcrsit 
one in Hungary, is richly ondowcil : 
sots are forty in number ; the students In 
and 800. Tlie observatory is on the Hi 
the river. The manufactures here com 
cotton, jewellery, leather, and mu-i 
ments; also tobacco, which is a ••over 
nopoly. The Danube affonU 
course with a large track of count rv 
fairs of Pesth ate numerously attt-m 
is a theatre, erected in 180H ; pulilic 
the Danube, and public gardens ; 01 
side of the river are hot snrings. 
not of remote origin, but nas oftt-i 
sieucd. It is 130 miles E. S. K, of 1 
PK.STAI,OZZI. orl'rsTAi rzdUnr 
cal philosopher of the Seven Caiitons 
the inventor of a modern motle of 1 




lif* Rood fiunily at Zurich, January 
:ir«d ru\j habiu of industry, 
incliimtioD the vtnploympnt of 
... ,t^^oir>.,,.fl fiis very original 
■\ entitled I.icnhard 
.. ^ ..1 _ i .ipsic in 1781-1787, 
MB tran«taled into most European 
INWililiti HAS powerfully seconded 
Atopic project.1 by Tschamer, bailli 
Ki*, a rich Swiss proprietor, the 
' kit tvauBtx. He composed many 
h^wiA a TKW to llie same object ; and 
■Acn • «r^Iy paper, the numbers of 
n^Mishetl in 2 vols. 8vo. ; Letter? 
of the Children of Indi^'ent 
CMtoeboA* on the I'rogress of Nature 
I tnla^un tnt of the Human Speciei; 
far or Abecedary, or Klements of Logic 
Cta. In 1799 the Helvetic government 
dinctor of the orphan-house at 
il4t canton of ('nderwald ; and, on the 
tf thai establishment, the chateau of 
tt, fatt Ingues from Heme, was granted 
Timiuabef of pxipih which now flocked 
I aiuxi him to lemove his seminary to 
«f Yvtnlun. In 1803 the caniou of 
him a member uf the Helvetic 

hv I'- nric to Pans; 

lakM^vmtly rt> the emperor 

Iktmifrof &L I. He closed 

|ad pkilinthrD|iic life on the 17th of Fe- 
',« Bni^ in Switzerland. 
1. 1. 1 Fi ■ prtter, a Lat. pettis. 
1.1. T'Toannoy; perplex. ;hanti»; 
a^. ) encumber : a peslerer is one 
m disturbs : pestertjus, cumber- 

1 ud peaM 
I knch en * borel they lay, 

Viho then shall hlante 
nm tu rvrtiil und start, 
t u wiiiiin him does cooderan 

I f afta^timtr*. iftubfth. 

I ihU la ;«>t«r us with message, 
tatnaiti of thou UoUs. i/ialujtfoTt. 
k SfAiiul ta^aboads uolc the dislike 
I M of gaouug them, as that wluch 
', puUnmi, and of no open csaniDlc. 
Baatni Hrtirtf \ II, 
|(kI fturrrJ in Itiis pinfold here, 
f»ft (tsil and feverish being. 

I witk nice and rats, and to this 

jl/i"« •vniiut Admim. 
) if icribbltn daily [vittr the woild 

~ ■ ■ I staff. Ihruilr-. 

aadi ftUT the rh<irch and delude 
eoalndictiaas theimelvcs ;istert<Nl 
I ■■* •{villy r«vcrol by thrm as llic la- 

iMBa ha «aa panoad with Doise ; 
4 i*as yn fa mi by (h« hoys, SKi/i. 

lM*t I has* a soul ; nor ran all (be books 
t BMMriatiaCa have p—tmi the wnrld ever 
■ la dw (aolnry. Siente. 

Vt.jKitiUnet: \jU. 
prtlilrntia. Pest ; 
, plagtie; mortal or in- 
fectious distemper : 

pestilent and pestilential mean, partaking of the 
nature of pestilence; contagious; producing 
|>l.ii;iie or disease : inalijpiant : peslilently is 
mischicvouslj ; destrucuvtly. 

We have found this man a ptifilrnt fellow, and a 
mover of sedition amotij^ all the Jews, Acit xxiv. 5. 

There is nothing imira conlaj^ious and prutiUnt than 
soDie kinds ol harinony ; ibau some nothing mora 
strong and poleni unlo good, lliwker. 

Itoary niciuMt-d hiejd the soldiers Ihrusliug upon 
their spears r.iilt'd agaiiiKl king Ferdinand, wlin with 
such corrupt and ftiulenl bread would feed them, 

The red jttiiltn t strike all tiadet in Rome, 
And occupations perish, Shalufean. 

Ureal nnging of bells in populous cities dissipated 
pntitenl air. which may be Iroia the concussion uf 
the air, and not from the sound. Bucoii. 

Une peiiilrnt fine, 
His beard no bigger though than thine, 
Walked on before the rest. Suckling, 

Which prece'lent, of ;ir»(i7«Tit import. 
Against tJiee, IJenry, had been brought, 

If govemmeat depends npon religion, then this 
shews the pettilefitwl design of those that attunipt to 
disjoin the civil and ecclesiastical interests. SuulA. 
Fire involved 
Id pa(i<flsliiil vapours, stench, and smoak. 

These with the sir passim; into the lungs, infect 
the mass of blood, and lay the loundalion of ;«ili/»i- 
luf fevers, fl o'rfuwnf. 

To those people that dwell under or near the cqua - 
tor a perpetual spring would be a most jfttitenl and 
iiuuuport.ihk' summer. Bmllfji. 

The world almunds with feitilmt books, written 
against this doctrine. Sirifi'* MitctWinin. 

PE-STILLATION, n. ». ) Lat. pUtUlum ; 

Pej.'ile. S It.ll. prtrfUo, ;)i»- 

lelU. ITie act of pounding or breaking in a 
mortar : the instrument with which things are 
broke in a mortar. 

'J'he best dianrf^nds are comniinuhlc, and so far 
from breaking hammers, that they submit unto ;«<- 
titlotton, and resist not any onlinary jvjIU. Bruwne. 

What real alteration ran the beating of the ;>Mi(e 
make in any bodv, but of thu texture of it T Lfcke. 

I'pim our vegetable roo<] the leelh and jaws act 
as the iKille and mortar. Arbulhnot. 

PESTIS, the plague. See Mediciije, Index. 
PF-T, n. I. ^ Ital. pc«/i> ; Lat. pcf <«(», 

Pet'tish, ttdj. J the breast i A slight ua»- 

Pi.r'TisiiNEiS, B. «. Jsion or grief: pettish is 
fretful ; peevish : peltishness, peevislmess. 

Nor dulh their rhildliood prove their innocence ; 
They're froward, fietlith, and unused to smile. 

If all the world 
."^hould in a (vi of temperance feed on pol»e, 
Drink the clear stream and nothing wear but friete. 
The all-giver would bounthsokt, would bo unpraised. 

If wa cannot obtain every vain thing we ask, our 
next business is to take pel at the refusal. 

Life, given for noble purposes, mutt not be thrown 
up in a pel, nor whined away in love. CMifr. 

Like chilJrin, when we lincoiir favorite plaything, 
wc throw f way the lest in a 'H of jieUiihneu. U. 
1'liey cause the proud ti>c-ir visiu to delay, 

.And wnd the godly in a pri to pray, P*l» 




PET, «.«. PtolMbly from petit, little. See 
Peat. A lamb taken into the house, and 
brought up by hand : a cade lamb. 

PETAL, n. I. ) Lat. pelalum. The leaf of 

PEt'ALODS. ) a flower : having petals. 

P»tat a a tenn in botaDT, lignifying those fine 
coloured leaves thatcompow the floweri of all plant* : 
whence plant* are diitinguiahed into monopetalous, 
wbo*e 6ower is onecontiaued leaf ; tripetaloui, pen- 
tapetalous, and polypetaloiu, when taey coniist of 
three, 6ve, or man; leave*. Qui'imr. 

Petal, in botany. See Botant. 


PETALISM, a mode of deciding on the guilt 
of citizens, similar to the Athenian Ostracism. 
It wras introduced in Syracuse about A. A. C. 
460, to prevent the tyranny of the richer citizens, 
who had often about that time aimed at the dia- 
dem. To prevent, therefore, the evils daily 
arising firom thence, and to bring down the as- 
piring minds of the wealthy citizens, the Syra- 
cusans were obliged to muie a law like that of 
the Athenian ostracism ; differing only in thLi, 
that every citizen at Syracuse should write on a 
leaf, instead of a shell, the names of such as they 
apprehended powerful enough to usurp the so- 
vereignty. When the leaves were counted, he 
who had the most suffrages against him was, 
without farther enquiry, banished for five years, 
l^his method of weakening the interest of the 
overgrowing citizens was called petalism, fit>m 
wtTiAov, a leaf. This law was attended with 
many evil coasequences ; for those who were 
mo«t capable of governing the commonwealth 
were driven out, and the administration of pub- 
lic a£&in committed to the meanest of the peo- 
ple ; nay, many of the chief citizens, who were 
able to render their country great service, fearing 
to fall under the penalties of this law, withdrew 
from the city, and lived private in the country, 
not concerning themselves with public affairs : 
whence, all the employments being filled with 
men of no merit or experience, the republic was 
on the brink of ruin, and residy to nil into a 
state of anarchy and confusion. The law, there- 
iore, of petalism, upon more mature deliberation, 
was repealed soon after it had been enacted, and 
the reins of government were again put into the 
bands of men who knew how to manage them. 

I'ETALITE, a mineral discovered in the 
mine of Uto in Sweden by M. D'Andrada, in- 
teresting, fit>m its analysis by M. Arfredson 
having led to the knowledge of a new alkali. 

This rare mineral occurs in masses, which have 
a foliated structure, and are divisible in direc- 
tions parallel to the planes of a four-sided prism, 
whose bases are elongated rhombs, or parallelo- 
grams with angles of 137° 08' and 42" 52', ac- 
cording to Ilaiiy. The laminc are sometimes 
scaly, undulated, or interlaced. It scratches 
glass and has nearly the hardness of feldspar. 
Its lustre is usually glistening, and somewhat 
piarly ; the planes, produced by mechanical di- 
v.sion in one direction, have however a higher 
lustre. It is translucent in different degrees; 
and its color u white, either milk white, or with 
shade.4 of gray, re<l, or green ; the red sometimes 
appears as a slight tinge of pink. Itt s))ecific 
gravity is between 2-4 and 2-6. 

Chemical characten. — ^When itron 
by the blow-pipe it melts, according to 
into a transparent porous glass. Linh 
ment be very minute, its surface or 
fused. It contains, accoiding to a rac 
analyses by Arfvedson, silex 79-2, alt 
lithia 5-7 ; = 100-1. Professor Clark 
gives silex 80-0, alumine 15-0, lithia 
of manganese 2-5, water 0-75. An 
Vauquelin gives silex 78, alumine 1 
= 98. 

The new alkali, lithia, was first di 
the petalite by Arfvedson. It som 
sembles white quartz, but is easily di 
by the foregoing characters : — It has 
only in Sweden, at Uto, Sahla, and 1 
and is usually associated with quart: 
spodumen, &c. 

This interesting mineral has been 
by Dr. Brewster to have a perfect 
structure, and to possess two axes of 

PETAIl', n.«. J Vi. petard ;l\. 

Petard', n. t. ( of Lat. pedo. j 
ing engine of warfare, used former!} 
See below. 

Tit the sport to have the engineer 
Hoist with his own fetmrd. Shaluptar 
Find all hi* having and his holdi 
Reduced t' eternal noise and scoldii 
The coiyugal petard that tears 
Down all portcuUices of ears. 
A ptlard is an engine of metal, almost 
of a bat, about seven inches deep, at 
inches over at the mouth ; when cliarg 
powder well beaten, it is covered with : 

Elank, bound duwn fast with ropes, runn 
andles, which are round the nm near t 
it : this petard is applied to gates or ban 
places a* are deaigned to be surprised, ti 
up : they are also used in counterrain 
through into the enemy's galleries. 

MUitarti . 

Petar, or Petard. Fr. petard, 
tardo. A petard is an engine of mt 
in tlie shape of a hat, about seven it 
and about five inches over at the moi 
charged with fine powder, well beate 
vered with a madrier or plank, bounc 
with ropes, running through handles, 
round tne rim, near the mouth of it. 
is applied to gates or barriers of such 
are designed to be surprised, to blow 
they are also used in countermines 
through into the enemy's galleries. It 
is ascribed to the French Huguenot 
who by means of petards took Calic 
same year. Petards are of four diffc 
the first contains 12 lbs. I3ozs. ; sec 
11 ozs.; third 1 lb. lOozs. ; fourth : 
blind composition for them is 
powder 7 lbs., wood ashes 3 ozs. 

PETAU (Denis), or Pltavus (Di 
French Jesuit of great erudition, born 
in 1583. lie was but tiinetci>n yt 
when he was made professor of philos< 
University of Bourges. He joined i 
in 1605, and did great credit to tla-iii 
dition. He became a zealous advoi 
chun-h of Rome ; and criticised and 




lia chief work, which is still in 

kWcDiitled RaliooariumTeinfioruni. 

«aasri|iiKnt of universal history, from 
I lo I63j, with authorities. He 
ID \6.rl. 

la toologjr, flying squirrels; a 

lia geaus sciurus. Tliey have a 

! Cileoded from the fore to the 

for flyntig. Tliey are styled 

GmeliQ sciuri volantes, flying 

rtion from the sciuri scan- 

squirreU ; but Dr. Shaw 

ri, wherein he is followed by 

I enumerates eight specie;). See 

USTiE, in antiquity, those who ex- 
rtationtbe petaurum. 
ll'M. Gr. xcravpov, or irtriifpovy a 
[ to I wail, on which birds used to 
» it Re Rust. I. 3, c. 9 ; I'oll . Onom. 
[la. The (lelaurum was also a ma- 
tin the air, from which the petau- 
ifti, and descended to the earth 
I lopc. — Jut. Sat. 14, v. 265. 
K£, a large and flat province of 
rtpire, in which I'ekin is situated. 
I weftcm boundary of the province, 
tv« Peiho, enables it to carry on a 
de with Corea and Japan. Its 
Fchiefly supported by the communi- 
uDcd by Its nvers with the imperial 
^K the tribute of all the provinces, 
^M kmd, IS conveyed, and vast num- 
^^ps who live entirely on the water, 
^f§UuDg or breeding of ducks. The 
Hpi ktaled lo Sir George Staunton at 
9f tot tliis there can be no doubt is a 
kUd. Rice, wheat, and barley, 

in medicine, a name given to 
red or of any otlier color, 
Jignant fevers. 
f mdj. lau peUtkia. Pestilen- 

my feren with buboes and ear- 
itfUmt 01 spotted fevers. 


I rSt-). the apostle, bom at Betlisaida, 
r jonos, and brotlier of St. Andrew. — 
, 43. His first name wa.s Simon ; but, 
Saviour csdied him to the aposlleship, 
^3bs name into Cephas, that is, in 
^■t, or a rock ; in Latin petra, whence 
W%na a married man ; and had his 
■odwr-iA-law, and his wife, at Caper- 
m the lake of Gennesareth. — Mark i. 
witt. IV; Luke iv. 38. St. Andrew, 
tiled by Jesus Christ, met his 
1 told him (John i. 41), ' we 
b,' and then brought him^to 
one day with our 
I thpir ordinary occoa- 
i( iit they were present 

I I Cana in Galilee 

. l). JO. bi, I'eter'i miraculous 
; (be ciire of his wife's mother ; 
I the waters ; his answers to our 
Dt qoestiorLs ; his presence at 
I i his payment of the tribute ; 

his questions respecting forgiveness, and the de- 
struction of the temple ; his vain self-confidencfl 
that he would stand by his Lord ; his triple de- 
nial of him soon after, with his consequent 
repentance; his meeting wflli him after his rciur- 
rectioii ; his second miraculous drauglit of tishes ; 
our Saviour's trying questions to him ; his meet- 
ing with the other apostles ; the miraculous gift 
of tongues ; his sermon, or address lo the peo- 
ple ; the consequent conversion of 3000 persons ; 
fiis miraculous cure of the lame beggar, and con- 
version of other 5000 ; his imprisonment by the 
priests and sadducees, and his boldness on that 
occasion ; his annunciation of death to Ananias 
and Sapphira; his second imprisonment and li- 
beration by an angel ; his boldness before the 
Jewish rulers ; his sufferings and dismission ; his 
preaching at Samaria ; his reproof lo Simon the 
magician ; his cure of /Eneas at Lydda ; his 
raising up Tabitha from death ; his vision at 
Joppa, the message to him from Cornelius, and 
his conversion ; Peter's visit to him, and the con- 
sequences; his return to Jerusalem; witli his 
imprisonment by Herod Agrippa, A. D. 44; are 
all recorded, wiiii many other interesting particu- 
lars, in the Go$|iels and Acts of the Apostle.s. 
After his delivery from prison by the angel, he 
left Jerusalem ; bul we are not told what became 
of him till the council held at Jerusalem in the 
year 51. It is thought that before this time lie 
made his second journey to Home, whence he 
wrote his first epistle. St. Peler was obliged lo 
leave Rome in the year 51, by order of the em- 
peror Claudius, who had banished all Jews from 
tlience. The particulars of St. Peter's life are 
little known from A. D. 51, in which the council 
of Jerusalem was held, till his last journey lo 
Rome, which was some time before his death. 
Then, being acquainted by revelation that the 
time of his death was not far off (2 Pet. i. 14), 
he wrote to Ihe faithful his second epistle. St. 
Peter and Sl Paul came lo Rome, it is said, 
about ihe same time, A. I). 65, where they per- 
formed many miracles, and made many converts. 
Simon M^^us, by his tricks, continued here to 
deceive the people, pretending himself to be the 
Messiah, and even attempting to ascend into 
heaven. See Simon Maois. Soon after this 
St. Peter vraa thrown into pri-ton, where he con- 
tinued, we are told, for nine months ; at last he 
was crucified in the Via Ostia, with his head 
downwards, as he himself had desired of his ex- 
ecutioners. This he did out of a sense of hu- 
mility, lest it should be thought, as Sl. Ambrose 
says, that be affected the glory of Jesus Christ. 
It is said ihaf his body was at first buried in tlie 
catacombs, two miles from Rome, from whence 
it was afterwards transported lo the Vatican, 
where it has lain ever since. His festival is ce- 
lebrated with that of St. Paul, on Ihe 29th of 
.lune. St. Peter died A. 1). 66, after having 
been bishop of Rome, accunling lo the general 
account, about twenty-four or twenty-five years. 
Hif age was about seventy-four or seventy-five. 
It IS agreed that Sl. I jnus was his successor. St. 
Peter has been made the author of several books ; 
such vere his Acts, his < iospel, his Uevelaiion, 
his work itbout preaching, and another about 
Judgment. There is extanl a large hi.story ol 


P E t E R. 

St. Peter, called The Recognition, Bscril)e<l lo 
St. Clement. 

I'eter of Blois, a learned man of the twelfth 
century, bom about 1120, at Blois, in France. 
He wa.1 the first person who employed the famous 
word transubstantiation. He was appointed pre- 
ceptor lo William U. kinij of Sicily, in 1167, 
and obtained the custody of the privy .seal. In 
116Rhe left Sicily and returned into Frajice. 
He was soon after invited into England by Henry 
II.. who employed him as his private secretary, 
made him archdtacon of Rath, and gave him 
some other benefices. \N hen he had spent a few 
years at court, he rctireil into the family of Ri- 
chard archbishop of I'lmterbiiry, who had made 
him his secretary and chancellor about 117(i. In 
this station he continued to the death of the 
arclibishop in 1103, enjoyinc the highest depree 
of favor witli that prelate. Our author remained 
in the same station with archbishop Baldwin, 
who succeeded Richard. He was also sent by 
that prelate io plead his cause before pope I'rban 
III. Afler the departure of Baldwin for the 
Holy Land, in 1192, our autlior was involved in 
viirious Iruubles in Ins old age; and died about 
the end of the twelfth century. He apjiears 
from his works, which may be justly reckoned 
among the most valuable nM>numenls of the age 
in which he fiourishefl, lo have been a man of 
great integrity and sincere piely, as well as of a 
lively inventive eenius and uncommon cnidilion. 
His printed works consist of 134 letters, which 
he collected at the desire of Henry 11. ; of sixly- 
five sermons ; and of seventeen tracts on different 

I'nKR THE HcaitiT. See Crosades, vol. ir. 
p. 680. 

pKTER I., styled the Great, czar, and after- 
wards emperor of Russia, founder of the Russian 
empire; for though the country was well known, 
and of great antiquity, yet it had no extent of 
jtower, of political influence, or of general com- 
merce, in Europe, till his time. He was bom 
in 1672 ; and was proclaimed czar when but ten 
years of age, in exclusion of John his eliler bro- 
ther, who was of a sickly conslitiition and weak 
mind. The princess Sophia, his half sister, made 
an insurrection in fiivor of John ; and, to put 
an end lo the civil war, it was at last agreed that 
the two brothers should jointly share the impe- 
rial dignity. I'cler had been very negligently 
educated, not only through the general defects 
of the Russian system, but likewise through the 
arts of the Princess Sophia, who "nirrounded him 
with every thing ihiit mieht stifle his natural de- 
sire of knowledge, ami ilrpnve his mmd. Not- 
withstanding this, his iuLlmalion for military 
eiercises discovered iiwlf lu his tenderest year.. 
He formed a toinp;iiiy «l fil^y men, coninianded 
by foreign officers, clothed and exercised after 
the (ierinan manner: he entered himself into 
the )uwe<t (lost, that of a dnimmer ; and never 
rose ottierwise than as a soldier of fortune. 
He now teinforccd his company with several 
others, till at la^t he had k»> louethcr a consider- 
able body of sotdi4'fS, and by this nicsins cra- 
d* ", :" ', iidinml trtKips. 

I :i he lidd inel 

wiiii > I I ]tii. pleaiure- 

houses, made such an impression on 
that he conceived the almost impiactic 
of forming a navy. His first care 
some Hollanders to build some small _ 
Moscow ; and he passed two successive sun 
on board English or Dutch ships, which w 
from Archangel, that he might instruct hh 
in eveiT branch of naval affairs. In U 
John died, and Peter was now sole 
the empire. In 1098 he sent an 
Holland; and went incognito in the 
visiting England as well as Holland, lo iU 
himself fully in the art of ship-buildinj;, 
Amsterdam he worked in the yard as ■ 
vate ship-carpenter, under the name of I 
Michaelof ; but he has been often heard to 
that if he had never goue to Englandi 
remained ignorant of that art. In 170 ' 
got together a Irody of standing forces, 
ing of 30,1100 fo<it; and now ihe vast 
had formed displayed itself in all its [ 
o|>ened his dominions toall intelligent i 
having first sent the chief nobility of hit en 
into foreign countries to improve t' 
knowledge and learning, and inviti . . 
all the foreigners he could meet witli, «!io 
capable of instructing his subjects, lliis n 
many discontents; and ihe despotic antii 
he exerted ou that occasion was scarcely po 
ful enough to suppress them. Ir. '■'■ '• 
slrengtlienc*! by the alliance of An _ 
Poland, he made war ou Charle» ^ii.4 
Sweden. His first ill success did ; 
for he used to say, ' my armies 
come, but tins will at last teach tbeinl 
quer.' He afterwards gained conside 
vantages; and founded Petersburg in ll 
1709 he gained a complete victory ■* 
Swedes at Pultowa. Being in 1712 end 
the 'Hirks on the banks of the Pruth, III 
inevitably lost ; and, had not the ciarin 
rine bribed the grand viiier, even tlic ( 
dence could not have effected his deU 
In 1716 he made a tour through Gen 
Holland, and visited the royal academy r 
at I'aris. It would be eudless to enum'er 
various establishments for which the 
are obliged lo him. He formed an 1 
model of the most military nations : he I 
fleets in all the four seas which bor 
Russia : be caused many strong fbrtr 
rai.scd after tiie plans ; ahd mad 
iiient harbours : he intrxtdiiced art* and ( 
into his dominions, and freed r 
superstitious abuses ; he bmi' 
&c.; was generous in rewaniiii^-,^ 
punishing ; faithful, laborious, and 
was he not free from ro"nhncs« of ( 
had indeed cured himself of excess in 1 
but he has been brarwl. .1 « iili nili.- 
larly cruelly He ■ 
son princo Alexis !• 

severe to his son's friends. Ho bchcade 
brother-in-law count Lapurhin, broifu 
wile (fiiokessa Uipuchin whom ho liad 1 
and uncle to nrincr Alexis. The priB 
fcs or «Uii forfeited his heal. The r»ni 
the i/;ir'H life «uis a series of i,'r.ind ptul| 
Uir>, and exploila, that taupfi ' 



excessive sererities. He made 
I to hU ronrt and to his council. 
thit be- luul sacrificed liis son 
ins. He died of (he 
IT; the world at least 

iiiTo, if not with the 
»;ui tall of stature, 
lii.^: , ;ipect, though some- 

b^ convulsions, which altered 
ll« conrersed with persons in all 
1 women ; and valued hiniHclf on 
I draughts, rather than sippini; de- 
For a minuter account of his 
iMD^t(C-see RtMiA, Pt:TERsBrRG,&c. 
fBU tL coperor of Russia, the son of the 
Imm puioe Alexis, was bom in 1715; 
m ttXt ncceeded the empress Catharine 
lliWdMtuH] him grand dukf> in 1726. 
" ^ItTent of his rcign was tlie 
XikolT. See Menzikoff. 
If r of Russia, was the son 

• I like of Holstein Gottorp, 
I piMcM Aline, dauf;hter of I'eler the 
i^auwat bora in 1728. (>n the death of 
■pn* Elinhelh, in 1762, he succeeded tu 
!■■(, but did not long enjoy it ; being 
Midtk* wne )ear by his wife, Catharine 
Bt dial in confinement seven days after- 
Ik mi, aj is generally believed, was inur- 
lacbu^tvus manner. 
ntm., kinx of Arra(!:on, succeeded his 
ifaHll. in 1276, and turned his arms 
uSiTiTtr. lotiliich kini^om he laid claim; 
Ifc iuest of it. He married 

ta#.' :d king of Sicily; and, to 

(Ai<Ma]tH9rt of that island, contrived the 
I of the French, called the Sici- 
See SiciLT. For this crime he 
1 were excommunicated by pope 
lit died at Villefranche in 1282. 
t Cat It, king of Castile, succeeded 
FAlpbonsus XI. in 1350, in his six- 
^iod proved a most barbarous and 
»nich provoke<l Ins subjects to 
I htm ; Dut, little to the honor of 
restored by their assistance 
t caomand of the brave Blaik I'nnce 
■i lie was afterward*, however, abau- 
jlVrkim, and met his ju^t fate from his 
'HOffj, cutiDt of Trastamara, who killed 
•"» K" own hand. See Sp.hs. 
im «ii iIm, the name of four kings of 

'fu>, of Portugal, duke of 

> •« «>e spcond son of John, king of 

I >a< twra Mb March, 1394. He was 

aplished princes of his age ; 

f TCfjr leanied, and wa.'i a patron of 

Kmin. To increase his knowledsce, he 
nufft Ike principal countries of F.u- 
I *i>r nd Africa, with a train suitable to 
^'y; of which travels an account was 
■•d. but, according to the spirit of the 
^••W with romantic fables. On his re- 
'*Mm»d iMbel, daughter of count Crgel, 
ymt ilmi^iw of king Peter I\ . He vi- 
■■(IimI, tod was made a knight of the 
'tAfnIISad, 1417, by his cousin Henry 

v., who was grandson of John of Gatint by the 
father, as Don Pedro was by tlie mother, la 
1440 he was appointed recent of Portugal, 
during the minority of his cousin Alphonsus V. 
His regency was so mild as well as just, iliat the 
people of Lisbon asked leave to erect a statue 
to him, which this great i>rince declined. He 
governed the kingdom with so much piopriely 
that Portugal was never more resjiected by the 
otlier powers of Europe. He diminished the 
taxes, maintained the laws in their vigor, and 
g:tve the young king an excellent education ; 
who, when he came of age, was so plea.sed witli 
his conduct, that he marrietl and raised to the 
throne, the duke's daughter. Donna Isabella, in 
I44C. Yet all his merits did not prevent the 
envy of some courtiers, who at last got so much 
the ear of the monarch as to persuade bim tliat 
the duke was a traitor : but, ujion an inspection 
of his papers, Alphonsus became convinced of 
his innocence; and, as the only amends he 
could now make, ordered his body to be in- 
terred with every mark of honor in his own se- 

Peteb, iBE WitD Bov, a savage, found in 
the wnods near Hamelen, a town in the electo- 
rate of Hanover, when king George I. with a 
party of friends was hunting in llie forest of 
Hcrtswold. He was supposed to be then about 
twelve years of age, and had subsiste<l in those 
woods, upon leaves, berries, wild plants, bark of 
trees, &c., from his infancy. In 1726 he was 
brought over to England, and put under the care 
of Ur. Arbuthnot, with proper teachers. But 
though there appeared no natural defect in his 
organs of speech, he could never be brought to 
articulate a syllable distinctly. He was after- 
wards committed to the care of different peisons, 
but never acquired any degree of improvement. 
He died the 22nd of February, 1785, when he 
was supposed to be seventy-two yean old. He 
was well made ; middle-sized ; had no appear- 
ance of an idiot, nor any thing particular in his 
form, except two of his fingers united by a web 
up to the middle joint. He was delighted with 
music, and learued to hum a tune. He hxd a 
fore-knowledge of bad weather. I-ord Aloa- 
boddo gives a particular description of him, as 
an instance of his favorite hypothesis, that ' man 
in a state of nature is a mere animal.' 

PcrER Le PoiiT (St.), a market town of 
Guernsey, situated on the south-eastern part of 
the island, consists of one long narrow str«et. 
It IS defended by tlie Old caxtle and Castle Cor- 
net. The latter, which commands both the (own 
and harbour, is situated on a rock, separated from 
the land by an ann of the so, 600 yards wide, 
and fordahle only at low water. The harbour has 
a good road for shipping. The pier, a fine work, 
formed of stones joined together with great r^^u- 
larity, affords not only security to vessels, Inil 
being pavc-d on the top. and guarded by parapets, 
is a pleasiint and extensive parade, with a fine 
prospect of the sea and the neighbouring islands. 

PETEUBOROl'GH, a city of ^as«aburgh 
hundred, Nortliamptonshire, six miles and a half 
north by east from Stilton, and eigfity-one norOi 
from London, is situate on the bolder of Hunts, 
on the ootthem side of the river Neo, which runs 


hence througli Wisbeach, and is navigable up to 
the city. It is supposed to have taken iti name 
from a monastery erected about the year 600, 
dedicated to St. Peter. After the monastery had 
flourished about "200 years it was totally destroyed 
by the Danes, and continued in ruins durinic a 
Century, vflien Ethelwold^ bishop of Winchester, 
«ith toe assistance of Fxliiar and his chancellor 
Adulf, vrho was afterwards abbot, rebuilt this 
abbey in the most magnificent and stalely man- 
ner : the abbots vere mitred afterwards, and sat 
in parliament. At the dissolution of, relij^ous 
houses it was converted into a cathedral, for a 
bishop, dean, and six canons, eight choristen, a 
master, two schoolmasters, twenty scholars, six 
almsmen, and other officers. The cathedral suf- 
fered much during the civil war, but was 
thoroughly repaired some years ago. It is a 
noble structure, 409 feet long, and 203 broad. 
Amongst other monuments is one to the memory 
of the unfortunate Catharine of Arragon, wife 
of Henry VIII., and anotlier to the memory of 
Wary tjueen of Scots, both of whom were buried 
here. There is only one parish church, Si. 
John's, besides the cathedral. Tlie streets of Pe- 
terborough are regular, but the town has a dull 
appearance : near the cathedral is a good market- 
house, over which are held the sessions for the 
hundred. It has also a well endovted charily 
school for twenty boys and forty girls, a free- 
school, and a Sunday School. The trade in coal, 
com, and timber, is considerable, aud the slock- 
ing manufacture is carried on to some extent. 
On tJie whole this is the least city, and the 
poorest bishopric in England ; but the jurisdic- 
tion called Peterborough Soke or Liberty ex- 
tends over thirty-two towns and hamlets in tlie 
nei^^hbourhood, in all which places the civil 
magistrates hold their quarter sessions of the 
peace, &c. The city is governed by a mayor, 
recorder, six aldermen, and eight common coun- 
cil, and send* two members to parliament. They 
are chosen by the inhabitants paying scot and 
lot, in number about 450 ; and the dean and 
chapter, who are lords of the manor, appoint 
the returning officers. Near the city is Caerdyke, 
an ancient fuss made by the Romans for drain- 
ing the fi-ns. Market on Saturday. Fait» July 
10th : October 2d and 3d. 

PETr.KDOBOUGii, a [Kist-lown in llillsbornugh 
county. New tiampshirp, watered by the C'on- 
toncook, eighteen miles west of Anihernt, thirty- 
eight south-west of Concord, and sixty-four north 
west of Boston. This is one of the most con- 
siderable manufacturing towns in the stale, and 
contains an oil mill, a papeT mill, a woollen 
manufHCtnry, and five cotton manufactories. 

PLrrKnoRorcn, ii town of licland, in Mooa- 
ghan county, and province of I'lsler. 

PETb-KIIEAD a town of Scotland, in the 
county of Al)erdeen, about thirty-three miles 
nortli-east of that city. It stands on the most 
easterly point in Scotland, and from thence due 
west that kingdom is bro:)dest. It is the nearest 
land to the northern continent of Europe, and 
lici within 300 mili-» of the cape, which it railed 
th« Nile of Norway. Through this channel the 
grand boily of the herrings paw in their annual 
■igratioiis from Shetland'and the north leas to 

80 PET 

the more louthem latitudes, attended 

all-devouring cod and ling. The pd 

which the town is built is connected 

main Innd on the north-west by an iai 

more than 800 yards wide. Few lij 

Great Britain are of more imporlandl 

gation than Peterhead, as, in case I 

storms from the easterly points, large 1 

bayed betwixt this and the mouth of 

have not a port that they can safely tal 

time of the tide, that of Aberdeen exol 

therefore, they cannot make tlieir way 

the teeth of a strong easterly wind, 

this headland that they may gain til 

frith, tliey must inevitably come on shU 

harbour lies in a spacious bay, where 

any burden may ride in all other win 

therefore a frequent rendezvous of 

which frequent the northern seas. It i| 

by a good battery. A considerable tri 

ried on directly to the Baltic for d 

hemp, tar, and other articles. Tlien 

manufactures of sewing thread, wool 

and cotton. A mineral well gives, in 

considerable gaiety to llie place ; its sa 

lues have long, and very justly, been I 

An analysis of this water has been gil 

Laing ; who found that one pound M 

contiiiiis grs. 30] muriate of iron ; grs, 

of lime; grs. 3} carbonate of iron; j 

ceous earth ; grs. 3 sulphate of lime 

sulphate of soda ; grs. 74 muriate of 

83i cubic inches of carbonic acid | 

water has long been in great repute foi 

of the stomach and bowels, gravel, d) 

voiis afTeclions, female complaint^ 

leucophlegmasia, and diseases of genet 

The town is In the form of a cross, anj 

into four districts. The town house i* 

building at the head of the principal si 

feet lone, forty broad, with a fine ell 

spire 100 feet high. It co^t about £i 

late improvements of the piers have 4 

thousand pounds. The Keith Inch l 

harlxjur into north and south, and th 

has never been overflowed. The soul 

dered the more ccjivenieiit harbour. 

missioners for highland roads and I 

expending hirge sums of money in 

communication between the north an^ 

hours, and in effecting other great ai 

improvements. Ship-building is caul 

great extent, and the fisheries are H 

be much more attended to than fo| 

has many elegant houses on its bor^ 

it is a fort and a guard house, with I 

four twclve-poundeis, and four eight 

ers. Peterhe:id is a burgh of baron] 

by a bailie and eight councillora. 

many convenient houses for the accO 

of strangers. Tlieie is a ball-room, a 

there are two sall-walcr baths. 1 

episcopal chapel, and buigher and ) 

meetings, are also respectable. <)l| 

open and peiiiiisulaled situation, th«i 

place IS r?iteemed peculiarly pur« anj 

even the foes rising from the jca tri 

be medicinal : the town is thercfofj 

livened by the concourse of com{iiin)l 




Brical f 

!CR w*s an annual tribute of 
at Uoae out of every family at 
Pmkt. This Ina, ibe Saxoci king, 
Ia pUgrimage to Rome about the 
to the pope, partly as alms, and 
oi a hottse erecteU in Rome 
: and this continued to be 
the time of king Henry 
enacted thai, from hence- 
pay any peosions, Peter- 
impusitioDS, to the use of the 
of R*n>e. 

t), a Jesuit, was confessor 

to Jamc* U. kuiK of Kiigland. 

him in 1088, because he 

IJM author o( lliose troubles 

was then involved. 
), was a native of the west 
a liberal education, be- 
of Exeter Colle^je, Oxford; 
he took the degree of bachelor 
Pntious to this, he studied painl- 
' uity, and obtained a place in 
ly. But, on taking orders, he 
pencil, except by way of amuse- 
some particular friends. He 
fiib]ects and portraits wilh 
tlie Utter was a whole leni;th 
IV. when prince of Wales, 
Hall, in Great (juetn Street. 
bare been publislied from his 
y one of the Soul of an In- 
iven by Ani^els. Mr. Peters 
le late duke of Kuthnd, his 
•ahuble living, and the bishop of 
liim a prebendal stall in his cathe- 
at Brasted Place, in Kent, in 
IWfore the revolution in France 
ccniineni, and nhile at Paris our 
rtqursietl tlie unfortunate Maria 
tllair Mr. Peters to paint the por- 
ptiin. A council was held upon 
nnoutly decided that the effluvia 
•raid b« injurious to the royal in- 
■fenl ' that as a reason, 

I llericy. 

i^rio/, .luiii'jr of a Critical Disscr- 
2 fc Dook of Job, was presented by 
^Mf Mohan, to the living of Dooon- 
•Conniall, in 17I.<, and resided there 
"■kta be ubtaine<l that of St. Mabyn, 
**» CMiocy, where he resided till his 
■"Ti. (ie WIS the friend and corre- 
* vf biabop Lowth, who, in his letter to 
^ipcaln highly of him. 
*>■ (lluKh), a £anatic in the reign of 
*'•• *t» th* son of a merchant of Fowey, 
"Siarf (docated at Trinity College, Caro- 
11* look the degree of M.A. in 1622; 
'■iil,WM tilliroately expelled his col- 
' M eonduct. He then went on the 
^lAunards took orders, and was lec- 
2%*idH'>'*> in London. Being here 
Wfern iMrigiie with a marned female, 
^M to Kotterdatn, and became pastor 
"|fi* chvrtA. He >ubK<|uently went 
"(>■ fkm he reinained seven years, and 
Ued to Englaiul. He was one of the 
■|Mlt M Ctomwcll, owing to his 

talent for t^e burlesque, and extreme popularity 
with the soldiers and lower classes. When the 
king was brought to London for trial, Peters, 
says Sir Philip Warwick, was ' really and truly 
his jailor.' He was vehement for the execution 
of Charles, and suffered, after the Restoration, as 
a regicide. Some of his Discourses, and his 
Last I.cgacy to Ins Daughter, liavc been printed. 

PETKll'S Island (St.), in the lake of Bienne 
in the Helvetic republic, remarkable for being 
one of the retreats of Kousseau ; whence it has 
also got the name of Rousseau's Island. It lies 
towards the south side of the lake, and commands 
very delightful views. Tliere is only one farm- 
house on the island, in an apartment of which 
Rousseau was lodged. 

Peter's Lake (St.), a lake of Canada, twenty 
miles in length and about fifteen in breadth, is 
formed by the waters of the St. Laurence, aided 
by several considerable nvers, expanding over a 
level country. The lake is in general shallow, 
and in the ship channel there is not usually found 
more than from eleven to twelve feet water. Ves- 
sels of a considerable draught, instead of taking 
in their whole cargo at Montreal, take in only 
such part of it as they can carry across this lake, 
and take the remainder below the lake from 
river craft. 

PETERSBURG, or St. PrrEBsaimc, « city 
of Russia, in tlie province of Ingria, and capital 
of the empire. It was founded in 1703 by Czar 
Peter the Great, whose ambition it was to have 
a fleet on the Baltic; for which reason he deter- 
mined to found a city which might become the 
centre of trade tliroughuut all bis dominions. 
The spot he pitched upon was a low, fenny, un- 
cultivated island, formed by the branches of the 
Neva, before they fall into the gulf of Finland. 
In the summer this island was covered witli 
mud ; and in winter became a frozen pool, ren- 
dered almost inaccessible by dreary forests and 
deep morasses, the haunts of bears, wolves, and 
other savage animals. Having taken the fort of 
Nattebuurg, and the Iowa of Neischanz, in 1703, 
Peter assembled in Ingria above 300,000 men, 
Russians, Tartars, Cossacs, Livunians, and 
others, even from tlic most distant parts of his 
empire, and laid tlie foundation of the citadel 
and furtifications, which were linished in four 
months almost in despite of nature. He was 
obliged to open ways through forests, drain bogs, 
raise dikes, and lay causeways, before he could 
found the new city. The workmen were ill-pro- 
vided with necessary tools and implements ; 
they were even obliged to fetch the earth from a 
great distance in the skirts of their garments, or 
in bags made of old mats and rags sewed toge- 
ther. They had neither huts nor houses to shelter 
them from the severity of the weather : the 
country, which had lieeu dtsolated by war, could 
not accommodate such a multitude with provi- 
sions ; and the sunplies by the lake Ladoga 
were often retarded by contrary winds. In co-i- 
sequence of these hanlships above 100,000 men 
are said to have perished ; nevertheless the work 
proceeded with incredible vigor and expedition ; 
while Peter, for the security of his workmen, 
formed a great camp, in such a manner tlial Ins 
infantry contiuued lo Finlaod, and bis cavalry 




were quartered ia lagria. The buildings of Die 
city kept pace with t)ie fortress, which is the 
centre of the town, surVounded on all sides by 
the Nera; and m Utile more th:iii a year above 
30,000 honsei were erected. To people this 
city Peter invited raerchaiiti, anilicurs, tnecha- 
nics, and seamen from all the different countries 
of Europe : he demolished the town of Nieus- 
chants, and brought hither nut only the materials 
of the houses, but the inhabitants themselves. 
A thousand bmilies were drawn from Moscow; 
he obliged his nobility to quit their palaces and 
(heir villas in and about Moscow, and take up 
their residence at Petersburg, in a much more 
cold and comfortless climate. Finally, resolving 
to remove hither the trade of Archangel, he 
issued an ordonnance, importing that iill such 
merchandise as had been conveyed to Archangel, 
to be sold to foreigners, should now be sent to 
Petersburg, where they should pay no more than 
(he usual duties. 

At first many houses were built of timber ; 
but, these being subject to sudden conHai^rations, 
the czar, in (714, issued an order that all new 
houses should be walled with brick and covered 
with tiles. The fort is an irregular hexagon, 
with opposile bastions. This, together with all 
the rest of the furtilications, was in the beginning 
formed of earth only ; but in the sequel they 
were faced with strong walls, and provideii with 
bomb-proof casemates. In the curtain of the 
fort, on the right hand side, is a noble dispen- 
sary. The most remark.ilile building within the 
fort is the cathedral, built by the direction of an 
Italian architect. Pctersburj is partly built on 
little island-i, some of which are connectc<l by 
draw-bridges ; and partly on the continent. In 
the highest part, on the hank of the Neva, the 
czar fixed his lubilation, built of freestone, and 
situated so as to command a prospect of the 
greater part of the city. Here likewise is a 
royal foundry ; together with the houses of 
many noblemen. On the other side of a branch 
of the Neva stands the ciar's summer palace, 
with a fine gardf-n and or.iniiery. Petersburg 
ii very much subject to dant;erous inundations. 
In 1715 all the b.istions and drawbridges were 
Cither overwhelmed or carried away. 

It vras found extremely diAicult, if not im- 
practicable, to join the island) and the continent 
ojf bridges : and the a/ljncfnl country is ski bar- 
ren that the town must lie supplied with provi- 
sions from a great distance; consequently they 
are extremely dear. In winlit the weather is 
extremely cold, and hot in the summer. Peter 
the Great established in the nci.;' ' 1 

manufactures "f Inn'n, piiper, laltpii- 
guntiowijer, and bricks, ini^ether wnn ihmh, i^r 
nwing timber. lie instituted also a marine aca- 
demy, and obliged every considfribbj f.>mily in 
Russia to w<nd at least one son or kiiivtnan, 
between the ages of ten and einhleen, lo this 
seminary. To «:rown hn other plans of lefonn- 
ation, he granted letters patent for founding an 
tcadi>my, u(K>n a very liberal endowment ; and, 
though he did not live to rxecule thu schrme, 
hit emprfss, who survived him, brought it to 
■'•rfection. It wu mo<lellpd on the plans of the 
Uoyal Societjp in London, and the academy of 

France. The whole city ^s, at present, di*«l 
into four parts: I. The Admiralty qu.n; ~ 

Vassali OstrofT, or isl.ind ; 3. The I 
Petersburg ; 4. The district of Wibur-..-: 
Foundry district. These ore subi 
eleven smaller divisions, over each 
placed a major of police. 

Mr. Wraxall calls St. Petersburg in I 
' only an immense outline, which will 
future empresses, and almost future ageiyl 
plete.' The streets in general, says ! ' 
are broad and spacious; and three of 
cipal ones, which meet in a point at tl 
rally, and reach to tiie extremities of the i 
are at least two miles in length. Most i 
are paved ; but a few of them are still 
to remain floored with planks, In seve 
of the metropolis, particularly in the 
Ostrnf, wooden houses and habitations, i 
superior to common cottages, are blende 
the public buildings; but this motley 
is far less common than at Moscow, wh 
can be formed any idea of an ancient 
city. The brick houses are ornameuli 
while stucco, which has led several irav 
say that they are built with stone; 
unless I am greatly rniilaken, there are i 
stone structures in all Petersburg. The j 
a palace, building by the empress ap 
banks of the Neva, called the marble 
It is of hewn gninite, with marble colua 
ornaments ; the other is the church of 1 
constructed with the same materiaU, but I 
finished. The mansions of the nobility i 
of them vast piles of building ; they 
nished wiih great cost, and in the same i 
style as at Paris or London. They 
chiefly on the south side of the Neva, eitl 
admiralty quarter, or in the suburbs of 1 
and .Moscow, which are the finest parts of ll 
Mr. Coxe calculates the number of ;' 
in Petersburg at 1 3U,0UU. An eque 
of Peter I. in bronze, of a i ' 
work of M. Faleonet, the !• 
statuary, wa? cast at the expense ui <_ 
in honor of her great predecessor. Mr. ( 
a particular description of it The 
creeled on the 27tli of Au'.(nst, 1782, 
pedestal of a most prodigious magnitu 
sitme when landed (a labor of six monthtH 
forty-two feci long at the base, thiny-«ix i 
top, twcnly-nne thick, and seventeen 
bulk greatly suqiassing in weight the meet I 
monuments of lloinan grandeur. 'The i 
he add<, ■ is extremely changeable m ihii i 
tal, and the cold is at times extreme. Il i 
limes happen* that coachmen or servants 
they are wailing for their masters, irr fn 
death. To prevent these dreadful 

Rrrat fires of whole tree«. "*i-l - ■ 

tiler, are kindled in the c 
and the most frequented | 

The first Admiralty quarter, I 
mos* elegant division ol Petrr- 
Its circuit are twenty-three structuiu of li>«ft 
mai{niiude. Tlie lm|ierial Winter I'abccte^ 
must celebrated. Il is 4iU fret lone, 390 hni 
and seventy high ; and in it ii depoeiled I 
immeuie rancly of cunous sad coAly wgifa. 



■& Connected with it, by means 

tflisj, is tiw bennitage, a ipacious 

^M from its being the scene of 

Dt; it was built by Catharine 

> a valuable collection of paint- 

|lte onginal collection of ilough- 

kWfolk, and a cabinet of ntitural 

^Ikmi building in this i|uarter of 

' ' tt notice is the marble palace 

Few buildings in any part of 

«a)thn in ma/nihcence ; it is three 

; It* lowermost of granite, the super- 

\-ilcnj nurble, decorated with co- 

I filmns of a reddish marble. No- 

|4>nlcnor presents itself to the eye 

'l« Belli; loe wmduw-frames are of 

pciisbed ; the roof rests on iron 

I II mtertd with sheet copper. The 

I in oblong; quadrangle. It. is situ- 

ftt 4uiy of the Neva. It was built 

f fcrOfejory Orloff, one of tlie fsToriles 

II., and at his death reverted to 

In this quarter are the admiralty, 

tfimigii aifairj, the post-offices, the 

I lad the loan-bank. 

I of Sl Isaac in this quarter was 

Catbanne II. Like the marble 

I kHrawnt is granite, and the tuper- 

irfmrble, jasper, and porphyry, both 

■t oilhout ll was one of the freaks 

|l»fiiibitw)tJt brick. The three straight, 

' liauiliful streets of this quarter are 

Nnspctives, because from each may be 

I IH f\\iti ipire of the admiralty. Of 

Ar .Ni-nki perspective is the most re- 

ti time IS 10 it only one liltle turn, and 

I half as wide again as Oxford Street 

k 'Tlie numerous hotels and the 

y mjt Si«(cti, * which are mostly placed 

ria Ikis street, occasion such a confluence 

^md nich a constant bustle, that give 

I Itiat is wanting to most parts of 

But, though the Nevski per- 

t M W tmarkable for all these ad vantages, 

I afinitely more so in the sight of the 

linl fpectator, as the monument of a 

t wliflHi iiml toleration. One church 

MMntfcd with another : Protestants, 

Ijulierso*, Armenians, and Greeks, 

m Mfvet iheir several churches beside 

jcidt other.' Tbe equestrian statue of 

iGfSM U in this quarter. 

cdificei of the se;:ond Admiralty 
Mm pew court stables, the college 
, and ttie opei^house. Two of the 
Greek churches are also 
I ({aarter; that nf Noire Dame of 
81. Nicholas. Tbe former merits a 
riaicriptioo. It was originally built in 
Dtpma Anne ; the dome bemg then 
la architecture ill corresponding 
r Ac amc modem edifices near it. Here 
I ao««retgo*< kowever, returned thanks 
I events of their reigns, and it 
to rebuild it. Tlic empt-ror 
liaglT, in 1800, onlered plans for 
EMM tubroilted to him ; bui, the 
rror occtirring, the execution 
•n (be late aulocial. It was conse- 

crated loth of September 1811. In every re 
spect it is magnificent and rich : the door before 
the principal altar, and the balustrade around it^ 
are of massy silver. The jaspers and marbles 
of Olonetz and Siberia are employed io great 
profusion, both in the mosaic and other orna- 
ments. Its exterior is very rich : there is a 
colonnade of 150 columns of tbe Corinthian 
order ; their bases and chapiters of cast iron. 
The portico is adorned with two bronze statues 
of the archangels, Gabriel and Michael. The 
principal external door is also of bronze : a per- 
fect copy of the famous door of the cathedral 
of Florence. Every material employed in the 
construction and ornamenling of this church is 
the production of the empire; and almost all 
the artists, architects, painien, and sculptors 
were Russians. It is very rich in precious 
stones, and gold and silver vessels. 

Of the third Admiralty quarter, the new bank, 
perhaps the most elegant building in St. Peters- 
burg, is the chief ornament. Its architecture is 
simple, but the workmanship of the very first 
order : its roof is covered with plates of iron. 
It consists of three distinct compartments : two 
covered corridors connecting the main building 
with the sides. 

The V'assili Ostrolf, the largest island in ihe 
Neva, is only inhabited on the eastern or smaller 
part : the rest is covered with gardens, trees, and 
morass. Three principal streets traverse it from 
east to west, intersected at right angles by twelve 
smaller ones. This division is the seat of commerce 
and of learning, the exchange and tbe Academy of 
Sciences being in it. The building in which the 
meetings of the latter are held is an elegant 
structure. The edifices of the land-cadet corps 
are also in this island. Towards the isle of St. 
Petersbiirgh are the custom-house and the new 
exchange ; the latter was finished in the reign of 
Alexander. The Lutheran church of St. Catha- 
rine, designed partly from the model of the 
temple of Concord, is the most remarkable ia 
this division of the city. 

The Petersburgh quarter consists of several 
islands, little built upon : it contains the first 
wooden cottage of Peter the Great. 

The Wiburg quarter contains, beside the street 
along the right bank of the Neva, the cotuges of 
the peasantry ; there are also two grand man- 
sions within Its piecincts, be.sides the great mi- 
litary hospital founded by Peter the Great, and 
some other public buildings of less magnitude. 
It also contains a wharf for merchant-ships. 

The division of the Foundry is so called from 
a foundry established there : the most remark- 
able edifices and establishments in it are, the 
institute of Catharine for the education of young 
ladies, Ihe convent of the resurrection for the 
same purpose, the great magazine for spirituous 
liquors and salt, the arsenal, and the Taurida 
palace. This, originally the pantheon of prince 
Potemkin, was purchased on his death by Catha- 
rine for her autumnal palace : it is remarkable 
for Its vast galleries, its winter garden, its Eng- 
lish garden, and its grolto formed of mirrors. 
The convent of St. Alexander Newsky adorns 
this quarter : it has, without its precincts, a large 
dwelling for the archbishop of Petersburg, a 

G 2 



scminafy, five cliiirches, a ccjnctcry, and a garden. 

The mechanism of the bridges over ihe Neva 
i< so simple that they can be taken to pieces in 
less than two hoora, and this is done as soon as 
the floating ice at the beginning of the winter 
comes down : when the ice is fixed, they are 
Bttiiin put up ; and are taken down a second time 
at the break mg up of the ice in spring. But the 
ice, which continues firm, and capable of sup- 
porting any weight for five or six months, forms 
the princi|)al communication in winter between 
the different quarters. Several plans have been 
Ibrmed for the erection of a permanent bridge 
across the Neva, but the practicability of suoh a 
measure seems doubtful. A wall, parapet, and 
pavement of hewn granite, stretch along the 
south bank of the river for three miles. This, 
which forms the quay, is one of the most striking 
and stupendous works by which this city is cha 
ractensed. The triangle of edifices on the left 
side of the Neva is intersected by three principal 
canals, forming irregular semicircles, one within 
another. The Moika forms the smallest semicir- 
cle ; the Katarina Canal embraces this ; and the 
FonLinka includes both. 

Tlie waters of the Neva seem, zfter the first 
foundation of the city, to have risen usually every 
five years. On the 1st of November, 1726, they 
rose eight feel two inches ; on the '2d of October, 
1T.')2, eight feel five inches. On September lOlh, 
1777, there was a dreadful inundation following 
a violent storm of wind from the west and south- 
west. In several streets, the torrent was four 
feet and a half deep, and so powerful that it cairied 
away various buildings and bridges : the Vassili 
OstrolTaiid the Island of St. Petersburg parti- 
cularly sulTered. For a short time the river rose 
ten feet above its general level. After this in- 
undation precautionary measures were taken to 
warn the inhabitants of the appro.iching evil. 
Tlie height of the water is rcirularly marked : 
whenever it rises above its banks, at the mouth 
of the great Neva, notice is given by firings of 
cannon, repealed at intervals as the danger in- 
creases: five cannon are also fired at the Admi- 
ralty battery : and from in steeple, by day, flags 
are displayed, and lanterns by night, the bells of 
the churches tolling at the same time. These 
precautions, however, but ill prepared this great 
city for another calamity of this kind, November 
182 J. On ihe night of the 10th, a strone west- 
erly wind impeded the current from the Ladoga 
Lake ; the Neva and the canals rose to an unu- 
sual height, and bmps were hung out around the 
the admiralty steeple to warn the iohabiianis not 
to sleep in their lowest apartments. It was soon 
apparent that all the admonitions prescribed 
were necessary ; the Neva rose so as to inundate 
the whole city, and the confusion and destruction 
became indescribable. ' Vehicles of all de-scrip- 
tions,' says a private letter, ' were now seen hurry- 
ing homewards, or to tlie bridges, or to some 
rising ground, with the water ovrr the wheels: 
people were also seen wading through it iin to 

1'" '^ : in a short time, only a courier nere 

"' vjwareil on homeb-ick, ihfir horret 

i-.-i.. -J .. ,1. to keep thrir heads above tlie water. 
At one oV;lu(:k on the 19lh nothing was to be 
ttta on the Oraud TUce and in the ilreetii, bat 

wooden barks, empty boats, sentry 
ber, furniture washed from llie h( 
and various kinds of provisioiu, ol 
confused masses on Ihe surface ; wd 
were seen floating up the river, most 
bitanls of which Had perished 1 
churchyards experienced an additi 
tion. In the Smolensko quarter of 
coffins were washed oul of their 
the dead bodies were cast up from 
habitations. Numbers had struggle 
to the tops of the trees, and on the I 
nences, and were gradually saved I 
of their companions by a few boatSi 
ally plied above the roofs of many ol 
An eye-witness says, ' On Saturday 
day-break, I went out to view the e 
catastrophe. I found the quay of the 
ed up with timber, broken barges, 
vessels of various descriptions, whid 
with them the pillars and lamp-|K>3tsi 
and had broken in the windows, a 
damaged the edifices on the quay, 
blocks of granite, of which the pat 
posed, were thrown over. The Si 
ToochkofT, and summer garden b 
broken away from their anchors, a| 
and destroyed. Many of the strt 
choked up witli their timber as to b< 
passable. In the \'assili Ostrolf q( 
most of the houses are of wood, Ihi 
was immense ; whole dwellings wer< 
their foundations, some of which H 
a considerable distance from the si 
they stood, with the dead bodies of 
tunate inhabitants nithin ; others 
into pieces on the spot, and some ( 
been so totally destroyed that not ( 
them remains.' Wooden barracks ' 
their inmates were totally ovcrwhell 
tire regiment of carabineers who ha4 
the roofs of one of them all peiii 
thousand dead bodies had been a| 
and multitudes were carried by 1 
waters down the gulf of FinlanJ ; 
were supposed to remain buried ii^ 
their habitations. Of course roani 
individual affliction, during the n 
inundation, must have occurred; | 
seems to us particularly aiTecting:-! 
child in a carriage were in a dangerj 
when a Cossac riding by olnerved 
and slopped ; she entreated him at 
save the child ; he took it from thei 
dow, but in a few minutes hi\ In 
and they both perished ; soon al 
lady, with her servants, horses, i 
were overwhelmed in the watcrv 
state the loss of human beingl 
ascertained to have amounted In 
8000, it may teem almost unfeelifl 
estimating the destruction of p( 
many of those who have escape<l 
doomed, in the wreck of their all, | 
more tedious mortality of famine. 1 
sions in Ihe cily had been more or I 
and ilie frost lud set in no severely' 
ply from sea v^'as considered alia 
The exchange had been &U 




fMB;ad vnch of the public build!ng3 
IfllfBa^ied for ihe reception of the 
'tnmbcr of these is beyond all 
Our readen may, however, 
n of it froni the fact that 
lb dte oeighbourhood of the city 
■riy 4inppear«d : of Emiliaauw- 
piaaimd I The imperial e;stabli9h- 
ii nffercd greatly, and the fleet 
ble damage: a ship of 100 
I the middle of one of the prin- 
f h the imperial iron manufactory 
ttOO workraen perished ; and out 
cks DO less than fifteen were 
I. Such ate a few, and but a few, 
mDb of this dreadful calamity. Alex- 
Ill Mpin witness of the scene from 
■•BMwi: what a lessen for human 
(I A few years before an emperor, as 
1*4 m Kemiiu{ly secure, found the 
Ilii (bnone in the ruins of the other 
To do irim justice he seems to have 
iKlAetod at the spectacle ; but indeed 
PRMtojouroer would not? A million 
klix been subscribed from the impe- 
^lo4 * committee appointed for their 
i£striliuiiait: the reignini; family have 
ff mied and succoured the miserablesur- 
•i til that human charity can do, under 
Mition, if in active progress.' The loss 
property was immense : of sugar 
)lbs. were damaged. 
ge of tea years, it is ratcntated, 
aunually ninety-seven bright 
'f seventy-two of snow, and ninely- 
f tnd chanisealile. The storms are 
Ml riotenu The greatest heat expe- 
hrinf Ibe Utter sixty years of the 
lentai; was '27% and the greatest coM 
Hta«r. Tbe spring is very short ; 
t lit Neva never breaks up before the 
Ink, nor later than the 27th of April. 
M tiOM of its freexing is the 20th of 
Atitttot the 1st of D<*cember. It is 
tf, bowever, that winter de|)arts alto- 
•a tilt K«n« suddenly changes, and 
ku lUyi the fields and the trees are 
It nnmer, in general, is as mild and 
k bl the *outb of France, but much 
Mi tttd rainy. It is also very short. 
I^At BKWt unpleasant sea;on of the 
^BKt monbling the delizhtful au- 
^HmT ibe other counines of Europe. 
^Hadt eonceal tbe sun for several 
PBotimins render the streets almost 
I'; and ttonns frequently occur. 
mhdto of St. Petersburgh amounted, 
^ttSjOOO tools; but in 1832, was in- 
ITt,999:oflhese 55,000 were conuecied 
nd and tea tervice, and 25,000 were fo- 
ibm are no important manufactures as 
ibal ; but the commerce is principally in 
rfi. The imports are English manu- 
al o»lo<iul produce ; wines, fruit, and 
■alk of Europe ; fine linens of Ilol- 
SflcM; toil the silks, watches, toys, 
ancc. Tlic exports consist chiefly of 
>. potaiil, flu, ullow, sail-cloth, cord- 
knNka, hn, tan, isinglass, &c. By 

means of the canals of I^doga and Vyshoei 
V'oloshok, which unite the Uallic and the Cas- 
pian, goods are conveyed to the capital through 
a tract of 1434 miles without once landing them. 
Tliis navigation begins at St. Petersburg!! by the 
Neva, which issues from lake Ladoga. By a 
canal uniting the Volchof, which falls into the 
same lake, with the Tvertta, which falls into the 
Volga, the communication between the Baltic 
and the Caspian is eflected. The canals of La- 
doga and \'y.fhiiei V'oloshok likewise enable St. 
Petersburgh to receive the produce of China and 
Siberia. Petersburgh is 300 miles north-east of 
Stockholm, 355 nortli-west of Moscow, 540 
N. N. E. of Warsaw, 525 north-east of Copen- 
hagen, and 750 north-east of Vienna, 

Petebsbirg, a borough and port of entry, 
Dinwiddie countj-, Virginia, on the south bank 
of the Appomatux, just below tire falls, twelve 
miles above its Junction with James River, at 
City Point, twenty-five miles south by east of 
Kichmond. Jt contains a court house, a jail, a 
masonic hall, two banks, one insurance ofiice, 
an academy which had, in 1818, upwards of 100 
students ; twelve or fourteen tobacco warehouses, 
eight flour mills, and five houses of public wor- 
ship, one for Presbyterians, one for Episcopa- 
lianii, one for Methodists, and two for Baptists. 
It is one of the handsomest and most commer- 
cial towns in the state, and has a large trade in 
tobacco and flour. The shipping owned here, 
in IQ16, amounted to 5754 tons. The Appoma- 
tox is naviifable as far as the lown for vessels 
carrying tOO tons. The borough contains, be- 
sides the town of Petersburg, the village of Bland- 
ford in Prince t?eorge county, and Pocahoubar 
in Cheslerford county. 

PETERSFIELD,' a borough and market- 
town of Hampshire, on the Loddon, sevenlecr. 
miles north-east of I'ortsiuouth, and (iftv-five 
south-west of London. It sends one memlwr 
to parliament. The town was incorporated by 
queen Elizabeth, and tliere b a good market on 

PETHRRTON, Nonrii, a parish in the hun- 
dred of the same name, Somerset, three miles 
south from Bridgewater, and 141 from London. 
It consists principally of one long street, of 
which many of the houses are well built; the 
parish is very extensive, including seventeen vil- 
lages, and formerly had a considerable corn 
market on Saturday. Fair 1st May. 

Petherton, Sot'TU, a market town and 
parish, situate on the river Perret, over which 
there is a good stone bridge, twelve miles south- 
east from North Petherton, and 137 from Lon- 
don. The chief manufacture is that of dowla*. 
Market on Thursday. Fair 5th Jolv. 

PETIIION 1)e ViLLENEf ve (.lerome), a 
French revolutionary leader, was originally iin 
advocate at Chartres and deputy from the Tiers 
Elat of the bailli.ige of that city to the States 
General. In t}ie early part of his public career 
he acted with Mirabeau, but did not join in all 
the measures of that demagogue. Oclober. 1 78'.', 
he was appointed a member of the first Com- 
mittee of i General Safety ; and on the 4ih of ITe- 
cerober, 17'.iO, president of the National Ass*in- 
bly. la June following be became presidoal of 



ttie Criminal Tribunal of Parii ; and was, logciber 
wilh Uamave and Latour Mauboui^, a conimi?- 
sioner to attend the return of Louis X\ 1. from 
Varenoea. On this occasion Petition is said to 
have behaved with little attention to his captives. 
He was elected to the office of mayor of Paris, 
November 14th, 1791; and, in coiise<quence of 
hLi supposed implication in the riotous attack of 
llie Parisian mob on the Tuilleries on the 20th of 
June, 1792, was 5iis|>ended from his functions 
by the king on the 6lh of July, but restored by 
the Assembly on the 13tli. His behaviour on 
the 10th of August has by some been interpreted 
as the result of irresolution, and by others as the 
effect of design, to avoid betraying his real cha- 
racter as ail abettor of violence. He now look 
an active part in tlie imprisonment of the royal 
family, and other measures of the ruling party, 
and became the lint president of the Convention. 
After the death of the king, Pethion was accused 
of having contributed to the massacres of the 
Scptembriiers ; but against this charge he de- 
fended himself: he became, however, the peculiar 
object of jealousy to Uobespierre; and, being in- 
cluded in tlie proscription of the Girondists, was 
confined in his own house, in the custody of a 
gendarme, from which he contrived to make his 
escape, with some other de])uties of the same 
party. He took refuge in the department of 
Calvados, where thev in vain endeavoured to 
avail themselves of the insurrections against the 
terrorists: some time after his body, wilh lliat of 
Ouzot, one of his confederates, was found in a 
field half devoured by wolves! He is supposed 
to have perished with hunger. His worlui, 4 
vols. 8vo., were printed in 1793. 

PETIOLE, in botany, the slender sulks that 
support the leaves of a plant. 

PETIOLt'S. See Botany, Index. 

PETIDN (Alexander Sabes), the late presi- 
(Umtnf the black republic of Hayti, was bom at 
Port-au-Prince, April 2d, 1770. licing the son 
of a colonist who possessed considerable pro- 
perty, he received a liberal education ; and he 
was scarcely twenty years old when the revolu- 
tioiu/y commotions broke out in the island. He 
was one of the first who took arms ; was made 
an officer of artillery ; and obtained the rank of 
adjutant-general during the civil wan. After 
the English had left the Island, Petion joined 
Rigaud, a man of color like himself, in opposing 
the projects of Toussaint L'( luverture. lligaud, 
being unsuccessful, embarked for France wilh 
Petion. They both returned lo Hayti, however, 
with general Leclvrc, under whom Petion held a 
colonel's commissicm. The violent measures 
4doptc<i by l^cterc and Kochambeau induced 
Peiion 111 rpiit the French service; and, forming 
a union wilh the negro general Dessalines, as- 
fti'ilcl by the English, tliey succeeded in estab- 
lishing the indc[i«ndence of Hayti in 1804. 
Petion obliiiiicd the govrmiiifiit of tlic wwlcm 
distnci, while Uessalines, becoming chief of tlw 
lepiiblic, aisumeil the title of emperor; until, his 
conduct having nt'e" offcnii-, be vias avuit^inalrd 
in Itl0»>. t'hri.'ilophr, his lieutenant, vias clci li-il 
(fuidcnt of Hayli by the wnalr, but he chose 
r^lhcr to take the till*- of king, iim], U'li:iving in 
• lyrennml iminnrr. hr was nhligt-d lo .'nibmii 
to a partition of hi> dominiims. All the southern 


and western part of the island acknowie 
authority of the senate, by whom Pel 
elected president, January 27th, 1807. 
war now took place between llie riw 
I'etion retained his ofhce till his death I 
when he was succeeded by his lieute 
ral Boyer. 

PETIS De la Croii (Francis), 
French writer, who was sent into 
Persia, at the aa;e of sixteen, to learn I 
languayjcs ; and became interpreter 
XIV., by whom he was employed in t_. 
gociatioiis. He wrote part of the lifeii 
XIV. in Arabic, a work much esteeme 
east. He died in 1713. He is mentio 
approbation by Voltaire. He under 
Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Tartarian, 
and Armenian languages. 

PETIT, «((;. French, ;WJ/. Small j 

By what small p«(il hiotii does the i 
vaoisbitig motion ! 

Petit Tnr.ASON. See TntASav. 

Petit (John), a doctor of the 
who very early gamed a high charac 
eloquent orations pronounced before I 
sity of Paris. He was employed in 
embassy which was sent from I'mice 
for tlie purpose of heating the schism I 
but what chiefly procured him n>.'loric 
defence of the murder of Louis, duke < 
only brother to Charles VI. ; maintstnl) 
public disputation at Paris, the 8th 
1408, that the murder was lawful, and 1 
allowable to employ fraud, treason, i 
other inelbod, however base, to get 
rant.' Petit died in 1511, at Hesdin. 

Petit (John I/>uis), an eminent su 
at Paris in 1674. He acquired such I 
that in 1726 the king of Poland sent I 
his court, and in 1734 the king of 1 
vailed on him to go into that kingdom- 1 
stored the health of those princes ; amfl 
deavoured to detain hiro by offering I 
advantages, but he chose rather lo 
France. He was received into the tc 
sciences in 1715; became director of 
academy of surgery ; made Mveral 
discoveries ; and invented new instrun 
the improvement of surgery. He died al I 
in 1750. He wrote an excellent Trr I'lir nr 
Diseases of the Bones, the best e>! ' 
is that of 1723; and many learaiv 
in the Memoin of the Academy of Suu 
in the Memoirs of Surgery, vol. i. 

Petit (Peter), an eminent Frcncli 
tician, born at Montlufon in 1 589. Bjr R) 
lieu'f influence he became engineer to (' " 
and inlendant of fortifications; and 
into Italy on the king's business, 
several works upon physical and 
Biibiects, and died in 1667. 

PrriT (Peter), M. D., a learne<l Fr 
sicinn, bom at Palis in 1617. He gr 
Monlpclier; but, preferring iiurarj pi| 
medicine, he became prr<.Tpl"r lotlie i 
[. resident Lamoignon. He *•■ 
l^i'.in prose and versi ; and > 
fifefk and Iloman literature and pluli'sg 
died in 1087, aged seventy. 


tcmfinml), a Inmed Frenchman, born 

lb* B ii64- He studied at Uenera, 

tablKunc professor of Greek, Hebrew, 

■lariip Ue published Legei Attica, Paris, 

GctuE denotes the operations of 
-tMl, 4J>d the war of posts. Sec War. 
lOPsikCirii, in logic the takini; a 
r, ind drawini; conclusions from it 
a It a really false, or at least wants 
btiiwe uy inferences can be drawn 

DinOlf. ■.«.&.«. a.-\ Lat. pctitio. Ke- 
mhotttttix, adv. f quest ; prayer; in- 
nftnuifOi^. i treaty: to suppli- 

ttfmttt, m. I. J cate ; request ; in- 

It is ao aukward adverb, used 
•qtnify by way nf begvin^ the 
ry, suppliciitory ; containing 
loner, one who supplicates, or 

I tm pvto at oiy /wtitiim, and my peop'e 
L fjther vii. 3. 

I ehooM this house to be called by thy 
) lie • boute of prayer and ptiilion for 
1 Mac. viL 
t onto all men certain pflitwin in- 
•leriai in cau*e* of this nature. 

bcloogeth only to surh a% are 
nt. and stand io need of relief 
Mt MXt poor prlilim 
■i MMe niee would have some pity 

^y •fMcilaJ WOmeD. SliattytJrr. 

% Ay fttttkmary oounlrymen. Id. 

I Mm fitiDwnMl all tb« god* 
ff ffoa^ctity. W. C<7riofa«ii.<. 

m tis*« necivcd the prtilimi, and it will 
b« ^nimimtn well to deliver them into your 
i4, Irt jwu secretary first read them, and 
m vWler Ibc material parU. B<icm. 

Baew baie j»liliim*n) breath 
^■»w« 'em to this giealness. Brn Jowum. 
Spiral ftlilicnarily initt a dextralily io the 

mhI w« w«y as reatonably conclude a light 
laterality in the ark of No.ih. litaunt. 

I ma woodar that they, who at such a time 
I toRVpleil to ftanie and deliver such a jitti- 
"* el b* reformed by such an answer. 

_ I brok* out, and be^^ iclief 
K» tYm dumb prliii^wrt of grii^f. Id. 
•rs ar« to the repnMch of the jKtitioitm, 
lIvaioB of vain desires. L'Kttntttgf. 

piMmv caa it be to be encumliereii with 
|Mb tknn|Bd sad saironndol with ptii' 
^E^ Suuih. 

^Hfta BatYOQS presented a ptitiim to the 
!S» niaid to niDch raUlcr>' npon the ptii- 
Mtt tfa* ladic* Dvnr after offeied to dirwl the 
■ af thnr roonliy . Attilii.m. 

n aaly m or do to qnestionary and ;ne(i- 
yirtk* of half a yaid long. ^uift. 

mrt apt only send up prtiliom and thoughts 
i Ihea to hc»en, but must go through all 
kjlj hawana with a lieivenly spirit. £<iiv. 
tJto bad faaca taken in pvn^uade the queen so 
Irath iif It, that she for a lone tine 
r tpj <»■ of liuaa who ptiUivntd for his 

I iwittiim arose out of the election 
laiooIutiuD. Cannhg. 

law, i» a supplication made by 



an inferior to a superior, and especially to one 
having jurisdiction. It is used for that remedy 
which tiie subject has to help a wrong done by 
the king, who hath a prerogative not to be sued 
by writ: In which sense it is either general, that 
the kinjf do him right; whereupon follows a ge- 
neral indorsement upon tlie same. Let right be 
done the party : Or it is special, when the con- 
clusion and indorsement are special for this or 
that to be done, &c. By statute, the soliciting, 
laboring, or procuring the putting the hands 
or consent of above twenty persons to any pe- 
tition to the king or either house of parliament, 
for alterations in church or state, unless by assent 
of three or more justices of the peace of tin: 
county, or a majority of the grand jury at the 
assizes or sessions, &c., and repairing to the king 
or parliami'iit to deliver such pelilioii with above 
the number of ten persons, is subject to a line of 
£lOO and three montlis' impiiMinment, being 
proved by two witnesses within six tnontlis, in 
the court of B. R. or at the assizes, &c. And, if 
what is required by this statute be observed, 
care must be taken that petitions to the king con- 
tain notliing which may be interpreted to nflect 
on tlie administration ; for, if they do, it may 
come under the denomination of a libel : and it 
is remarkable that the petition of the city of 
l>oiidon for the sitting of a parliament was 
deemed libellous, because it suggested thai the 
king's dissol«'ing a late parliament was an ob- 
struction of justice; also the petition of the seven 
bishops sent to Uic Tower by James H. was 
called a libel, &c. To subscribe a petition Io 
the king, to frighten him into a change of his 
measures, inlimaliiig that if it be denied many 
thousands of his sulijects will be disconlenled, 
jcc, IS included among tlie contempts against the 
king's person and government, tending to weaken 
the same, and is punishable by tine and impri- 

I'liTiTiuN OF Right was a celebrated parlia- 
menlary declaration of the liberties of the people 
as.'ienteii to by king Charles I., in the beginning 
of Ills reign : in which it is enacted that none 
should be compelled to make or yield any gift, 
loan, benevolence, tax, and such like charge, 
without consent by act of |)arliameiit ; nor, upon 
refusal so to do, be culled to make answer, take 
any oath not warmiiled by law, give attendaiice> 
or be confined, or otherwise molested concerning 
the same, &c. And that the subject sho'dd not 
be burdened by llie quartering of soldiers or 
mariners; and all commissions for proceeding by 
martial law to be annulled, and none of like na- 
ture issued thereafter, list the subject (by color 
thereof) be deslrciyed or pi.l to death, contrary 
to Uie laws of tlie land, &c. See stat. 3 Car. I. 
cap. 1. 

PCTITOT (John).acnrious painter in enamel 
born at (Jcneva in 1609. He arrived to a degree 
of perfection that may almost Ik; accounted inimi- 
table. He, however, only painted the heads and 
hands of the figures; the hair, grounds, and dra- 
pery, being executed by Bordier, his brother-in- 
law. These two artists hud tlie credit of lalioring 
together for fifty ycais in the greatest harmony. 
He painted the portraits of C harles I. and his 
family. He then went to Paris, where he was 
highly favored by Louis XIV. and ac<tuircd an 





ample fortune. Being a ProfeslanI, the revoca- 

, lion of ihe edict of Nantes oblijred Iiim to retire 

I Geneva ; but, settling soon after at V'eray in 

em, he passed the remainder of his life in 

affluence. He died in 1691, and bad seventeen 

hildren ; of whom one took to iiaintiiig, and 

ettled at London, where he gained reputation ; 

but was much inferior to his father. Petitot may 

I'tie called the inventor of paintini; portraits in 

IcDamel. He made use of gold andsdver plates, 

land seldom enamelled on copper. His price was 

twenty louiscs a head, which he soon raised to 


PETITPIERRE (Ferdinand Oliver), an emi- 
Jient Protestant French divine, who flourished 
tabout the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
[lie was minister of a church in Chaux De Fond, 
and published a work entitled Thoughts on the 
IJJivine Goo<Iness ; divided into three chapters, 
Dntaming the definition, proofs, and canse- 
Hqutnces, of the inlinile goodness of God. This 
work has gone through many editions, and has 
been translated into English and other languages. 
Dut one of the chief tenets included in it, being, 
that the slate of future punishment (which, 
however, he places in a most terrific point ol 
view) is not eternal, and that all men will be 
finally happy, he was first prohibited from 
preaching, and afterwards deposed. A transla- 
tion of this work was published at Edinburgh in 
1799, l2mo. 

PETIVER (James), F. R.S., an eminent 
T.oglish botanist, contemporary with Plukenct. 
He was bred an apothecary with Mr. Felthani, 
of St. Bartholomew's hospital ; settled in Alders- 
gale Street, and became apothecary to the Char- 
ter House. He made a collection in natural his- 
tory, so valuable that Sir Hans Sloane ofTered 
him £4000 fur it before his death, and purchased 
it afterwards. He was elected V. R. S. and as- 
sisted Hay ill the second volume of his History of 
PUnLs. He engaged the captains and surgeons 
of ships to bring him home specimens of foreign 
plants ; and enabled them to select proper ob- 
jects by printed directions. He wrote 1. Miissci 
Pctireriani cenluriae decern ; 1692 — 1703; flvo. 
3. Gazophylacii Naturw el Artis decades decern; 
fol. 1702, with 100 plates. 3. A Catalogue of 
Mr. Ray's English flcrbal ; fol. 1713 to 1715. 
Many small tracts enumerated in Dr. Pult- 
bey's book. i. Many papers in the Philosophical 
Transactions. 6. Plants rariores Chincnscs, 
ladraspatans, el Africanc, &c., in Ray's 3rd 
Vol. His works were reprinted in 1764, in 2 
tols. fol. and 1 vol. 8vo. He died the 20tli of 
April 1718; and his funeral was honored by the 

PETIV'ERIA, in botany, Guinea-hen weed, a 
irrnus of the telragynia order and hi.'Xandti.i 
class of plants; and in the n.ilural nictho<l r.iuk- 
ing under the HvcllVi order, hnloracea": cal. Ic- 
tropliylloiis: con. none, and but one seek, with 
rtflcted awns at Ihe top. 

PETLAD, a town in the province of Oujrat, 
IlinJostan, tixlven miles E. N. E. from Cambay. 
Ul. 22° ar N.. long. 73" E. The cailc of 
Dhers arc here etrmpt from the general duly 
ini|>otcd on them in the rr»t of the province, of 
KtvUi); M guidirs; but a stranger may here kizc 

on the first penon he meets and compel hi. 
act as such. 

PETRA, a lown of Greece, on the cot 
Blyricum near Dyrrhachium and Ihe mou 
the Panyasus. Cies. I.ucian. 

Petp.a, a town of Mardica.a district of TIa 
lying towards Macedonia ; but in what 
Macedonia I.ivy does not say. 

Petha, PtTR.tA, or Pethina (urbs beia^E 
derstood), an inland town of Sicily, »outl»^ 
of Eniryum ; now called Peiraglia. CluTe-« 
Ptol. Sil. Hal. 

Petra was also the name of four oihc r 
towns: vii. 1. in I'ieria in Macedon — I 
2. Near Dyrrhachium. — Lucau. Cats. 
Elis: and, 4. Near Corinth. 

Petua Jt.cKTACt., a lown of the Am 
near the Adscensus Scorpionis, and llie i 
Salt in the soulh of Judea; afterwards 
pu.<sessiun of the Edomites, after destroyii 
Amalekites. 2 Kings xiv. ; Judges i. 

Petra Rccem, or Rekem, so called 
Rekem kine of tlie Midianiies, slam by 
Israelites, Numb, xxxi., a town of Arabia 
merly called Arce or Petra : the capital of 
bia Petra»a. — Josephus. Ptolemy places kj 
long. 66° 43' from the Fortunate Islands, 
hi. 30° 20'. It declines eighty miles to 
of the parallel of Jerusalem, and thirty-ciai 
more or less, from its meridian to the east^ 
sephus says that the mountain on which 
di«l stood nearPeIra; which Sirabo 
capital of the Nabatiei; at the distance of* 

or four days' journey from Jericho. Thif 

seems to be the Sela of Isaiah xri. 1, and iliCa* 
II, from the Hebrew name, Pelta, a rocV, hat 
some imagine Petra to be no older than i 
of the Macedonians. 

PETRARCH (Francis), a celebrated 
poet, bom at Areizo in 13u4. He studied^ 
mar, rhetoric, and philosophy, four years all 
pentras; whence he went to Monlpelier, 
he studied the law. His father and mother d] 
of the plague at Avignon, he returned la 
cily, when twenty-two years of age, to setik 
domestic affairs, and purchased a country hotiM 
in a very solitary but agreeable situation, called 
X'aucluse ; where he first saw the boaiiufal 
Laura, of whom he Iwcanie enamoured, and 
whom he has immortalised in his poems. Ua 
travelled into France, the Netherlands, imI 
Germany; and, at his rt-turu to Avignon, c»> 
lered into the service of pope John XX IL, 
employed him in several important aff^iis. 
Irarch «xj)ectcd some considerable po»U ; 
being dis.-ippointed, he applied himself imlh 
to poetry ; in which he met with such applii 
that in the same day he reriived lellcrs fr 
Rome and Paris invuinc liiin to r«ccivc 
pociic crown. He preferred Ruine, and trtfii 
that crown from the senate and people on 
8th of Aprd 1341. Hi, love of s-ihtude 
length induced lum to return to \ aii(lu«« ; 
after llie death of tlie lieunliful Laura, Provi 
betanie in«up)>ortablc lo him, and he r*tui 
to Inly iu r.l.'.J: when, being at Milan, Gi 
Viccconti made him counsellor of slate. Peti 
spent ahnost all the rrst of lili liff in trarelli 
to and from the diftervnt citic* in Itily. If* 




i«f farma, and canon of Padua ; 

red the order of priesthood. All 

• ai^Tnl men of his time gave him 

m of Iheir esteem ; and while he 

tclaoB, tbree miles from Padun, the 

tKuBoccace to him witli letters, in- 

IftFIOfrnce, and informing him that 

It) him all the estate of which his 

rhad been deprived during the 

ibe Guelphs and the Gibe- 

ilMlfew years after at Arcqua, in 

(many works that hare rendered 

iMcul ; printed in four vols. 

r Jai been written by several au- 

nMnhrly by Mrs. Dobson, in 2 vols. 

Mhaoilu of Pelrarch,' says Mr. Tyller, 

■s of bis abilities as a politician, 

I aif philotoplier, and it is in these 

r tu it appeus to have been chiefly 

' Iky Ui contemporaries; but it is not 

I that the lasting structure of 

|Jb been reared. It is to those incum- 

in which he has celebrated the 

and bewailed the fate of the 

, dial Petrarch has been indebted 

Dt reputation. The history of 

for his lovely mistress must 

I as forming the most interesting 

his annals. His character, in fact, 

E from that predominant affection, 

K«d Uis studies, his habits of life, 

lb pDwiU and occupations. A love so 

and so lasting, is difficult to be 

lii ill* history of human nature. Pe- 

I Ac passionate admirer of Laura for 

l)CBo whde she was in life, and with 

m4ot of affection he is said to have 

Ihr iou for twenly-six years after her 

ZUMIA, a town of Naples in Prin- 
tCIir. nir,«. miles south of Benevenlo. 
IT ,1 town of Prussian Lilhu- 

|*K > W. of RagniU. 

,■. t. Lat. petra, a stone. Nitre; 
Km of modern use. 
r mad* ft impure aod gr«uy Ji*trf, hftth but 
■Ma, ■•4 pvca hue a faint report, 

ee SjtTTcrBS, in chemistry. Sec 
'iid Nnar. 

y, a genus of the angiosper- 
.imia class of plants; na- 
personals: cal. quinque- 
: iretl: COR. rotaceous ; 
I in the bottom of the 
■ ..ere is only one spe- 
V. Spam. It rises to fifteen 
, vroody stalk covered with 
' veril long branches. 
Iiiin the stem, and ai« 
'i ich joint, which, on 

B .nt;hf<, are placed by 

Bai Umu, but liiijher u|i they are rough, 
( a itMfk tnrfice. The flowers are pro- 
■ Ibc coda of the branches, in loose 
I ■■» M too inches lung, e-ach flower 
|M a ikadcr flower-stalk about an inch 
ba wmrftrntnt of lh« flower is composed 
I leaves about ao inch long, 

which are of a fine blue color, and much more 
conspicuous than the petals, which are while, and 
not more than half the length of the empalement. 
The plant is propagated by seeds procured from 
the places where lliey are natives, and of which 
very few are good. The seeds must be sown in 
a good hot-bed ; and, when the plants come up, 
they should all be planted in a separate small 
pot tilled with light loamy earth, and plunged 
into a hot-bed of tanners' bark, where they 
.ihould afterwards constantly remain. 

I'ETll EL {thalassidromo) ; a genius of oceanic 
birds, well known to seamen by the name of 
Mother Carry't chickau. They are found in 
every part of the world, on the ocean, at great 
distances from land, generally at twilight, or in 
stormy weather. They feed on small marine 
animah, and seeds of sea-weeds, and appear ex- 
ceedingly fond of fat or grease, for which, and 
for the animals put in motion, they will follow 
in the wake of ships for great disUinces. 1'hey 
breed in rocks adjoining the sea, foiining their 
nests ill cavitid ; the re«..».c lays two eggs. 
They fly rapidly, and generally close to the 
water; and, when in pursuit of food, they sus- 
pend themselves by exlendinsr their wings, and 
appear to run on the surface of the water. Biif- 
fon says it is from this circumstance that they 
are called petreU, after the apostle Peler, who 
walked on the water. The appearance of these 
birds is considered by seamen to presage a 
storm, and it is thought peculiarly unlucky to 
kill one of them. There are four species, which 
are so closely allied to each other as to be gene- 
rally confounded. C. Bonaparte, who paid 
much attention to this genus, designates them a« 
follows: — T. WiUonii (stormy petrel); deep 
sooty black; tail even; wings reaching a little 
beyond its tip ; tube of the nostrils recurved ; 
•arsus one and a liiilf inch long. T. Lcachii 
(fork-tailed petrel); brownish black ; uil forked; 
wings not reaching beyond the tip ; tube of the 
nostrils straight; tarsus one inch long. T. peln- 
ffica ; sroly black ; tail even ; wings reaching 
a little beyond it ; tube of the nostrils almost 
straight ; Ursus seven-eighths of an inch long. 
T. iiccanica ; brownish black ; tail slightly emar- 
ginate ; wings reaching more than an inch be- 
yond it ; tube of the nostrils recurved ; tarsus 
nearly one and three-fourths of an inch long. 
Sec PiiFiN. 

PETttl-:S'CENT, a,lj.^ Lat. pctretcent, pe- 

PsTBiFAt'TioN, n. J. Irifo. (Jrowing or be- 

pEiniFAc'Tivr., ai//. [coming stone; petri- 

PETni>lCA'lio>-, n. I. [ factioii.theactoftum- 

PrTRii'ic, ailj. ing to stone, or itate 

Pet'rift, t. «. & ti. «. J of being so turned: 

pcirifactive and pelrific mean having the |>ower 

of changing into sione or to form sione : pettifi- 

caiion, the body formed by the change of matter 

into stone: to petrify is to convert into stone: 

hetice to make hard or callous; slupify : as a 

verb neuter, to become sione. 

I'ETKIUIA, in thcold system of mineralogy, 
a genus of scrupi, of a plain uniform texture ; 
of no great vanety of colors, and emulating the 
external form of pebbles. 

Petri FACTION, in physiology, denotes the con- 
version of wood, bones, and other subsunces 



Cicipnlly animal or vegetable, into stone. Theie 
ies are more or leas altered from tlieir original 
■late, according to the different substances tliey 
have lain buried among in the earth ; some of 
them have suffered very little change, and others 
being so highly impregnated with crystalline, 
•parry, pyhtical, or other extraneous lastter, a^t 
to appear mere masses of stone, or lumps of the 
matter of the common pyrites ; but they are ge- 
nerally of the externiil dimensions, and retain 
more or less of the internal Agate, of the bodiei 
into the pores of which this matter has made its 
way. The animal substances thus found petrified 
are chiefly sea-shells ; the teeth, bony palates, and 
bones of fish ; the bones of land an-.mals, &c. 
These are found variously altered, by tlie insinu- 
ation of stony and mineral matter into their 
pores ; and the substance of some of them is now 
wholly gone, there being only stony, sparry, or 
other mineial matter remaining in llieir shape 
and form 

Respecting the manner in which petrifaction is 
accomplished we know little. It has been 
thought by many philosophers that this was one 
of the rare processes of nature ; aud accordingly 
such places as afforded a view of it have been 
looked upon as great curiosities. However, it is 
now discovered that petrifaction is exceedingly 
common ; aud that every kind of water carries 
in it some earthy particles, which, being prcci- 

I)ilaled from it, become stone of a greater or 
ess decree of hardness : and this quality is 
most reniarkililn in those w.ilcrs which are much 
impregnatt'd with seleiiiiic matter. Of late, it 
has also been found that iron contributes greatly 
to the process ; and this it may do by its preci- 
pitation of any aluminous earth which happens 
to be dissolved in the water by means of an 
acid. Tlie calcareous kinds of earth, also, by 
being soluble in water without any acid, must 
contribute very much to the process of petrifac- 
tion, as lliey are capable of a great degree of 
hardness by means of being jnine<l with <ix°d 
fcir, on whlcii depends the solidity iif our com- 
mon cement or mortar iiseil in building houses. 
The name jie^rifaction belongs only to bodies of 
vegetable or animal origin ; ami to determine 
their class and genu.*, or even species, it is neces- 
sary that their texture, their ptimitive form, and 
in some roe:isurc their organisation, be still dis- 
cernible. Tims we oiiij;hl not to place the stony 
kernels, moulded in the caviiy of some shell, or 
other organised body, in tl>e rank of petri&c- 
tiuns properly so called. 

Tetrifactions of the vegetable kingdom are al- 
most all either gravelly or siliceous ; and are 
found in gullies, trenches, &c. Those which 
iitrike fire with steel are priiici|ially found in 
sandy fissures ; those which effervesce in acids 
Hre generally of antnial origin, and are found in 
the horizontal beds of calcnreniis earth, and 
•omctimes in beds of cliy or gravel ; in which 
case the nature of the ix'Irifai'tion is different. 
As to the substances whicn are fuuirl in Kyp^uiu, 
they seldom under,{0 any alteration, eithci with 
respect to figure or composition, and ihpy arc 
Tery rare. Organised Ixnlies, in it nUW of petri- 
faction, eetK-nilly uequirv a degree of solidity of 
'«bieb ibcy weiv nut |ioss<.-u(d before they were 

buried in the earth ; and some 
often full as hard as the stones i 
which they are enveloped. When 
broken, tlie fragments of petrifies 
found, aod easily distinguished. ' 
organised bodies, however, so cha 
faction as to render it impossib 
tlieir origin. That there is a mati 
agitated, and adapted for peiul 
which crumbles and separates the 
them along with it, and disperses 
there m the fluid which surround* 
of which nobody seems to enterU 
Indeed we see almost every subsi 
solid or liquid, insensibly consua 
bulk, and at last, in the lapse c 
and disappear. A petrified subi 
speaking, is nothing more than ll 
perhaps image of a body which 
life, either animal or vegetable, i 
some mineral. Thus pctnfied woe 
state wood alone. One part of 
or mass of wood, having been des 
causes, has been compensated \ 
sandy substances, diluted and exU 
which the waters surrounding them 
while Oiey tliemselves evaponited. 
substances, being then moulded i 
will be more or less indurated, uk! 
have its figure, its structure, its I 
the same general characters, the ta 
Iribnies, and the same individu 
Farther, in petrified wood, no tpsI 
matter appears to exist. We kno< 
wood IS a body in which the volum 
is greatly exceeded by that of the 
wood is buried in certain places, I 
extremely divided and soinetiio? 
nuate themselves inio its pores an 
These fluids are afterwards mou 
dented. Tlie solid part of llie m 
posed and reduced into |H>wde( 
pelled without the mass by aqut 
In tins manner the places which 
occupied by the wood atr now le 
form of pores. This 0|>eration ' 
(luces no apparent difference, eiti 
or of the sha|>e ; but it occasioi 
surface and in Uie inside, a cliang 
and the ligneous texture is inver 
say, that which was pore in the 
becomes solid in that winch ^ 
tliat which was solid or fuU^| 
becomes porous in the seco^l 
says M. Musard, petrified wood 
extended in pores than solid pai 
vimc time forms a boily much ni 
heavy than the first. As the pora 
from the circumference to the ct 
faction ought to begin iit the eenll 
the circumference of the organic 
to the action of the lapidific fluidi 
,„,,,., ,,f •-tnfactions. They an 
<' 'vp undergone chang 

ut I the surface of the e 

have t>een buricii by various aoctd 
di'pthsunder the ground. Tound* 
the deiail of the formation of p 
ll IS iivccssary to b« well i 



(gMMl)vB. Let US take wood for an ex- 

Mak ^ni u P3'''y solid and partly porous. 

Ht ■'ps (orijjst of a substance, hard, lig- 

■■k(lffiai|»ct, which forms the support of 

$1 nfiit . tSe porous parts consist of vessels 

0j^an ttiich run vertically and horizon- 

l^aBln li^eous fibres, and which lerve 

air, lymph, and other fluids, 

r itMls, the trachis, which rise in 

and which contain only air, are 

ilied. The cylindric vessels, some 

kgoMua lymph and others the succus 

, irt fliJI only during the life of tli^ re- 

A/Wr lU death lliey become vacant by 

Uitn uul absence of the fluids with 

vere formerly filled. All these 

' ascending or descending, unite 

|iK>iiier, and form great cavities in the 

lio the bark. According to Malphigi 

, the ligneous fibres are themselves 

I aflbrd a passage to certain liquors ; 

rood and bark are interspersed 

■li of different shapes and sizes. The 

of the trunk in thickness, accord- 

pi^bt, is accomplished by the annuiil 

] new exterior covering of fibres and 

Others llkiok that a concentric 

rood vs every year hardened, whilst 

I is formed from the bark. Uut it is on 

that the concentric layers of 

from une another, because, at 

itact betwixt any two of them, 

uels, as well as new fibres, are more 

perceptible than they are in any 

M. Dertrand, in his Diction- 
s, that a body should become 
cessary that it be — 1. Capable 
under ground : 2. That it be 
on tlie air and running water (the 
crcaUoeum prove that bodies which 
nnexion with free air preserve ihem- 
eh«<l and entire). 3. That it be se- 
icorro«ive exhalations. -1. That it be 
where there are vapors or liquids, 
n wiih metallic or siooy particles in 
', dmwluLioii, and which, without de- 
body, penetrate it, impregnate it, 
nil) i', in pro|>ortion as its parts are 
' evaporation. 

I uplains the petrifaction of vege- 
iflmri ; — In proportion to the tender- 
[ami bad quality of wood, it imbibes the 
quaatity of wuicr ; therefore this iiort 
Uionahlv petrify more easily than that 
^t that all the petrified 
tigary has been origi- 
as iirs ..r poplars. Suppose a 
lined ui the earth : if it be very 
pp ttie moisture which surrounds 
, This moisture, by penetrating 
i the parts of which it is com- 
T&f* tnchis, or air vessels, will be filled 
|aad Ibeo tiie lymphalic vessels, and those 
eoMva the succus proprius, as they are 
jiK empty. The water which forms this 
pvt k^«p» ia dissolution a greater or a less 
My ot <anb ; and this earth, detached, and 
pd akng in iti coarse, is reduced to such nn 

attenuated stale, that it escapes our eyes and 
keeps itself suspended, whether by the medium 
of fixed air or by the motion of the water. Such 
is the lapidific fluid. Upon evaporation, or the 
departure of the menstruum, this earth, sand, 
or metal, again appears in the form of precipi- 
tate or sediment in the cavities of the vessels, 
which by degrees are filled with iL This earth 
is there monlded with exactness : the lapse of 
time, the simultaneous and partial attraction of 
the particles, make them adhere to one another ; 
the lateral suction of the surrounding fibres, the 
obstruction of the moulds, and the hardening of 
the moulded earth, become general ; and there 
consists nothing hut an earthy substance which 

frevents the sinking of the neighbouring parts, 
f the deposit is formed of a matter in general 
pretty pure, it preserves a whiter and clearer 
color than tlie rest of tlic wood ; and as the con- 
centric layers are only perceptible and distinct 
in the wood, because the vessels are there more 
apparent on account of their size, the little 
earthy cylinders, in the state of petrified wood, 
must be there a little larger, and consequently 
must represent exactly the turnings and separa- 
tions of these layers. At the places of the utri- 
culi globules are observed, of which the shapes 
are as various as the moulds iu which they are 
formed. The anastomoses of the proper and 
lymphatic vessels form, besides, points of sup- 
port or reunion for tliis stony substance. With 
regard to holes formed by worms in any bits of 
wood before they had been buried in the earth, 
the lapidific fluid, in penetrat.iig these grcit 
cavities, deposits there as easily the earthy sedi- 
ment, which is exactly moulded in them. These 
vermifonn cylinders are somewhat less in bulk 
than the holes in which tliey are found, winch 
is owing to tlie retreat of the more refined earth, 
and to its drying up. Let any one represent to 
himself this collection of little cylinders, verti- 
cal, horizontal, inclined in different directions, 
the stony masses of uiriculi and of anastomoses, 
and he will have an idea of the stony substance 
which forms the ground work of petrifaction. 
Hitherto not a single li^nieous part is destroyed ; 
they are all existing, but surrounded on every 
side with eaithy deposile ; and that body which, 
during life, was composed of solid and of empty 
parts, is now entirely solid ; its destruction and 
decomposition do not take place till after the 
formation of these little deposits. In pioportion 
as the water abandons them it penetrates the 
ligneous substance, and destroys it by an insen- 
sible fermentation. The woody fibres, being de- 
composed, form in tlieirtum voids and interstices, 
and there remains in the whole piece nothing 
but little stony cylinders. But in proportion as 
these woody fibres disappear, the surrounding 
moisture, loaded with earth in the stale of dis- 
solution, does not fail to penetrate the piece of 
wood, and to remain in its new cavities. The 
new deposit assumes exactly the form of the de- 
composed fibres ; it envelopes in its turn the 
little cylinders which were formed in tlieir cavi- 
ties, and ends 'by incoiporating with them. We 
may suppose here that, in proportion as it de- 
composes, there is a reaction of the ligneous part 
against the liipidilic fluid : from this reaction a 



color arises wliich stains more or less the iif^w 
deposit ; and this color will make it easily distin- 
guishable from tliat which has been laid in the 
inside of the vessels. In all petrified wood this 
shade is generally perceptible. We have then, 
says M. Mongez, lour diflerent epochs in the 
process by which nature converts a piece of wood 
into stone, or, to speak more justly, by which 
she substitutes a stony deposit in its place: — 1. 
Perfect vegetable wood, that is to say, wood 
composed of solid and of empty parts, of ligne- 
ous fibres, and of vessels. 2. Wood liaving its 
vessels obstructed and choked up by an earthy 
deposit, while its solid parts remain unaltered. 
3. The solid parts, attacked and decomposed, 
forming new cavities betwixt the stony cylinders, 
which remain in the same state, and which sup- 
port the whole mass. 4. These new cavities 
filled with new deposits, which incorporate with 
the cylinders, and compose nothing else but one 
general earthy mass representing exactly the 
piece of wood. Among the petrifactions of 
vegetables called dendrolites are found parts of 
shrubs, stems, roots, portions of the trunk, seme 
fruits, 8iC. We must not, however, confound 
the impressions of mosses, ferns, and leaves, nor 
incTustatious, with petrifactions. Among the 
petrifactions of animals, we find shells, cnuta- 
ceous animals, polyparii, some worms, the bony 
parts of fishes and of amphibious animals, few 
or no real insects, rarely birds and quadrupeds, 
together with the bony portions of the human 
body. The comua ammonis are petrified ser- 
pents; and with regard to figured and accidental 
bodies, these are lusus naturs. 

It is a question of great importance among 
naturalists to know the time which nature em- 
ploys in petrifying bodies of an ordinary size. 
Al.le Chevalier de Uaillu,director of the cabinet 
of natural history of his imperial maje.ity of 
Austria, and some other naturalists, had, several 
years ago, the idea of making a research which 
might throw tome light upon it. His majesty 
being informed by the unanimous observations 
of modem historiiins and geographers that cer- 
tain pillars which are seen in the Danube in 
Gervia, near Belgrade, are remains of the bridge 
which Trajan constructed over the river, pre- 
sumed that these pillars were petrified, and that 
lliey would furnish some information with regard 
to the time which nature employs in changing 
wood into stone, lie therefore ordered his am- 
bassador at the court of Constantinople to ask 
permission to take up from tlie Danube one of 
the pillars of Trajan's hridee. The [Mitition was 
granted, and one of the pillars was accordingly 
Inkeo up ; from which it appeared that the pe- 
trifaL'tion had only advanced three-fourths of an 
inch in the space of 1500 years. There are, how- 
ever, certain waters in which this transmutation 
is more readily accomplishetl. Petrifactions ap- 
pear to be formed more slowly in earths that arc 
liorous and in a slight degree moist, than in 
water itself. When the foundations of the city 
of Quebec in Canada were dug up, a pelrifinl 
savage was found among the last beds to which 
they procredetl. 'I" lidcn of theliinf at 

which this man li .til under the r\jin<, 

but liii quiver auu ai.u«> were still well pre- 

served. In digging a lead mine iu Derb 
in 1744, a human skeleton was found 
stags* horns. It is impossible to say how 
ages this carcase had lair there. In Ifl 
entire skeleton of an elephant was dug u 
Tonne in Thuringia. Some time befoi 
epoch the petrified skeleton of a 
found in the mines of that country. We 
cite another fact equally curious, which 
pened at the beginning of the last o 
John Munte, curate of Slatgarp in Scani 
several of his parishioners, wishing to pr^^*^ 
turf from a drained marshy soil, found, -^^ 
feet below ground, an entire cart, with the 
tons of the horses and carter. It is pi 
that there had formerly been a lake in tnai |^- 
and the carter, attempting to pass over ois 
ice, had by that means probably perished, 
fine, wood, partly fossil and partly coalh. 
been found at a great depth, in the clay i>: 
tile was made for the abbey of Fontenay 
wood was also discovered in the middle 
last century, at the depth of seventy-fiv 
a well betwixt Issi and Vauvres near Pai 
wood was in sand betwixt a bed of clay 
rites, and water was found four feet lo\> 
the pyrites. M. de Ijumont, inspector 
of trie mines, says (Journal de I'hysiqm-, «» — 
1736) that in the lead mine at Poiitpcan 
Kennes, is a fissure, perhaps the only one of 
kind. In this fissure sea-shells, rounded 
bles, and an entire beech, have been found 
feet deep. This beech was laid horizootall/i 
the direction of the fissure. Its bark was 
verted into pyrites, the sap-wood into jel, 
the centre into coal. Many pieces of 
wood are found in diflerent depai 
France, and particularly in that of Mont 
the ci-devant Savoy. In Cobourg in 
and in the mountains of Misnia, trees of a 
siderable thickness have been taken from 
earth, which were entirely changed into a rerf 
fine agate, as also their branches and their nmti. 
In sawing tliem the annual circles of their gieathv 
have been distinipiished. Pieces have bwaV 
taken up, on which it was distinctly seen tiM < 
they had been gnawed by worms ; olhera betf 
visible marks of the hatchet. -In fine, pi' 
have been found which were petrified at 
end, while the other still remained in the 
of wood fit for being biinied. It appears 
that petrified wood is a great deal less rare i 
nature than is commonly imagim.-d. 

Mr. Sinclair of I'lbster, M. P., lately tiuu 
mitled to professor Jameson, for the Edinbut^ 
College Museum, a collection of jtlnfitit fittit, 
found by him in the old red sandstone forraatioa 
in the neighbourhood of Thurso ; a^H '!•• 
minister of South Ronaldshuy, one of : 
neys, lately deposited in the College > 
specimens of the same description, colh 
himself in the old red sandstone of tlu; 
These fishes are also found in a variety of m»4- 
stone flag now extensively imported into Edin- 
burgh from Caithness. 

Cionniedt has excluded petTi&ctions from any 
place in the body of his system of mincralooy, 
liiit takes notice of them in his ap{Htidis. Il* 
daUngUMhea them by the nojuc of miocralM 



itiaa ihem to be ' mineral bodies 

iu> uiiaimal) or Tt^tables.' lliemosC 

[ D^aMt^tratKRis coDcernini; them, accord- 

■f • ii«. <bo diflers in some pariicular^ 

iBl^tin u follow : — I. llioae of shells 

• ■itofar the surfiice of the eurth; 

t^aimfa; and those of «poo<1 deeper 

~ kasafaalance are found invsistquan- 

ia«eMdenble depths. 2. The sub- 

twwplible of petrifaction arc those 

'hi> putrefactive process; of 

, the harder kinds of wood, 

'•^ »iter parts of animals, which 

^, lit seldom met with in a petri- 

1. IVt are most commonly found in 

f aal, diiJk. lime-stone, or clay ; seldom 

; AiU mote seldom in gypsum ; and 

I pot, granite, basaltes, or schoerl. 

I Act in found in pyrites, and ores of 

f , Bid silver; consisting almost al- 

ftt<iUL kind of earth or other mineral which 

I ten ; sometimes of silex, agnte, or 

4. Tbey are found in climates where 

I dmuelves could not have existed. 

ifcuad in slate or clay are compressed 

ipccies of petnfactions, accord- 
It, are, I. Terrx larvatie ; extra- 
Wm dnoged into a limy substance, or 
dtajw. These are, 1. Loose or fri- 
t ladantrd. The former arc of a chalky 
ll farm of vegetables or animals ; the 
flti with solid limestone in the same 
Son* are found entirely changed into a 
spar. All of them are found in 
Sa«icn, and other countries in ^reat 
llhaw petrifactions Cronsledt observes, 
•■d eoraU are composed of limy mat- 
hen ftill inhabited by llveir animals, 
•ty tn tU»*e<l among the petrifactions as 
calcareous particles have obtained a 
for example, when they have 
• fmy: 6llcd with calcareous earth 
iMiMo or loose, or when they lie in the 
ttt tm earth. * These,' says he, ' form 
^■■1 pan of the fossil collections which 
iWwinoiisK made, often without any re- 
*» Um principal and only use they can be of, 
(■•of enriching loology. M ineralogisls are 
Uvidi tttmit the possibility of the changes 
kBrtmrundprvoes in te;;ard lo its particles ; 
^ ' <Hng some insight into I be 

•$>: »tth has been subject to, 

»«t > which are now found 

b< ■ '■■; where the petrifac- 

Of a iinn .ir . h.lty nature, answer ex- 
ly imH as a manure; but the indurated 
■nw eoiy for making grottoes. Gypseous 
■ttOM arr mtrvniely rare : however, Char- 
ttam WK that he haid wen a lizard enclosed 
MM of that kind in Tenia. II. I-arva, or 
I d toinWil Into a flinty substance. ITiese 
I w4snUol, and are of tlie following spe- 
1. Cotlaiian* in form of shells from the 
Tson IB Silivria. 7. Agate in form of 
of which is said to be in the col- 
la oT'liM coiinl de Tessin. 3. Coralloids of 
t Mat (nillcpoia) found in Sweden. 4. 
•f j^Bom dint found in Italy, in Turkey 

near Adrianople, and produced by the waters of 
Lough-neagh in Ireland. III. Larva: argilla- 
cea: ; where the bodies appear to be changed into 
clay. These are found eidier loose and friable, 
or indurated. Of the former kind is a piece of 
porcelain clay, met with in a certain collection, 
with all the marks of the root of a tree upon iL 
Of the latter kind is tlie osleocolla ; which is .said 
to be roots of the poplar tree changed, and not 
to consist of any calcareous substance. A sort 
of fossile ivory, wiili all the properties of clay, is 
said likewise to be found in some places. IV. 
l^rvs insalita; ; where the substances are im- 
pregnated with great quantities of salts. Hu- 
man bodies have been twice found impregnated 
with vitriol of iron in the mine of Fahlun, in the 
province of Dalame in Sweden. One of them 
was kept for several years in a glass case, but at 
last began to moulder and fall to pieces. Turf 
and roots of trees arc likewise found in water 
strongly impregnated with vitriol. They do not 
flame, but look like a coal in a strong lire ; 
neither do they decay in the air. V. Bodies pe- 
netrated by mineral inflammable substances. 1 . 
By pit-coal, such as wood ; whence some liave 
imagined coal to have been originally produced 
from wood. Some of these substances are fully 
saturated with the coally matter; others not. 
Among the former Cronstedt reckons jet ; among 
the latter the substance called mumia vegelabilis, 
which is of a loose texture, resembling amber, 
and may be used as such. 2. Those penetrated 
by asphaltum or rock-oil. The only example 
of these given by our author is a kind of turf in 
the province of Skune in Sweden. The Egyp- 
tian mummies, he observes, cannot have any 
place among this species, as they are impregnated 
artificially with asphaltum, in a manner similar to 
what happens naturally willithe wood and coally 
matter in the last species. 3. Those impregnated 
with sulphur which has dissolved iron, or with 
pyrites. Human bodies, bivalve and univalvd 
shells, and insects, have been all found in this 
state ; and the last are found in the alum slate at 
Andrarum, in tlie province of Skone in Sweden. 
VI. I.arva' metallilerac ; where the bodies are im- 
pregnated with metab. These are, 1. Covered 
with native silver; which is found on the sur- 
face of shells in England. 2. Where the metal 
is mineralised with copper and sulphur. Of this 
kind is the Fahleti, or gray silver ore, in the 
shape of ears of com, and supjKwed to be vege- 
tables, found in argillaceous slate at Frankeo- 
berg and Tahlitteren in Hesse. 3. Lame cupri- 
ferse, where the bodies are impregnated with 
copper. To this species principally belong the 
turquoise or Turkey stones, improperly so called ; 
being ivoiy and bones of the clepliant or other 
animals impregnated with copper. See Ti;b- 
Qi-oise. At Simore, in the ci-oevont Languedoc, 
there are bones of animals dug up, which, dur- 
ing calcination, assume a blue color ; but, ac- 
cording loCronstedt, it is not probable that these 
owe their color to copper. 3. With mineralised 
copper. Of these our author gives two examples. 
One is where the copper is mineralised with 
sulphur and iron, forming a yellow marcasitical 
ore. With this some shells are impregnated 
which lie upon a bed of loadstone in Norway 




Other petrifiunioiw of this kind are found in the 
form of fish in different parts of Germany. The 
otiier kind is where the copper is impregnated 
with sulphur and silver. Of this kind is the 
gray silver ore, like ears of com, found in the 
slate quarries at Hesse. 4. Larvs ferriferse, with 
iron in form of a calx, which has assumed the 
place or shape of extraneous bodies. These are 
either loose or indurated. Of the loose kind are 
some roots of trees found at the lake Algelma io 
Finland. The indurated kinds are exemplified 
in some wood found at Orbissan in Bohemia. 5. 
Where the iron is mineralised, as in the pyrita- 
ceous larve. VII. Where the bodies are tend- 
ing to decomposition, or in a way of destruction. 
Among these, our autltor enumerates mould and 

There has been lately published at Leipzic, a 
work in folio, with numerous plates, entitled 
Geognostical Flora of a former world, by Graf 
Kasper von Sternberg. Tlie drawings appear to 
be mithfuUy executed, and many of the objects 
represented are of the same description with 
those so abundantly distributed in our coal-fields. 
The well-known geologist baron Von Schlotheim 
has also completed an extensive work on pe- 
trifactions, and, judging from the accuracy and 
extensive knowledge of the author, it cannot fail 
to prove a valuable addition to this interesting 
branch of natural history. Emmerling, the mine- 
ralogist, has also announced a work on the fossil 
Xic remains met with in brown coal, and 
new formations of the same description. A 
part of this is published. 

PETRIFYING Waters. The river of Ayr, 
in Ayrshire, has been long said to possess a 
strong petrif)ring power; and the water of Ayr 
stones, whicb are nothing but wood petrified in 
that river, are universally known, as substances 
for making hones for razors. There are also se- 
veral springs of this kind in Uoxburgb-shire. 
•One is found,' says the Rev. J. Arkle, 'on the 
Tweeden, exceedingly powerful, and containing 
a great quantity of water, where large masses of 
petrified matter appear on every side converted 
into solid stone. The progress of the petrifiic- 
tion is distinct and beautiful. The fog, which 
grows on the edge of the spring, and is sprinkled 
with water, is alwut eight mches high ; toe lower 
part is converted into solid stone; the middle 
•ppeus as if half frozen, and the top is green 
•M flourishing. The petrified matter, when 
bamt, is resolved into very fine lime. The 
spring itself, when led over the fields in little 
nils, iSertilises them exceedingly.' — Sir. J. Si»- 
cUr$ Statittinl Attonutt, Vol. XVI. 

PETRINAL, PETR0NE^ or Poiteinal, a 
species of fire-arm between the arquebuse and 
toe pistol, which was used among the French 
during the leign of Francis I. There is mention 
■•de of it in an account of the siege of Rout-n, 
which WW undertaken by Henry tV. in 1592. 
It wu shorter than the musket, but of a heavier 
calibre, and not unlike our blunderbuss ; being 
stung in a cnns-belt so as to rest upon the chest 
of the person who disdiaiged it. From this 
csNumstaoce itobuimd the name of Poitrioal. 

PETROBRl'SSIANS, a ntigious sect, which 
hid its rise in Franc* and the NMherhnds about 

A. D. 1110. The name is derived fro 
Bruys, a Provenfal, who attempted U 
tlie abuses of the church. His follow* 
numerous : and for twenty years be la 
the ministry with great zeal. He was, I 
burnt in 1130, by an enraged populac 
by the clergy. ITie chief of Bruys's i 
was a monk named Henry ; from wl 
Petrobrussians were also called He 
They held, I . That children before th« 
reason cannot be justified by baptism, 
no churches should be built, but that tl 
already are should be pulled down, 
the cross ought to be pulled down an 
because we ought to abhor the instrumei 
Saviour's passion. 4. That the real b 
blood of Christ are not exhibited in th 
rist, but merely represented by their fig 
symbols. .'>. That sacrifices, alms, prai 
do not avail the dead. 

PETROCORII, the ancient inhab: 
that part of Gaul which was called Peri; 
fore the revolution. Coes. de Bell. Gall. ' 

PETROJOANNITES, followers o 
John, or Peter Joannes, i. e. Peter th« 
John, who flourished in the twelfth 
His doctrine was not known till after h 
when his body was taken out of his gi 
burnt. His chief opinions were, that 
had the knowledge of the true sense whi 
apostles preached the gospel ; that there 
soul is not the form of man, and that 
no grace infused by baptism. 

PETROL, or ) Fr. petroU. 

Petro'lel'm, n.t. ) bitumen. 

Petrol or petroleum is a liquid bitume 
Boating on the water of springs. K'l 

Petrolecm, or rock oil, a thick o 
stance exuding out of the earth, and < 
on the sui&ce of wells in many part 
world. See Cbesiistry, Index. It is 
various wells of Italy, in many parti of 
Modenese, France, Switzerland, Germ 
Scotland, as well as in Asia. It is al 
mixed with earth and sand, whence 
be separated by infusion in water. It 
pungent and acrid taste, and smells lik 
of amber, but more agreeable. It is v 
and pellucid ; but, though equally bri 
clear under all circumstances, it is lia 
very great variety io its color. Natun 
almost coloriess, and greatly resemi 
purest oil of turpentine ; this is called « 
troleum, though it is as colorless as wat( 
sometimes tinged of brownish, reddish, y 
or faint greenish color; but its most 
color is a mixture of reddish and bla 
such a degree that it looks black whe: 
behind the light, but purple «hen [>UccJ 
the eve and the light. It is rendere<l tl 
distiUatioo with water, and leaves a m 
siduum; when distilled with a volati 
the latter acquires the properties of si 
ammoniac, aiid contains the acid of ar 
is the most frequent of all the lit)ui'l I 
and is perhaps tbe most valuable of th 
medicine. It is to be chosen the nutesi 
•nd most pellucid that can be had ; of 
penetruiii^ smell and must inlLunmabl 


ttvDc kiod« of it are of the dvnsily 
d It i) iuioluble in apirit of wine ; 
kitii b* iK<- criMI diswtveiit of siil- 
(hs ki » tJi'ivi »!">" petroleum, not even 
«Mi««.n:> >ti'.'>-stion. It will not take 
brM :^ ^'{.'ilr.-ni.iiic aci<i spirits; and in 
>'« hiliiciim tnanx or in sand, 
•'1 nor acid spirit ; but 
M form, leaving in the 
iicr, thick as honey, and of 
TIk; finer kinds resemble 
.ijlJiic miide several experi- 
•rt 4e white petroleum of Modena ; an 
,• • i„- .^,.1 In iho Paris academy. 
Mi;ht near a can- 
■• ly touching the 
m any vessel it will 
iW, thoui;h jilaced at a 
:.e teuel; and, Ine vapor it 
, the flame will be c;ommu- 
I of healed liquor, and the 
led. Alonso Barba ^ves a 
' ' • power of petroleum 
nee. A certain well 
■ ■II uii iiii: surface of its water 
<ui«d, the workman took down 
ith him a lantern and a candle 
ire some holes in the lantern, 
It* petroleum at a considerable 
out the flame of the candle, and, 
ty. }nnt up with the noise of a cannon, 
'lao to pieces. It bunis in the 
mixed with any liquor swims 
• ven of the highest rectified 
. u one-seventh heavier than 
'ram- i' readily mixes with all the 
b af vesetables, as oil of lavender, 
lit . - ' • - - ;n!i of their 

»»■! i>ticofthe 

m a. .... — . ■-. .^,^.i..,uiig inspis- 
■W pare it is lighter than spirit of 
tJiiKitrh j-vef »o well rectified, it be- 
ind black as before. Pe- 
• '■11, rields a few bubbles; 
wbside tlian lu almost any other 
(he liquor resumes iu clear state 
immediately. This seems owing to 
tius fluid being very equally dLstri- 
' ib Baits, and the liquor being com- 
''ielei very evenly and nicely ar- 
ntensibility of the oil is also 
^ drop of it will spread over several 
S, aau in this condition it gives a 
r »f colon : that is, the several parts 
lUa film is composed act as so 
The most severe frost never con- 
um into ice; and paper wetted with 
I tmufiarcot as when wetted with oil ; 
I sol eootinoe so, the paper becoming 
tapin ta a few minutes as the oil dries 
tWn It ihrre varieties iicconiing to 
I. Th» yellow, found at Modena in 
»»iy li^ht ■uid volatile, 'i. The reddish, 
*nh rol ; lome of which is collected at 
is laDgDcdoc and in Alsace. 3. The 
kak or Mown kind, which b the most 
with in England, France, 
other countries. It geoe- 
«•! «(tker from chinks or gaps of 


rocks, or is mixed with the earth, and gushes 
out of it ; or swims on the water of some foun- 
tains. According to Dr. Lippert, a kind of re- 
sin is produced by mixing petroleum with 
smoking nitrous acid. The taste of this sub- 
stance is very bitter, but the smell resembles 
that of musk. The vitriolic acid, according to 
Lippert, produces a resin still more bitter, but 
without any aromatic smell. Cronstedt enume- 
rates the following species : — 

I. Petroleum B*RBADENsr., Malcha or Bar- 
badoes tar, a thick substance resembling soft 
pitch. It is found in several parts of Europe 
and Asia; particularly Sweden, Germany, and 
.Switzerland ; on tlie coast of the Dead Sea in 
Palestine ; in Persia, in the chinks of rocks, and 
in strata of gypsum and limestone, or floating 
upon water. It is found also in America, and 
at Colebrook-dale in England. It melts easily 
and bums with much smoke and soot, leaving 
cither ashes or a slag according to the hetero- 
geneous matter it contains. It contains a por- 
tion of tlie acid of amber. It gives a bitter salt 
with mineral alkali, more dilhcult of solution 
than common salt, and which, when treated with 
charcoal, does not yield any sulphur. 

II. Petrolei'm Elasticuu, elastic bitumen, 
or mineral caoutchouc. 

III. Petroleum Induratuu, hardened rock- 
oil, or fossile pitch, an inflammable substance 
dug out of the ground in many parts of the 
world, and known by the names of petroleum 
induratum, pix monlana, indenpech, uorgharli, 
&c. There are two species : 1. The asphaltum 
or pure fossile pilch, found on the shores of the 
Dead Sea, and of the Red Sea ; also in Sweden, 
Germany, and P'rance. See Aspualtum. It is 
likewise found in great quantities in a bitumin- 
ous lake in the isle of Trinidad. SeeTRiMHAD. 
It is a smooth, hard, briltle, inodorous subsiaiice, 
of a black or brown color when looked at ; but, on 
holding it up betwixt the eye and tlie light, appears 
of adeep red. It swims in water; breaks with a 
smoothandshiningsurfacc; melts easily,and when 
pure burns without leaving any ashes ; but if im- 
pure, leaves ashes, or a slag. M. Monnet asserts 
tliat it contains sulphur, or at leitst the vitriolic acid. 
It is slightly and partially acted upon by spirits 
of wine and ether. Brunnich says, the asphal- 
tum comes from Porto Principe in the island of 
Cub.i in the West Indies. It is likewise found, 
according to Fourcroy, in many parts of China ; 
and is used for a covering to ships by Arabs 
and Indians. 2. Tlie pix monlana impura con- 
tains a great quantity of earthy matter, which is 
lel\ in the retort after distillation, or u|>on the 
charcoal if burnt in the ojien fire. It coheres 
like a stag, and is of the color of black lead ; 
but, in a strong heat, this eartli is soon vola- 
tilised, so that its nature is not yet well known. 
During the distillation a liquid substance falls 
into the receiver, which is found to be of the 
same nature with rock-oil. The substance itself 
is found 111 Sweden and several other countries. 
The pis^usphiiltum is of a mean consistence, be- 
tween the asphsilluin and the common petroleum. 
Mongez says that it is the same with the bitu- 
men collected from a well named De la Pegr. 
near Clermont Femuid in France. The people 



or Mount Ciaro, in Italy, sercral yean ago, dis- 
covered an easier way of finding pelroltfiim tian 
tliat to which they formerly had been used. 
This mountain abounds with a sort of ^rayisli 
salt, which lies in large horizontal beds, mingled 
with strata of clay, and large quantities of a spar 
of that kind called by the Gennans sclenites ; 
which is the common sort, that ferments with 
acids, and readily dissolves in them, aud calcines 
in a small fire. They pierce these slates in a 
perpendicular direction till they find water ; and 
Uie petroleum which had been dispersed among 
the cracks of those slates is then washed out by 
the water, and brought from all the neighbouring 
places to the hole or well wliich tliey have dug, 
on the surface of the water of which it swims 
after eiiiht or ten days. When there is cno\igh 
of it got together, they lade it from the top of 
the water with brass basins : and it is then 
easily separated from what little water is taken 
up with it. These wells or holes continue to 
furnish the oil in diflerenl quantities for a con- 
siderable time ; and, when they will yield no 
more, they pierce the slates in some other place. 
It is never used among us as a medicine; but 
the French give it inlemally in hysteric com- 
plaints, and to their children for worms ; some 

intlso give it from ten to fifleen drops in wine for 
uppressions of the menses. This, however, is 

'^laUier the practice of the common people than 
of the faculty. 

PETKOMYZON, the lamprey, in ichUiyo- 
lo«:y, a genus of fibhes belonging to ttie 
of anii>hibia nanles. It has seven spiracula at 
the !>itlcof the neck, no gills, a fistula on tlie top 
of llic head, and no breast or belly fins. There 
are three species, distinguished by peculiarities 
in their back fins. 

1. P. bronchialLs, or lampem, is sometimes 
found of the length of eight inches, and about 
the thickness of a swan's quill ; but they are ge- 
nerally much smaller. The body is marked with 
numbers of transverse lines, that pass cross the 
sides from the back to the bottom of the belly, 
which is divided from the mouth to the anus by 
a straight line. The b.nck fin is not angular, but 
of an equal breadth. The tail is lanceolaled, and 
short at the end. They are frequent in the 
rivers near Oxford, particularly the his ; but 
not peculiar to that county, being found in other 
English rivets, where, instead of concealing 
themselves under the stones, they lodge in the 
mud, and are never observed to adhere to any 
thing like other lampreys. 

2. P. fluviatilis, the river or lesser lamprey, 
sometimes grows to the length of ten inches. 
The mouth is formed like that of the preceding. 
l>n the upper part is a large bifurcated tootli : 
on each side are three rows of very minute ones: 
on the lower part are seven teeth, the exterior of 
which on one side i* the largest. The irides are 
yellow. As in all the other species, between the 
"yes on the lop of the head is a small orifice, of 

"eat use to clear its mouth of the water that 
'TJnmiii* on adhering to the stones ; for through 
th«t orifice it e|ecu the water in the same manuer 
.i» cetaceous fi,h. On the lower port of the 
back IS a narrow fin ; beneath llint rijcs another, 
which at the iKginiiing i* high and angular, iheu 

grows narrow, surrounds the tail, and < 
the anus. The color of the back is 
dusky, sometimes mixed with blue; 
underside silvery. Tliese are found 
Tliames, Severn, and Dee ; are potted ■ 
larger kind; and are by some prefer 
as being milder tasted. Vast quantities i 
about 5lortlake, and sold to the Dutdi] 
for tlieir cod fishery. Above 430,000 1 
sold in a season at 40s. |>er 1000 ; 
about 100,000 have been sent to Ua 
the .same purjxise. It is said that 
have the secret of preserving tliem tilll 
bot fishery. 

3. P. marinus, the sea lamprey, is '. 
found so large as to weigh four or five 
It greatly resembli-s tlie eel in shape;"_ 
bo<ly is larger, and its snout long\:r, narr 
and sharper, at (he termination. Tlif opi 
of the throat is very wide ; each jaw i-- funi 
with a single row of very small Itrili; ii 
middle of tlie palate are situated one OC 
otlicr leelh, which are longer, stronger, 
moveable towards the inside of the throat, 
inferior part of the palate presents morwf 
row of very small teeth, which readm l( 
bottom of the throat, where are four long aol 
bones ; two short fistulous processes are oh 
able at the extremity of the snout, and then 
two others thicker, but still shorter, abo«< 
eyes. Willoughby supposes that the Utttt 
the oigan of hearing, and the former the o 
of smell. Ills opinion with re;^ird to thcl 
lor}' faculty of this fish is founded ou ' 
read in ancient aullion, that the fish 
traded the lampreys by whistling, 
Crassus had tamed one of lliem to such I 
that it knew his voice and obeyed his i 
eyes of the lamprey are small, and cove 
a transi>arent light blue membrane; 
is bordered with a circle of a color 
gold ; near the gills, which are four, I 
round hole on both sides, tliroui:li whid 
charges the water. Tlie lamprey has 
his belly or breast; on the back we 
fin, which begins pretty near the bead, I 
to the tail which it turns round, and ] 
wards continued to the anus ; this fin is cCf 
by the skin of the body, to which it adheX 
loosely ; the skin is smooth, of a red bl* 
color, and streaked with yellow, the 
advances in the water with winding 
like those of a serpent, which is coa 
with all the antiuilliform fishes. The 
lives on fish. During the cold it lie 
in the crevices of sea rocks, and i 
fished for only at certain seasons, 
state of hostility with the poulpe, %' 
polypus, which shuns the combat ai 
can; but, when it finds the imp 
escape, it endeavours to surround the 
with its long arms. The latter slips a« 
the poulpe becomes its prey. The lobsitf 
are told, avenges Oie poulpe, and dcathqr 
lamprey in its turn. See C*xcrR. Km 
says that the fishermen consider the bile I 
lamprey as venomous and dangerous, and 
touch it while alive but with pincen. 
beat it on the jaws n ith a slick, anil < 




ml kiUi, thai iu ashca are a cure for its 

)«^ at Wile kiQg'i eril. When any one 

kMksMB hyi lunprey, the most efl'ectiial 

■^Jjai'jt oi;i Oi« part affected. Lam- 

p^i .- Ill saving tliemselve:) ; 

tta. . they cut the line with 

te^ cy i)erceite themselves 

™s uempt to pass through 

iijli for lampreys only on the 

.1 rocks; some of these peb- 

--■n ti'^iher to make a pit as far as 

' «ip, or a little blood is thrown in, 

ia|ny immediately put<i forth its 

« two rocks. As »oon as the hook, 

. jultil vitb a crab or some other fish, is 

Is il. It iwallows greedily, aad drags 

41 boat There is then occasion for great 

to fnQ it out suddenly ; for if it is al- 

fmtfo attach itself by the tail, the jaw 

It tora away before the fish could be 

Ha ttows that its strength resides in 

l/iu Mil ; for the great bone of this fish 

tfast the bones, which in all other 

bCBt lowaids the tail, are here turned 

■ioection, and ascend towards the 

A'cr the lamprey is taken out of the 

< nix kille<l without a great deal of 

hest way is to cut the end of its 

lib it with repeated blows on the 

-nt it from leanini;; as its animal 

end of the spinal marrow. 

denies the supposed poison 

iui|<t;. Tins species, he says, abounds 

•ti ojno of iVirica, at llie Antilles, on the 

■■if tltuil. It Suniuin, and in the East In- 

"• *i^ laLen wtlli a hook, the fisher must 

!•« Uia» be takes it off, otherwbe it darts 

^ ka. sad wounds him severely. lis 

*^^ k»«»t«f, are not rcnomous, M. de 

^■Mi hifiiq tem several sailors who were 

^ < bat expeheoced no ditagreeablc con- 

te lanpjcjs are likewise found in 

ViAaadmee U Ascension Island, but parti- 

~" f i« tW Kas of Italy : their flesh when 

ooailtnl; and boiling Rives to the ver- 

*• mior n( rridelin. The flesh of the 

i> ohite, at, soft, and tender; it is 

iptoblt to the taste, and almost as nou- 

■ 4it«f the eel; those of a large size 

■pmor to the small ones. Mr. Pen- 

■Uon that the ancients were un- 


'!fEt,a.(. Ft. pctrinal. A pistol ; 
by a horseman. 

'Val b* with fttnmtl uphrand. 
■■■■■lor ikialid the blow nioeived, 
Uipa ncmbd w well it might. 


Ills, » ft'fKiwnHil Koman senator. 

■ permitted Herod, 

' in Alexandria a 

■tty tt orn i<i' "ii; supply of his sutv 

'***i» ilBiftcd with a serere famine. 

"Unm dir' ' '^'-'- -;It, who suc- 

■■•iBok ' govcrrmjent 

^, who di»- 

— _i»f hi- t ilignity and 

/>«atbit faTuri! > she ran the 


risk of losing the emperor's friendship and his 
own life ; for when that prince gave orders to 
have his statue deposited in the temple of Jcrii . 
salem, Pcironius, finding that tlie Jews would 
rather suffer death tlian see that sacred place 
profane*], was unwilling to have recourite to vio- 
lent measures ; and therefore preferred modera- 
tion to cruel measures to enforce obedience. In 
his voyage to .\frica, of which country he had 
been appointed qua:stor, tlie ship in which he 
saile<l was taken by Scipio, who caused all llie 
soldiers to be put to the sword, and promised lo 
save the qusstor's life, provided he would re- 
nounce Cesar's party. Pcironius replied that 
' Cssar's officers were accustomed to grant life 
to others, and not to receive it ; ' and, at the 
same time, be stabbed himself with his own 

Prrnostcs Abbiter (Titus), a great critic and 
polite writer, the favorite of Nero, supposed lo 
be the same mentioned by Tacitus in his Annals, 
lib. xvi. He was proconsul of Bithynia, aiid 
afterwards consul, and appeared capable of the 
greatest emplovmeiiis. He was one of Nero's 
principal confidants, and the sunerintendanl of 
tiis pleasures. The great favor shown him drew 
upon him llie envy of Tigellinus, another of 
Nero's favorites, who accused him of being con- 
cerned in a conspiracy against the emperor: on 
which Petronius was seixed, and was sentenced 
to die. lie met death with a striking indifference, 
and seems to hare tasted it nearly as he had 
done his pleasures. He would sometimes open 
a vein, and somelimcs close it, conversing with 
his friends in the meanwhile, not on tlie immor- 
tality of the soul, which was no part of his 
creed, but on topics which pleased his fancy, as 
of love-verses, aereeable and passionate airs. 
Of this disciple of Epicurus, Tacitus gives the 
following character : — ' He was," says he, ' nei- 
ther a spendthrift nor a debauchee ; but a refined 
voluptuary, who devoted the day to sleep, and 
the night to the duties of his office, and to plea- 
sure.' He is much distinguished by a satire 
which he wrtJte, and secretly conveyed to Nero; 
in which be ingeniously describes, under bor- 
rowed names, the ctiaracter of this prince. Peter 
Petit discovered at Traw in Dalmatia, in 1665, 
a considerable fragment containing the sequel of 
Petronius's Trimaicion's 1' 'This fragment, 
which was printed in 1666 at Padua and Pari.H, 
produced a paper war among the learned. NVhile 
some affirmed tliat it was the work of Petronius, 
and others denied it to be so, Petit sent it lo 
Rome. The French cntics, who had attacked 
its autbenticitv, were silent af\er it was deposited 
in the royal library. It is now generally attri- 
buted to Petronius. The public did not form 
the same favorable opinion of some other frag- 
ments, which were extracted from a MS. found 
at Belgrade in 1688, and printed at Paris by 
Nodot in 1694, though they are ascribed by the 
editor Charpentier, and other learned men, to 
Petronius. His genuine works are, 1. A Poem 
on the Civil War between C'Ksar and Pomf>ey, 
translated into prose by INIarolle-s and into 
French verse by IV>uhicr, 1737, in 4to. Petro- 
nius, disgusted with Lucan's flowery language, 
opposed a Phaisalia to his Pharsalia; but hit 


itork, thoiigh snperior to Lucan's in jome re- 
ipecti, is not in the Iriiu slylc of enic poetry. 

3. A t'oein on tlic Mucution of the Koman 
Youth. 3. Two Troati-tes upon the cnrniption of 
Eloquence, and the T)et:iy of Art.i and Sciences, 

4. A I'oem on Dream?. 5. The Shipwreck of 
Licas. 6. On the Inconstancy of Human Life. 
And, 7. Trima'cion's Uanquet. Tliis last per- 
fonniince is a description of tlie pleasurcj of a 
corrupted court; and the painter is rather an in- 
l^nioiu courtier ihaa a per>on «ho«e aim is to 
reform abuser. The bc^l edition! of I'etronius 
ure those publi-shinl at \ en ice, 1-*P9, in 4lo. ; at 
Amsterdam, KaOO, in flvo. ; cum notis\'ar. Ihid. 
with Boschius'i notes, I6T7, in24to. : and I7U<), 
2 vols, in ^^mo. The e<lition variorum was re- 
printed in 1743, in 2 voU. 4nio.. with Peler 
Burman s commentaries. Petronius died in 65 
or 66. 

PtTiiONifs CB4NU!sacenturioi» in the eighth 
legion, who served with reputation under Cirsar 
in the GaUic w-jr. 

Petbonil'S MjintMi^s WHS horn A. D. 395, of 
an illustrious bmily, bcin^ at first a senator and 
consul of Rome, lie put on ilie imperial purple 
in 455, aAer havinj •■ffectrd the assas'finalion of 
Valentinian HI. To csiiiljlish himself upon the 
throne, he marricil F.iiilosi-.i, the ividow of that 
prince ; and, as she was icnorant of his villany, 
lie confesjed to her, in a trinsport of love, that 
the strong desire he liail of being her husband 
had made him commit ihis atrocious crirae. 
Whereupon F.iidoxi;i priv.iiely applied to Hensc- 
ric, kill); of the \ andab, Hh», cnminc into Italy 
with a very powerful army, tutored Uomc, where 
Ibe usurper then was. Pdrouius eiMleavoureil to 
asca]ic ; but the soldiers and people, eiirajjed at 
his cowardice, fell upon him, ana overwhelmed 
him with a shower of stones. His body was 
dngStsl through the streets for thrc« days ; and, 
after every otfier mark of disp^ice, thrown into 
the Tiber, the Hlh of June, 455. He rviened 
only seventv-seveii days. Yet he had somecood 

Dualities, lie loved and cullivalcd t' 
le was prudent in council, citcuii 

actions, erpiiLible in his jud^^mcnts 

companion, iiiid steady friend. We II . im I 
the .tH. .iLTK of every body, while ht nuum. J 
in ition. 

i V ()>JA, in anatomy, a name eiven 

to the fourth and fifth lioncs of the cranium, 
called also nssa temporum and ossa squamosa ; 
the substance whereof, as their first and last 
names espre^s, is squamose and very hard. 

PETHOSKLINI'M (apium jictrosilinum,, panlry. See Arn'¥. This plant is cimi- 
nionly culiivate'l for ciiliuiuv purfioscs. Tlie seeds 
have an arf>malic flavor, and are occaiionatly ust-d 
as carminatives, &c. Hie rool is wneof thefise 
«(i«rient roo's, atid with this intention is some- 
times made an mijrcdicnt in aporeins and diet- 
drinks; if liberally used, ii i- .ipl to occasion 
flalulfiiicies : and llnii.l'V di^t.'nrliiu' ttio viirrm. 
produces a rm liy it; 

the taste of tir . with 

• lishl dpifterof warnidi . ■'■ 

PETHOSII.I.X. in m.' ' fels- 

Ipar !too MissattoiiT 

PRTSC'IKIRA, a large river of Cutopoail 

llussia, which rises in the Ural Mon 

10 the northwanl through the gov 
Perm and Archangel, and falls in 
Ocean, near I'ustoscrskoe, after i 
above 000 miles. It receives the Lia 
and Klimn, and i.'> navinr-able dun 
The steppes of Pctschoni form I 
plain, lyiiii; between the Dwina an 
in which there is a number of lakes, 
part of the steppes is covered with 
moss and stiinled shrubs ; but in tlit 
are large forcsis. The surface on t 
15 rocky 'Ihe inhabitants are wand 

PETTEIA, in the ancient musit 
which we have no one correspondinf 
guage. The melopceia, or the art I 
sounds in succession so as lo make 
divided into three parts, which the 
lepsis, mixin, and chresis; the Lati 
mixtio, and iims; and the Italians 
colamento, and uso. The last of III 
by iheCreeksirimia, and by the Ita 
which tlicri'rore means the art of m 
discernment of all the manners oi 
combining sounds among themselves 
may produce ihcir effect, i. e. may 
8ever.ll passions intended lo be raise 
shows what sounds are to be used,al 
how often they are severally to be re) 
which lo begin, and with which lo et 
with a gnve sound lo rise, or an 
fall, tiC. The [ictteia constitutes tfa 
the music ; chooses out ihis or that ' 
or lliat niolioti of the soul, to be awi 
determines whether it be proper to 
this or that occasion. The petteia, 
iu music much what the manners ai 

11 is not e'lsy lo discover whence th 
tion should have been taken by the 
less from jrtrrdo, iheir came of 
musical peileia being a sort of comi 
nrninueineiit of sounds, as chess i 
calle<l irirTioi calculi, or cbcss-roen. 

PETTICOAT, n.t. Fr. prlit an 
louer part of a woman's dreM, 

What liadc art tliuu, Feebla ? — A 
Sir. — Wilt than make ai many kola i 
battle, as thou bast done in a woman's 

Her feel beneath her priricoal 
Like little roicv. tide in and m 
As if they fcsi'd the light. 
It IS > great coainlinient to the K! 
luri tn ^enerslly slicwo in prIUfmU, 

To 6fly clinvn »< !i>li«. of special OO' 
We trust ' ' > charge, the w(l 

Olr have > >t scTVofoU wno 

Though aiuj mill iifvps, and aimed 
At •« wei* in the midst of the Misi 
i> lbs chief woman of the plan, aad hi 
wintar at l^ondon with iwt hasbaod, 
Goapegation in a Uttk hwrt dWi t 

PKTTIFOr.GEU, !..«. From 
gutr; otttl and vogurr. A petty 
'^tiwible-town,' My* Miniheu, *te 
law oor coueiOiM.' 




and leitt cliealed p><i- 
■to ik* ram bait of rerenge, more 
«f telioM. 

ICkrta/t8itn»it)f CornwU. 
ftt/mf" duns their touts 
tviB Ultti in cbeauag (ouls. 
n far, how indecent it is to abandon 
(iAm ftUtJ'cfgtn : there a hardly a 
Mt (•utn nquim about a barren 
AMTjaanclf io ai bail, suret}-, or so- 
ArtuttnuH't Jolm BtiU. 
BhM m ta despiiw erapyric* ; lawyers, 
pit ■< ■tKhant.i. pcd)ars. Uteift. 

nrOES, a-t. Petty and toe. The 
tadogpt;: human feet, in contempt. 
itAmtt new ao in loie with the treDches' 
ftoawld DDt itarhit pftliiivi, till he had 
iwtwiinb. Skiluftmn. Wtnier'iTal: 
^h-i. Ital. and Belg. The breast; 
^Bincjr. Thus we »y, ' en petto.' 
^Bjj^ I Kr. pttit. Small; in- 
^^^K t ferior ; inconsiderable ; 
HMnt littleness of mailer or charac- 

■ •• haw bonie, (h< subjects we 

' the diagnce we have digested ; 
i^Kh hi* prmwu would bow under. 

had BO power, 
\ ftttf wrraat to the state, 

eocmy. Id, CoriuUnta, 

txpcrience, that dogs know the 
ai tn tune of infection, some petti/ 
to hill the dogs. BacBn. 

■M Back, ioiiie pttl;) alteration or 
■a*. Id. 

Ihonaind lesser poets sprung, 
I tnm the fall ol Rome. Ornham. 
Ififi incense his ire 

a prtlii tjupass ! td. 

directed even Pagan wise men 
irt (wtanng in ordinary conversa- 
jr tnatters, as an irrational and im- 
wworthy of sober and discreet per- 
a«ly chief and great God, which 
I all mmity ; who, when he proposed 
made mat other gods of a prioci- 
alWr. the sun, mooo, and stars, as 
I by the frWy Rhine. 

of p«l>y commonwealths, as 
it aeems to me that a free 
s diride into three powers. 
be gives, in the whole course of 
•• have tieated the pttlittl prince, 
■*■ had to deal, in so coniemplnous 

■ William), too of Anthony Petty, 

bom al Ronuey, a small market 

in 16'23. It is difficult to 

tbe course of liis education 

by hi* father or himself; for 

a child to view the common 

t, be soon, by the bent of 

, look up the tool», and 

I'Xlenly, that 

nous trades, 

ilhatot uii-jtuiiury workman. 

At fifleen he was master of the Tjktin, Greek, and 
French tong;ues, and of aritlimetic and those parts 
of geometry and astronomy useful to navigation. 
Soon after he went to Caen and Paris, where he 
studie<l anatomy with Mr. liobbes. Upon his 
return to Kneland, he was preferred in the king's 
navy. In 1 613, when the war occurred between 
the king and parliament, he went into the Nether- 
lands and France for three years ; and having 
prosecuted his studies in physic al Utrecht, Ley- 
den, .-Vmsterdam, and Pans, he retured home 'o 
Ilumsey. In 1647 he obtained a patent to teach 
the art of double writing for seventeen yeans. 
In 1648 he published al London, Advice lo Mr. 
Samuel Uarllib, for the advancement of some 
particular parts of learning. At this time he 
adhereil to the prevailing p.irty of the kingdom: 
and went to Oxford, wlivre he tauglit anatomy 
and chemistry, and was created M. D. In 1050 
he was made professor of anatomy there ; and 
.soon after a member uf tii£ college of phjncians 
in London, luid physician to the army in Ireland ; 
where he continued till 1650, and acquired a great 
fortune. After the Restoration he was intro- 
duced to king Charles II., who knighted him in 
1661. In 1662 be published A Treatise of Taxes 
and Contributions. In 1663 he invented a dou- 
ble-bottomed ship, lie died at London of agan- 
grene in the foot, occasioned by a swelling of the 
gout, in 1687. The character of his genius is 
sufficiently seen in his writings, which are very 
numerous. Amongst Uiese he wrote the History 
of his own Life. lie died possessed of a fortune 
of about £15,000 a-year. 

Petty (\\ illiam), marquis of Lansdown, was 
descended from the above Sir William Petty, 
and born in 1737. lie succeeded to the Irish 
title of earl of Shelbume, on the death of his 
father in 1761 ; and in 1763 was president of the 
board of trade, an office which he resigned to 
join the train of opposition led by Mr. Pitt (lord 
Chatham), with whom he returned to office in 
1706. When a change of ministry took place, in 
1768, he became an antagonist of minuicrs till 
1782, when he was nominated secretary of stale 
for llie foreign department. On the death of the 
marquis of Rockingham he was succeeded by 
lord Shelbume ; but he was soon obliged to give 
way to the coalition between lord Nortli and Mr. 
Fox. In 1784 his lordship became an English 
peer, by the titles of marquis of Lansdown and 
carl of Wycombe ; and employed himself in the 
cultivation of science and literature at Bow 
Wood, his scat in Wiltshire. He collected a 
valuable library, tbe MSS. belonging to which 
were, after his death, purchased by the British 
Museum. His death look place in 1805. 

Petty B»o, an office in chancery, the three 
clerks of which record the return of all inqnisi- 
lions out of every county, and make all patents 
of comptroUera, gaugers, customers, &c. 

PtTiY Larceny. See L*hce»y. 

Petty SiiicLSS, among falconers, the toes of 
a hawk. 

Petty Tally, in the sea language, a comiic 
tent allowance of victuals, according to the num- 
ber of the ship's company. 

Petty Treasoh. See Treason. 

Pimr WaiK, a species of ononis. 





PETUI.ANCE,n.».-j Fi. petutanrt ; Lat. 

Pst'i'Ijijit, «((/.' tneis; |>ertnc<is; wan- 

Pr.i'uLAjsrtr, a</p. *toniie$s: petulant and 
|>etulanlty folluw Uiese s«nHv>, 

It «u excellently laid of that philosopher that 
(hen »u a mil or panpel of teeth wl in our 
mouth, to reatrmio the fttuiowi) o( our word*. 

Bm Jotuon. 

Such was others pc'uJdiuv, that they jorrd to see 
tbcit betters ihunefully outraged and abused. 

Ktnff ChtirUs. 

Wise men knew, that which looked like pride ia 
(ome, and like peliitnnce in others, would, by expe- 
rience in affairs and conversation amongst men, be 
in time wrought off. CtatmHan. 

Thv tOD^e of a man is so prinlant, and his 
thoughts so fariable, that one should not lay too 
graal stress upon any present speeches and opinions. 


Howerer their numbers, as well as their insolence 
•nd perverseoess increased, many iastanrcs of pelu- 
ioncy and scurrility are to be seen in their pamphlets. 


There appears in our age a pride and prliil>in«v in 

Sinth, lealous to cast off tbe sentnneals of t)ieir 
thert and teachers. Wain. 

If the opponent sees victory to incline to his side, 
let him shew the force of bis argument, without too 
importunate and petulant demands of an answer. 

To be humane, generous and candid, is a very high 
degree of ment in any case ; but those qualifications 
deaerve still greater praise, when they arc found in 
that condition which makes almost every other man, 
for whaterer reason, contemjituous, in!ioleot,;)f(iiiiinf, 
aelfisb, and brutal. Jultrum. 

PETUNSE, ia natural history, one of the 
•abstauces whereof porcelain or china-ware is 
I made. The petunse is a coarse kind of flint or 
pebble, the surface of which is not so smooth 
'«rbm broken ai* that of our common Hint. See 
Puxcci.sisi. According to Chiptal, the petunte 
is that species of silex known by the names uf 
feldspar, rboniboidal quart/., and spathum scin- 
tfllsM. It Tery frequently forms one of the 
principles of granite, and the crystals which are 
fouiiil sepanl* arite from the decom]K>sition of 
this priiuiuve rock. The texture of feldspar is 
close, lamellaled, and it is U'«i hard than quartz. 
It fuses, without addition, into a whitish glass. 
The «|>e«itic gravitv of white febUpar is 25-046: 
1(X) pans of white feldspar contain about 67 silei, 
14 alumine. It Uirytei, and 8 magnesia. 

PKTWORTII, a market-town and parish in 
SusMx, near the nvtr .\njn. twi'Ue mues from 
Arundel, and hi' >i Ixindon. In 

tills 11 tii< 1 1 of the earl of 

Kpcmont. Tlir «lre<i)i of ilie luwii are inesular, 
but the b'Mue'i are well builL In the centre u a 
market-house, in one of the rvonm over which 
the quarter pessiiiiw art? held. Here are also a 
charily-school, iilms-housc, ii : t a bride- 

well, on Howard's pl.iu, ' >» a neat 


1 " 





till' .1 


ing U>. 


of the 

r sulphur-wort, ■ genua of 


L\yd rank- 
itai. Tlie 

ice, w| 

ir ofml 


fruit is lobated, striated on both sidGS,< 
rounded by a membrane ; the involuci^ 
short. There are tlir«e sjiccies, nODfl 
have any remarkable j)ro[K'Hies, e«c«l 
['. officinale, or common nog's fennelj 
naturally in llie English salt marshes, an 
the height of two feet, with (.-luuiiielV 
which divide into two or three braiHJ 
crowned with an umbel of yellow floal 
posed of several small circular umtj 
roots, when bruised, have a strong (a 
like sulphur, and an acrid, bilteri&h, i 
taste. NVoundc<l in the spring, they jU 
siderable quantity of yellow juice, w| 
into a gummy rum, and retains tl 
of the root. The expressed juice 
the ancients in lelliargic disorders. 

PEUCER (>ar), professor 
Wirtember^, w;i5 oom at Bautzen 
He married a daughter of MeUncthd 
works he published in 1601, in 5 vols. 
Protestant, and being closely imprison^ 
years for his opinions, he wrote his tbi 
the margins of old books, with ink' 
bunit crusts soaked in wine. He died' 

PErCfcSTES, a brave i:eneral undd 
der tlie Great, who be.<>towed on him t 
gold. Sec Mjicldon. 

PEVENSEY, a town of Sussex, 
which runs into a bav in the English 
and forms Pevensey Harbour. It lias i 
castle, originally belonging to RobM 
Morcton, brother to William the O 
and thought a fine specimen of Roman 
ture. Sueno the Dane htnded at il 
carried off his cousin Beom, and murd 
It was afterwards ravaged by earl Go 
his son Harold, who carried off ma 
The church is also an ancient stnicti 
castle belongs at present to the 
family. Here William the Conquert 
previous to tbe battle of Hastings 
teen miles \V. S. W. of Hastings, and a 
south of London. 

PELTK.MAN (Peter), a Dutch pdl 
at Kotterdam in 1630. His subjects 
allegoncal or emblematical allusioa 
shortness and misery of hum^n tifik 
in consequence of a fngbl ia 1092, 

I'EUTINGEU (Conrad), a learned 
bom at AugsbutK in 1465. He became 
to the senate of Augsburg ; and pub 
ancient itinerary, called 'fabula I'cu 
marking the roa'l- '■• --'■ 
passed to tlie gc 
died in 1574. 

PEW, IIS. IV-lg. pay .- ItiU. fofgim 
enclosed in a church. 

>V hen Sir Thuiiiai More was lord rhaa 
did UM al mass, to sit in the i-haacel 
la a ;vir. 

Mow I fiiremv In many ages past, 
H'l*«*u l.ulioirk eaytivr nauw ts <|uilii 
Thine heyre, thiuc hryie'i hrym, m 

Frum tiut th« loynu of rariful IjoUan, 
Shall clinibc up tu ihu rhaiicall pnrri on t 
And rulv and laujuc lo tlieu nek teaawie. 





I it iota Ibeir heads to wear 
k, a nun and bU wife would 

Lit lonn. pays heaven iU due ; 

1 to bo pm. Youti}. 

are Mmiewliai in the na- 
i; aud may descend by im- 
wilboiit any etclesiaalical 
[ftqm tne ancestor lu ibe heir. The 
a fauticuhir pew in the church 
,,r. J. -i,,ii,,r, aj appurtenant to 
t at I > or grant from the 

it jOiition of all pews 

bv prescription. Gibs, 
tion for a disturbance of tlie 
ft pew, if the plaiotifi" claims it by 
I ha must state it in the declaration 
L to a messuat^e in tbe parish ; and 
n{i(ioo nay be supported by an 
f thiTtj-MX jean ; and perhaps for 
( twenty years. 1 Terra. Kep. 428. 
pcssesxioD of a pew in the 
J yeus, unexplained, is presump- 
I of m prescriptive right to the pew 
a wrong doer : but may be 
bf pnof that prior to that lime tlie pew 
aaoKt. i Term. Kep. K. B. 297. 
ET, a. •- Teut. piewU ; Belg. kiaeit. 

tas ibv dip-chick, so Domed of bis diving 
Till, /vHvti.meawei. Cartu. 

< I Fr. tpculre ; Ital. and 
] Span, peltre. An artificial 
iliv made of tin ; tlie pewter ve.sseU 
k«r of pewter. 

Du and ditrbargo you with the 
r'§ baaimer. Shakiptare, 

^ of fioe (in and lead. 

(iala wkirb no water could cntvr, be- 
, and liler to sdver, and leu fleii- 

, with water In them, will not melt 
1 it they will ; nay, buller or nil, 
■nmable, yet, by their inoiiture, 

PR, U. 

Ihl ftuUi t i to clow tbe vessel in 
bdcr axr|uwitely. litr/ilt. 

oiistreu win wont to make her 
I^ar mute of tin, with one of re^ulus of 
^■■aav pKvttr. Vtmbtrton. 

Vn t-'reorh called ilain, and often 
U Umi» with pure tin, is a fuctitiou.s 
,01 niakiim domestic utensds, as 
lie. Tbe basis ts tin, which is 
by mixing at the rate of 
Bflecn poun<L) of lead and 
liesiaes this com|x>silion, 
Dmmcin pewter, there are other 
ol' tin. antimony, bismutli, 


ilie pcwterers 
liic foot of the 

. i four 

■llll>licd.'iii)i Ot. Watson, ' weighed 
FImm evca this wrt excd^d.s in purity 
1* CKunincd by some authors. 
iCKtnun methods of discovering 
tA Willi which tin i^ alloyed; 
I aw *>fu.-u tioublvsuuic in the 

application. Pewtcrcrs, aod otlier dealei^s in tin, 
use not so accurate a method of Judging of its 
purity, but one founded on the same principle ; 
for the specific gravities of bodies being nothing 
but the weighUi of equal bulks of tiiem, they cast 
a bullet of pure tin, and another of tlie mixture 
of tin and lead, which ilicy want to examine, in 
the same mould ; and tlie more the bullet of llie 
mixture exceeds the bullet of pure tin in weight, 
the mure leud they coticludc it contains. 

' I'ewter is a mixed metal; it consists of tin 
united to small portions of otlier metallic sub- 
stances, such a.s lead, zinc, bismuth, aod the me- 
tallic part, commonly called regulus of antimony. 
We have three sorta of pewter in common use ; 
they are distinguished by the names of plate, 
trifle, ley. The plate p(;wter is used for plates 
and dishes; the tritle chiefly for pints and quarts; 
and the ley-metal for wine measures, &c. Our 
very best sort of pewter i« said to consist of 
100 parts of tin and of seventeen of regulus of 
antimony, though others allow only ten parts of 
revfulus to lOU of tin; to this composition the 
French add a little copper. Crude antimony, 
which consists of nearly equal portions of sul- 
phur and of a metallic substance, may l>e taJten 
inwardly with gi«at safety ; but the metallic part, 
or regulus, when separated from the sulphur, is 
held to be very poisonous. Yet plate-pewter 
may be a very innocent metal ; the tin may les.seu 
or annihilate the noxious qualities of the metallic 
part of the antimony. We have an instance 
somewhat similar to this in standard silver, the use 
of which has never been esteemed unwholesome 
notwittistanding it contains nearly one-twelfth 
of Its weight of copper. Though standard silver 
has always been considered as a safe metal, when 
used for culinary purposes, yet it is not alto- 
gether so ; tlie copper it contains is liable to be 
corroded by saline substances into verdigris. 
This is frequently seen, when common salt is 
suflered to stay a few days in silver saltsellers, 
which have not a gold gilding ; and even saline 
draughts, made witli volatile salt and juice of 
lemons, have been observed to corrode a silver 
tea-spoon which hitd been left a week in ihe 

The weight of a cubic fool of each of these 
sorts of pewter is : 

Plate 7248 

Trifle 7359 

Ley 7963 

If the plate-pewter be composed of tin and 
regulus of antimony there is no reason to ex- 
yiecl lliat a cubic foot of it should be heavier 
than it appears to be; since regulus of aniimonjr, 
according to the different ways in which it is 
made, is heavier or lighter tlian pure tin. A very 
fine silver-looking metal is said to be compo-e<l 
of 100 pounds of tin, eight of regulus of antimony, 
one of bismuth, and four of copper. The ley 
pewter, if we may judge of its composition by 
comparing its weight with the weights of the 
mixtures of tin and lead mentioned in the table, 
cont.-iins not so much as a third, but more than 
a fifth, part of iu weight of lead : tliis quantity of 
lead is far too much, considering one of the uses 
to which tliis sort of pewter is applied ; for atid 




wine» will readily corrode llie lead of ilie Aagnns 
in which they are measured into & of leiul ; 
this danger i5 not so great with us, where wine 
is seldom sold by the measure, as it is in other 
countries where it is generally sold so; and their 
wme measures contain, probably, more lead tlian 
ours d«. Our English pewterers have at all 
times made a mystery of their art ; and their 
caution was formerly so much encouraged by the 
legislature that an act of parliament wns passed, 
rendering it unlawful for any master- pcwterer to 
take an apprentice, or to employ a journeyman, 
who was a foreigner. In the present improved 
stale of chemistry this caution is useless ; since 
any one tolerably skilled in that science would 
be able to discover the quality and quantity of 
the metallic substances used in any particular 
sort of pewter ; and it is not only useless now, 
but one would have thought it must have been 
always so; whilst tin, the principal ingredient, is 
fount) in England in the purest state, as well as 
largest quantity. See CnEMtsTRY 

Pewter has occasionally sened for money. In 
the Philosophical Transactions, M. Putland 
states that king James II. turned all the pewter 
vessels, &c., of the Protestants in Ireland he 
could sciie, into money; half-crowns were some- 
what bigger than halfpence, and other pieces in 
proportion. He ordered it to be current in all 
payments: whence, our author observes, people 
absconded for fear of being paid their debts : 
he also mentions crown pieces of this melal, with 
this legend on the rim, 'mclioris tessera fati.' 

PEYEIl (J. Conrad), a learned German phy- 
sician, bom at Schalfliausen. He published 
Exeicilalio Anatomica Medica de Glandulis In- 
testinurum, at Schaffhau.sen, in 1677. 

P E Y R ER E (Isaac la), was bom at Bourdeaux, 
of Protestant parents. He entered into the ser- 
vice of the prince of Condi, who was much 
pleased with the singularity of his genius. From 
the perusal of St. Paul's writings he took into 
his head to aver that Adam was not the first 
of the human race; and to prove this exlravnsant 
opinion, he published in 1653 a book, printed in 
Moliand in 4to. and in 12mo., with this title, 
Pneadamitie, sive exercitalio super versibus 12, 
13, 14, cap. 15, EpistoL-e Pauli ad llomanos. 
This was burnt at Paris, and the author impri- 
♦oncd at Brussels. The prince of Cond6 having 
obtained his liberty, he travelled to Rome in 
1656, and there gave m to pope Alexander VII. 
* solemn renunciation both of ('alvinism and 
I'readamism. His conver>ion was not thought 
to be sincere, at least with regard to this last 
heresy. His desire to be the head of a new sect 
is evident; ami in liio honk he pays many coin- 
pliroenu to thn Jews, and invites them to attend 
nti lecliirus. I'pon his return to Pans he went 
again into the priiicit of Condi's service as his 
ttbnrian. Sonic time after he retired In the 
Mniinury do Vcrtiis, where he died Junuurv 
30tJi, 1G7U, .1 ! ' •v-two. lie left liehmd 
him, I. A tti ;ular as it i< scarce, en- 
titled l>u r.ij.j,. , lii, 10-J.t, 111 Bv.i. Tlie 

T«cal of thrUrueliie^, m the opinion of this writ- 
er, will lie lit)) iKilv iif .1 • n.ilurc. but 
tlify will bo f 
which lliry cpj ^ i ,) 

will again take possession of th« 
which will resume its former fertilj 
restorer will be a king of France, 
and entertaining account of Gn 
1647 ; 3. An equally interesting ai 
land, 1663, 8vo.; 4. A letter U 
1658, in 8vo. in which he explains 
his recantation, &c. 

PEYRONIUS (Francis de la\ 
French sur);eon, who practised at r 
eclat that he was appointed fint sni 
X\'. He improved this favorable 
procured to his profession those ( 
which contributed to extend its I 
Royal College of Surgery at Pari* 
by his means in 1731, was enligli 
knowledge, and encouraged by his 
At his death, which happened at V 
of April 1747, he bequeathed t 
of surgeons in Paris two-thirds of 1 
estate of Marigni, which was sold t 
200,000 livtes, and his library. I 
llic society of surgeons at MontpeltC 
with 100,000 livres, to erect tbeie 
ampliitlieatre. lie was a philoaa 
ostentation ; his understanding « 
natural vivacity rendered his conv< 
able ; and he possessed an unc 
sympathy for those in distress. . 


PEYTAIIN, a mountainous iff 
and town in Northern Hindustan, ti 
Ghuorkhali rajah of Nepaul ; a\ 
29° of N. lat. It is covered will 
intersected by numerous streams ( 
The cultivated valleys are very p) 
they are not many. The to«"n Mai 
4' N., long. 82° 15' E. 

PE2AY (N. Masson), marquis i 
Paris, was a captain of dragoot 
some lessons on tactics to Louis X 
in the beginning of 1778. He laf 
1. A Translation of Catullus; 2 
Helvetiennes, Alsaciennes, et Frai 
in 8vo. 1770; 3. Le» Soirees Pr 
MS. ; 4. La Ilosiere de Salency, i 
three acts, which hot been perforn 
cess on the Italian theatres : 5. Ll 
de Maillebois, in 3 vols, 
of maps. 

PE/ENAS (Esprit), a learn 
Avignon in 1692. He 
medicine at Marseille. His wori 
laiions are numerous, and 

PtrrwAS, or Pcsr.KAS. Pis 
town of the department of llcraul 
chief place of a canton in the arroi 
Keriers. It is a post-town, with 
tants, having a boani of intde, an « 
a communal college. It Is pleasant 
tlie confluence of the Peine and th 
a rich and fertile valley, vvheie rul 
orchards, gardens, and serdaiit ^ll^ 
you nil every side From ihe \' 
ancient canlle there in a mostdetigl 
over tlie little river Peine, which tt 
walU, :tnd, i-romng wme mnilmg a 
into tlie Hrraiilt. Pcicuaa i» rnw 




j4iti 3ur; the snrrouuding country, 
(W*Mt« by fubtprraneou) fires, pre- 
tof mote tliaii eighteen milea dia- 
k^Biwi l^"~ "■■•-=-' of basiiltic rock. 
I. rchiefs, linens, 
»j-: -J .1 cotton counter- 
,•»! and dry Terdiijri.s ; ehc- 
[tptfie sncar. are carried on here; 
■ri and silk spinoinj,'- 
- ; wool-washing hoiisci, 
( coo-Msii ID wheat, rye, oats, yel- 
Itirtar. dyers' wee<l, olive oil, |>re- 
. and fi^-s, ciipcrs, fruit, 
.t " uirday there i$ u con- 

nect Tur "ines, brandy, and other 
^IIbiis 1 beautiful a'sseMiljIy-room in 
,bH '►..TT^ir.r. «^l|(< in the neichboiir- 
.■ ifrounds covered wilh 
I vines. I'ezpiiaj is 
l«rir' .if lieuerj, and thirty- 


V, a jfeniis 

.mg to the 

i tliu of planu. The funsnu cam- 

ladMtBll*. Linnajus enumerates eight 

t (Pua\\ a very learned and inseni- 

">■ ' ' ' Itcnnebon in Brittany 

' the order of Citeaux 

' •■•■'■'"•, and was 

stored and 

: : 111 t hrono- 

brotish several promotions, 
^ to the abbey of Chanuoyc, 

fChTKtinn Frederick), a modem 

' </olmar in 17i6. He 

Hio, whom he assisted 

i aine secretary to 

from Saxony to 

I of the count de 

' d nejQciations. 

|W *-^ •'.II ... L.v.iilion, during the 

lll«r of state and charit^-d'affaires : 

lo the court of Bav'aria, 

1 until 1768, whim he was re- 

and tjecame jnris-consult lo 

II* al*» obtained, in conjunction 

«h» rharitv of iiett-mestre of Col- 

•» lent by the I'rencli ministry to 

», in it»ai nf ihe indemnities of the 

nO I prince-i: he was still 

h- lie order for his reiire- 

bn piinjir ruiiclions ; his property 

1, aivl he w\» pla<.'e<l on the list of 

II,. ,i,..,i ... f\,.-r j[i5 nrincipal 

Ai. I'le de I llisloirp, 

.-;Me; Recherches 

ani lc» Droits du I'ape stir 

I d*A»igiKin, iivec des t'loces jus- 

'Ecu d( lai rologne; Dissertations 

ii>ampd .lew, who 
He was the 
ir'irum scri|>tis; and, 
of that work, endca- 
•r Maximilian to 
I ill At Hebr- . xceni Ihe Bible. 

.<-L^ ..;^o in Latin. 

PFIFFEU, or Ppciffer (Angnstus), a learned 
German, bom at Lawenburg. He was eight 
years snpenntendanl of the ciiurches in Liibec, 
and became professor of onenial languages at 
Leipsic ; where he dietJ in 169H. 

IVirFrn (Lewis), a brave Swiss general, in the 
service of France under Charles IX. W'iih 8000 
rnen«dravni up in a hollow square, he presented 
the life of that monarch, in the famous retr»M of 
Meaux, ai.'ainst all the eflbrls of the prince 
of Conde. But his chief merit lay in hii mecha- 
nical and topographical exertions. He made a 
model of Swilr.erland, the most extraordinary 
thinn of the kind ever executed. He was elected 
a<lvoycr, or chief magistrate of Lucerne, and died 
in that city and office in 1594. 

PKINS Asu Knz, a circle of the grand duchy 
of Baden, lying along the two rivers I'finz and 
Knz, from Ihe Uliine lo the frontier of Wirtcro- 
berg. It includfs the north part of tlie old mar- 
graviiie. with part of the biishopric of Spire and 
the Creichgau. I'opulaiion al>oul 132,000. It 
is divided into two jurisdictions, including tea 
liailiwics. The chief town is Urachsal. 

Pl'ORTZHKI.M, a town of the west of Ger- 
many, in Baden, at the junction of the Wurm 
and Nagold. It is surrounded with a wall and 
ditch, and consi>tts of Ihe Town, Old Town, the 
Aup, and the suburb) of Brozingen. The mhabi- 
tants manufacture linen, trinkets, and hardware 
articles. Tliey carry on also a bnak traffic in 
wood, from {lie ncigbouring forest of Ha^ens- 
chiess, sent to Holland by the Uhine. Popula- 
tion .S400. Seventeen miles E.S. E. of L'arl- 
shrue, and twculy-lvso W.N.W. of Stutgard. 

PH.KA, a famous sow which infested the 
neighhotirhood of C'ratnyon. Theseus destroyed 
it as he was travelling from Tro-zene to Athens 
to make himself known to his father. Som« 
imagine that the bear of C'alydon sprang fron 
this sow. According to some authors Phira wa» 
a woman who prostituted herself lo strangers, 
whom she murdered, and afterwards plundered. 

PH.F.ACE.S, the PnIllCIA^s, the people of 
Phrcacia. Tliey first inhabited Hypcria. See 
Hvprai «. They were noted for their indolence 
and luxury : hence Horace uses Pha:ax for a 
person indolent and sleek ; and hence arose 
their indolence and pride. — Aristotle. 

PHtACTA, one of the names of the island 
Corcyra. SecCoacYB*. This island was fiimous 
for producing larjte quantities of the finest flavored 
apples. Ovid, Juvenal, Propertius. Alcinous 
was kin? of it, who rendered his name famous by 
his gardens and his hospitality to Ulysses. It is 
no* called Corfu. See Alcikois, Corcyk, 
•nd CoriFi'. 

PH.I^XASIA, one of the Soorades Isles. 

PH.EDON, a disciple of Socrates, who had 
been seized by pirates in his youth ; and the 
philosopher, wlio seemed lo discover something 
uncommon and promising in his counlcnance, 
bought his liberty for a sum of money, and ever 
after esteemed him. Pliirdou, after SocMlcs's 
death. returne<l lo Eli ' . ' • country, where 
he founded a sect of | ■ . who coml,oscd 

what was called the Kim -mi...i1. The name of 
I'hxdon is affixed to one of I'lalo's dialogues. 

PH.EDHA, in fabulous history, a daughter of 




Minos and Pasiphae ; she married Theseus, by 
whom she was the mother of Acamas and Demo- 
phoon. They had lived for some time in conju- 
gal felicity when Venus, who hated all the de- 
scendants of Apollo, because he had discovered 
her amours with Mars, inspired Phaedra with the 
strongest passion for Hippolytus, the son of 
Theseus, by the amazon Hippolyte. This passion 
she long attempted to stifle, but in vain ; and 
therefore, in the absence of Theseus, she ad- 
dressed Hippolytus with all the impatience of 
desponding love. He rejected her with horror 
and disdain. She, to punish his coldness and 
refusal, at the return of Theseus, accused Hippo- 
lytus of attempts upon her virtue. He, without 
hearing Hippo! vtus s defence, banished him from 
his kingdom, and implond Neptune, who bad 
promised to grant three of bis requests, to punish 
him in an exemplary manner. As Hippolytus 
fled from Athens, his horses were suddenly terri- 
fied by a sea monster, which Neptune had sent 
on the shore ; and he was thus dragged through 
precipices and over locks, trampled under the 
feet of his horses, and crushed under the wheels 
of his chariot. When his tragical end was 
known at Athens, Phcdra confessed her crime, 
and hung herself in despair. She was buried at 
Troezene, where her tomb was still to be seen in 
the age of Pausanias, near the temple of Venus, 
which she had built to render the goddess pro- 

PHiEDRIA, a small town of Arcadia.— Potu. 

PH£DRUS, an ancient Latin writer, who 
composed five books of fables, in Iambic verse. 
He was aThracian ; and his being called Augus- 
tus's freedman, in the title of the book, shows 
that he had been that emperor's slave. The 
fables of Phsedrus remained buried in libraries, 
altogether unknown to the public, until the close 
of the sixteenth century. 

Pbxdbos (Thomas), a professor of eloquence 
f»t Rome, early in the sixteenth century. He 
was canon of Lateran, and keeper of the library 
in the Vatican. He owed his rise to the acting 
of Seneca's Hippolytus, in which he performed 
the part of Ph«dra ; whence he got the name of 
Phsedrus. He died under the age of fifty. Janus 
Parrhasius gives a list of several of his works 
which were almost ready for public view. 

PH.'J:L»YMA, the daughter of Utanes, one of 
the seven Persian conspirators, who, being mar- 
ried to the false Smerdis, discovered his impos- 
ture to her father, by his want of ears, which had 
been cut ofl'by Cambyses. See Peasia. 

PH.ENARETE, the mother of Socrates the 
philosopher. She was a midwife by profession. 

PH.KNIAS, a peripatetic philosopner, a di% 
ciple of Aristotle, lie wrote a History of Ty- 
rants. — Dio-^. I jprt. 

PH .l.NNA, one of the Graces.— Paus. ix. 35. 

PlLtNO.M'ENON, n.i. See Phenomemos. 
Tliis has pha!nomena in the plural ; Gr. ^vofu- 
vov. An apjiearance in the works of nature ; a 
remarkable appearance. 

The pa|M!i was bUck, and the colors intense and 
tliick, that the pluvnemenon might be conspicuous. 


Phcnoui NOK, in philosophy, denotes any re- 
markable appearance, whetlier in tlie heavens or 

earth, and whether discoreied by obser 

PHAER (Thomas,) M. D, an Engl 
sician, bom in Pembrokeshire. He grai 
Oxford in 1539. He published several 
diseases and their remedies ; and was a 
brated as a poet. He translated nine b 
part of the tenth into English verse ; an 

PHiESANA, an ancient town of Area 

PH/ESTUM, in ancient geograph; 
town of Crete; 2. A town of Maceaon 
36, c. 13. 

PHAETON, in fabulous history, th 
Phcebus and Clymene, one of the 
Venus became enamoured of him, and, 
him with the care of one of her temple 
rendered him vain and aspiring ; and, hi 
tained from his &ther the direction of 
riot of the sun for one day, he was v 
guide the fieiy steeds; and, loosing t 
Jupiter, to prevent his consuming the 
ana earth struck him with a thunderl 
hurled him from his seat into the river 
or Po. His sisters Phaetusa, Lamp< 
Phoebe, lamenting his loss upon itj bai 
changed by the gods into black poplar t 
their tears into amber; and C'ycnus, 
Liguria, also grieving at his fate, was tra 
into a swan. The poets say that, while 
was driving the chariot of his father, t 
of the Ethiopians was dried up ; and t 
became black. The territories of Lil 
also parched up ; and ever since Afnc 
to recover her original verdure and fru 
has exhibited a sandy desert. Some ex 
poetical fable thus : — Phaeton was a 
prince, who studied astronomy, and 
age the neighbourhood of the Po was vis 
uncommon heats. 

PuAETOM, in ornithology, a genus of 
longing to the order of anseres ; the c 
of which are : — The bill is sharp, stra 
pointed ; the nostrils ace oblong, and tl 
toe is turned forward. There are two 
viz. — 

1. P. Kthereus, the tropic bird, is a 
size of a partridge, and has very lor 
nie bill is red, with an angle under I 
mandible. The eyes are encompas 
black, which ends in a point towards 
of the head. Three or four of the lar 
feathers, towards their ends, are blac! 
with white ; all the test of the bird is ' 
cept the back, which is variegated wii 
lines of black. The legs and feet .ire 
milion-red. The toes are webbed, 
consists of two long straight narrow 
almost of equal breadth from tliuir quill 
points. ' The name tropic bird,' say? 
' given to this genus, arises from its Ih'i 
found within the tropic circles ; but wi 
to conclude that they never stray volui 
are driven beyond them ; for »e I 
with instances to prove (he contrary.' 
several varieties: — 1. Une called by Ij 
white tropic bird. It is less than the i 
::nd is found in as many plact-s. Tliv |> 
in genordl a silvery white. 2. Tlie yell 




rnndy, the plumage being a yel- 
TWse liifferences, Mr. Latham 
sly from age, if they are not the 
(Wik of sex. 3. The black-bilied 
t wllir than any of the former. 
k; dw plum^ce 00 the upper part 
1 inOB is striated, partly black 
|«_b(M(e the eye there is a lar^e 
I It is a streak of the same ; 
I the under ports of the body 
> color ; the quills and tail are 
I upper parts, but the enda of the 
most of the feathers of the 
k dusky black at the tips ; the 

> are striated with black and 
black. 4. The red-tailed 

I leoi^h about two feet ten inches, 
I la>l feathers alone measure one 
The bill is ted ; the plumage 
I «ith an eleifant pale nMe-color; 
1 «TCr the eyes is somewhat abrupt 
lb« ends of the scapulars are 
This ttariety is distinguished 

> tailed feathers, which are of 
i color, except the shafts and 

the sides over the thighs 
1 the legs are black. 
«, the red (boted penguin, has a 
^(cd bill; the head, back part of 
' I of a dusky purplish hue, 
' white ; brown wings, with 
i white ; instead of a tail, 
ties; and ted legs. It is found 
DAT the Cape of Good Hope, 
I O'er ibe South Seas, and is about 

riADES, the sisters of Phaeton. 

See Pbactok. 
klowB«f Peloponnestis. 
"TCA. ■- f, J Fr. p/tagcdcnii/uc ; 
J Gr. ^yflaiva ; from 

t and pbogedcnous mean 
! flesh. 
> Hs malignancy, either proves 
1 ia • fluigtdtn»ui ulcer 
twtrj patrid and corrosire, which 
^"* I Ibe nsm* of foul phagedftiKk 
(bould be added to the 
I an tboM which cat awiy 

MtoiciMs are those used to 
«r fcngom Kesh ; such us arc lUl 

: Watta, in chemistry, denotes a 
I quieUioe and sublimate, efli- 
I of phavrdenic ulcerj. 

if^tival amon? the 
celebration of the 
_ frtiui ll;>j ifayny, good e.Uing, 
Dy pmailed. 

an ancient villasre of the 

1 was bom. — Scut. 

I B>lomolo!'v •'" !">i(i, » ge- 

,»«rde»lepi vint;ihc 

fXifUiag lij i-e to the 

tips; tongue spirtd ; jaws none ; wings, when at 
rest, gciiemlly ileflected. 

The caterpillars of this genus vary much as to 
size, and considerably as to their shape and 
number of feet. It is remarkable that caterpil- 
lars of almost every species of this genus are 
found with ten, twelve, fourteen, and sixteen fceu 
Tlie last are the most common. See Entomo- 

Moths fly abroad only in the evening, and 
during the night, and obtain their food from the 
nectar of flowers. The larva is active and quick 
in motion, mastly smooth, more or less cylindri- 
cal, and it preys voraciously on the leaves of 
plants. The yiupa is torpid or quiescent, more 
or less cylindrical, pointed at the tip or nt both 
ends ; and is generally enclosed in a follicle. The 
following are the principal divisions of this 
tribe, according to the Linnxan system. Of the 
species there are upwards of 1500 : — 

1. Bomlyj. Antennae filiform; two feelers, 
which are compressed and reflected ; tongue 
short, membranaceous, obtuse, and bi6d ; the 
larva is sixteen-footed, often hairy ; the pupa is 
pointed at the tip, 

ra. Wings expanded. 
\ b. reversed. 

Subdivisions <c. 


' incumbent 


Dr. Shaw and otlicrs have divided (he section 
bombyx into two .sections, viz. attaci, and bom- 
byces properly so called. 

2. Ceomttra. Antenna; filiform ; feelers cy- 
lindrical ; tongue projected, membranaceous, 
setaceous, bifid ; the larva is from eight to ten- 
footed, six of which are pectoral, two caudal, and 
sometimes two sub-caudal ; the pupa is pointed 
at the tip. 

fa. Antennie peclinate. 

Subdivisions. ■: b. setaceous. 

I c. Wings forked. 

3. NiKtua. Aiilennie setaceous ; feelers com- 
pressed, hairy ; the tip cylindrical and nuked; 
tongue projecting, horny, setaceous, bifid; larva 
sixteen-footed ; pupa pointed at the tip. 

a. Wings expanded. 

b. flat incumbent, thorax smooth. 

c. , crested. 

d. — deflected, tliorax smooth. 

e. , crested. 

4. Hyblea. Antennie seuiceous ; feelers pro- 
jecting, compressed, dilated in the middle ; the 
lip is projecting and acute. 

i. Ilepii/ut. Antennie moniliform ; feelers 
two, reflected, hair)-, between which is the rudi- 
ment of a bifid tongue ; tlie lan'a is sixteen-footed, 
feeding on the roots of plants; the pupa is folli- 
culate, cylindrical, and (lointpd at the tip. 

6. CoMi/s. Antenna! short, filiform ; two 
feelers, very short, cylindrical, reflected. 

7. Pvralii. Antenna: filiform ; the insects of 
thii division have likewise two feelers, which are 
equal and almost naki^d ; tliey are cylindrical at 
the b:L«c, the middle is dilated into an oval, and 
subulute at the tip; the tongue is projected, se- 
taceous, and bihd ; the wings are very obtuse, 
and sbghtly curved at the exterior mai^n ; the 





bnra is nxleen-fooleil, and rolling up the leaves 
to which it attaches itself. 

8. Tima. AnlenniE setaceous; four feelers, 
which are unequal ; the larva is found in houses 
among linen and woollen cloths, and fiimitiire, 
in which it eats holes, and to which it is very de- 

9. Alucila. Antenna setaceous ; two feelers, 
that are divided as far as the middle ; tite inner 
divi.sion is very acute, 

10. tlirophitrut. Antenna; setaceous ; two 
feelers, that are linear and naked ; tlie tongue is 
cxcerted, membranaceous, and bifid ; the wings 
are fan-shaped, divided down to the base, and 
generally subdivided as far as tlie middle; the 
larva is sixteen-footed, ovate, and hairy ; the 
pupa is naked, and subulate at the tip. 

To describe the species would be impossible ; 
but we shall mention a few. 

1. P. alucita pentadactyla. Tlie eyes of this 
species are black ; the body is of a pale yellow. 
The wings are snow white, and the insect keeps 
them stretched asunder when at rest. The su- 
perior are divided in two, or rather appear com- 
posed of two stumps of birds' feathers united at 
the base, llie inferior ones are likewise divided 
into three threads or bristles, which arc furnish- 
ed on both sides with tine fringes. The cater- 
pillar is of n green color, dotted with black, and 
charged with a few hairs. It feeds upon grass, 
cluinges to a chrysalis about September, and ap- 
pears a motli in August, frequenting woods. 

2. P. attaca pavonia minor. The wings of 
this insect, says Uurbut, are brown, umlulaled, 
and variegated, h.tvifig some gray in the middle, 
and a margin one line broad ; in its color yel- 
lowishgray. The under part has more of the 
gray cast, but the extremities of the wings be- 
fore the margin have a bro<iil band of brown. 
The four wings, both above an<l beneath, have 
each a large eve, which eyes are black, encom- 
passed witn a dun-colored circle, and above thai 
with a semicircle of while, then another of red, 
and l.n5tly the eye is terminated Viy a whole cir- 
cle of black. Across tlie middle of the eye is 
drawn transversely a small whitith line. The is green, has sixteen feet with rose 
color tubercula, charged with long hiiin termi- 
nated by a small knob; besides which it has 
dun-color or reddish rings. It is found upon 

3. P. noctua elinguis humali. In this species 
the wings of the male are of » niowy while ; of 
the femule yullowibh, with streaks of a deeper 
hue : the shoulders, abdomen, &c., in l>oth sexes 
are iStry yellow. The antenns are jjeclinaled 
and shorter than the thorax. Tlie cateqiilUr 
feeds upon the roots of burdock, ho|)s, jkc, 
chHnift-s into » chr)r>alis m May, appi-ars In the 
winjjed stale in June, frequenting low marshy 
gruunils wl ' .row. 

4. v. ij< lUt spiriling-uis. Tbc tho- 
rax, li- ■.! ... ;i.ei, and upper wings, are 
of :i r, more or less (Ltrk, sometimes 
•o >l' . be nearly black, but often of a 
blunh nut. The upjR-r wings ai* moreover 
somewlut clouded, and have two black spots 
flft tbe middle, thu uther lowanis the ouiwarti 
W|^e of lli« lower port vf iIhi miuu- llic uudci 

ones are of a beautiful orange color, 
black band near the lower edge of t| 
which it follows the direction. TVie 
is smooth ; to be found on several plan 
ticularly upon the tbiaspi and some othi 
ous plants. It keeps in concealment 
day, and only feeds by night. Its m( 
sis is performed under ground, and 
ties of color are observable amongst 

fiillars ; some being green, others bn 
alter yield males, the former female 

5. V. peniad.ictyla. Ikidy and wli 
upper pair bifid, lower ones three 
larva of this species is sixteeD-l 
green, with black dots, and a wl 
the pupa is hairy, green, dotted 
appears in August. Its larva ' 

6. P. hexadactyla. VVings cleft,' 
spotted with brown ; all of them an 
1 his species is found on the lonicera 
or honey-suckle ; it is a very elegant' 
tiful insect, and often flies into tlie ' 
evening ; it makes its appearance in 
of .September. It has been called 
collectors the twenty-plumed moth. 

PIIAL/V..SIA, a town of Arcadia. 

PHArTANGlUM. in iool.:.iry, a g« 
seels belonging to llic order of apU 
have eight feet, two eyes on the top a 
placed very near each other, ana oil 
the sides of the head : the feelers rat 
and the belly is round. There are nil 
we submit the following, vii. : — 

V. opilis of Linna'us. Its body ii 
of a dusky bfown on the back, witi 
spot of a rliomboidal figure near tbc 
it. Tlie belly is whitish ; the legs ar« 
Ions and slender. On the back part « 
there stands a little eminence, which I 
kind of double crest, formed as it 
number of minute spines; the eyes 
and black, and are two in number, 
monly called the shepherd spider. Tl 
of spider multiplies singularly. Tbc< 
spinners. In autumn the stubble » 
vered wiih the threads of these l| 
means of which they travel with eoH 
snare tlieir prey. However, those ll 
thoiighl rather lo be tlie produce of a 
tick culled autumnal weaver. A M 
of altenttcin discovers an amazing liM 
those liclfs almost imj^erccnlible, i 
Uieir work, llic threads, when unii 
of » buiutjful white, wave about 
and ore known in Uie country by tlM 
virgin's threads. Some naturalist* 
the tlirv.uU Hoaling lu the air servi 
as sails to waft it tlitough the air, aiul 
eiilRtp insects on the wing ; for N 
prey, say tliey, an' discovr-rable in Um 
tboae parcels m which nothing ii mi 
only esaaya tfjeclol by those tianOii 
Tlie analogy between ihe phalangh 
crab, and ihe faiihly with which it 
Us legs to save tin- n-si >■! \\i,- I.ik1< 

Sresuiuplioii that it^ .t' 

o those of the cnibn 
PIIAIAN(i()SlS, lu suiKf-ry, a 
iclauuuu uf Uie rye-lub, often to 




I aid coDsiilerably to impede 

tile eye-lid when in this 

inks down, occasioned ^t- 

ikfiisy of the miucle winch su&- 

tiw eye-lid, or else from a 

[ dw citti5 above, from various 

an oedematous or aqueous 

Ibc eye-lids, so as almost 

Elode Ti«ion ; hut lliii last case 

ahed from the other, aud may 

by the use of internal and 

, such as pur;^ and diuretics 

(Old a compress dipped in warm 

•sd lime water. But in tlie 

1 ease, the use of cordial and 

knat be proposed internally ; 

of Peru and Uungary 

sployed. If all these fail, the 

of cure is to extirpate a suf- 

r of the relaxed cutis ; and then, 

I the wound, the remainder will 


, > town of Thessaly. Lit. 43. 

IIUS, a Spartan, the son of Ara- 

r of the Parthenii, who founded 

iltaly. He was shipwrcckefl on 

> carried ashore by a dolphin. 

I tow n and mountain of Arca- 

*. Fr. phnlnn^e ; Lai. pha- 
clottly embodied men. 

an titreme difficoll piece of 
flmUia, being a great mjuare Italtle 
•not lo be misled by the Kotnan 
a* the fhalrnu itself held together 
wmt the iorioUble sainla, 
lama fim, advanced entire, 
!, iBpcQctrably armed. UiUm. 

ilaar, moveless as a tower, 

yet resisu bis power. Pap*. 
tare, that nor wind, 
of falling years could move -, 
ubty firm ' 
warnore in the field, 
te and singly seen, 
; in massy phatarti knit, 
•qqadron rushing on, 
d>«>d, inviocible. PotUik. 
D firecian antiquity, a square 
with tbeir shields joined, und 
wtrh other, so that it was next lo 
it. The Macedonian pha- 
hii*e hail the oilvantage in 
o«^or tl.o Roman levio". It 
hom 1000 marched 
N men deep, each of 
pike (wenty-three feel 
I sn clo«e that the pikes 
MMJied their points bev'ond the 
The hindermost ninks lean- 
iiders of those who 
i; them fast, press- 
' n they made the 
Mfliitlh' ranks had the im- 
"liich was the 
,illy irresist- 
— .ibo uxd for > 

party of twenty-eigfal, and seretal other num- 
bers ; and even sometimes for the whole body 
of foot. See Legion. 

Phalanx is applied by anatomists to the tliree 
rows of small bones which form the fingers. 

Phalanx, in natural history, is a term which 
Dr. Woodward and some other writers of fossils 
have used to express an arrangement of the 
columns of that sort of fossil coralloid body 
found frequently in Wales, and called lithostro- 
tion. In the jrreat variety of specimens we find 
of this, some have the whole phalanx of columns 
cracked through, and others only a few of the 
external ones; but these cracks never remain 
empty, but are found filled up with a white spar, 
as the smaller cracks of stone usually are. This 
is not wonderful, as there is much spar in the 
composition of this fossU ; and it is easily wash- 
ed out of the general mass to fill up these 
cracks, and is then always found pure, and 
therefore of its natural color, white. The lithos- 
tration, or general congeries of these phalanges 
of columns, is commonly found immersed in a 
gray stone, and found on the lops of the rocky 
clill's about Milford in Wales. It Is usually 
erect, lhoui;h somewhat inclining in some s|je- 
ciniens, but never lies horizontal. It seems to 
have been all while at first, bat to have been 
since grailually Unctured with the matter of the 
stone in which it lies. The single columns, 
which form each phalanx, arc usually round or 
cylmdric, though sometimes flatted and bent ; 
some of thera are also naturally of an angular 
figure; these, however, are not regular in the 
number of their angles, some consisting of 
three sides, some of five, and some of seven ; 
some are hexangular also,' but these are scarce. 
They are from five or six to sixteen inches in 
length; and the largest are nearly half an inch 
over, the least about a quarter of an inch ; the 
greater number are very equal to one another in 
size; but, the sides of the columns being une- 
aual, the same column measures of a diflerent 
thickness when measured different ways ; the 
phalanges or congeries of these arc sometimes 
of a foot or more in diameter. The columns 
are often burst, as if they had been affected by 
external injuries : and it is evident that they 
were not formed before several oilier of the ex- 
traneous fossils ; for there are found sometimes 
shells of sea fishes and entrochi immersed and 
oedded in the bodies of the columns. It aj^ 
pears plainly hence that when these bodies were 
washed out of llie sea, and tossed about in the 
waters which tlien covered the lops of thrse 
cliffs, Ihi? elegant fossil, together with the stony 
bed in which it 1.1 contained, were so sof^ that 
those other bodies found entrance into their very 
substance, and they were formed as it were upon 
them. This fossil takes an elegant polish, and 
makes in that state a very lieautiful ap|>earanre, 
being of the hardness of the common white 
marble, and carrying the elegant structure visi- 
ble in the smallest lineaments. 

PHALAUICA, in ancient warfare, was a 
javelin or long dart, of a particular construction, 
used by the inhabitants of Saguntum, when they 
so valiantly stood the siege of it. It wx* very 
thick, and had a sharp pieca of iron, four feet 




long attached to it. It was used either as a 
weapon of close attack and defence, or as a fire- 
arm ; being, in the latter case, wrapped up in 
tow and pitch, and, when set fire to, cast out of 
tlie baliita against tlie enemy's wooden towers 
and otiier nuicliioes, for the purpose of con- 
suming them. They were sent with so much 
force that they pierced through armed bodies 
of men. 

I'ilALARIS, a remarkable tyrant, bom at 
Crete, where his ambitious designs occasioned 
his banishment ; he took refuge in Asrigentum, 
a free city of Sicily, and there obtained the 
supreme power by stratagem. What has chiefly 
contributed to preserve his name is his cruelty ; 
in one act of which, however, he acted with 
strict justice. I'erillus, a brass founder at 
Atliens, knowing his disposition, inTented a new 
mode of torture. He made a brazen bull, hollow 
within, bigger than the life, with a door in the 
side to admit the victims; who being shut up in 
it, a fire wai kindled under it, to roast them to 
death ; and the throat was so contrived that their 
dying groans resembled the roaring of a bull. 
Tne artist brought it to the tyrant, in hojics of 
a great reward. Phalaris admired the invention, 
but ordered the inventor to be put into it, to 
make the first trial. The end of this detestable 
tyrant is differently related ; hut it is very gene- 
rally believed, with Cicero, that he fell by the 
hands of the Agrigentines ; and, as some sup- 
pcw, at the instigation of Pythagoras. Ovid 
tells us that his tongue was cut out ; and that 
he was then put into the brazen bull. He 
reignc<i, Eusebius says, twenty-eight years. 

I'll ALAR IS, Canary grass, in botany, a genus 
of the Irigynia order, Kelonscing to the Iriandria 
class of plants: cai.. bivalved, carinuted, and 
equal in length, containing the corolla. There 
arc ten species, of which the most remarkable are, 

1. 1'. aniiKlinacea, the reed Canary grass; and 

2. P. Ciiniiriensis, the manured Canary' grass. 
These are Ijolh natives of Britain. The first 
grows by llie road sidesj and is frequently cul- 
tivated for the sake of the seeds, which are found 
to be the best food for the Canary and other 
small birds. I'he second grows on the banks 
of rivers. It is used for tliatching ricks or cot- 
tages, and endures much longer ihan straw. In 
•Scandinavia they mow it tv»ice a year, :iiid their 
cattle eat it. There is a variety of thi.s cultivated 

. in our .• .r.i,.,,. vtith beautifully slrificJ leiven. 
generally green and white: but 

Bii ) lure a purplish cast lliis is 

coimiioiily called pointed lady grass, or hidies' 

I'l ' ' M, a citadel of SyracuM, where 

I'h ii .43 Lepi, 

PlhU-MlL S, a river of Qaotii, ranning inio 
tlie ('«iihi<iii>. 

PIl.VLt'lU.'K, UDOng tlu! ancient Komaii*, 
wen Miililary rewards bestowed for some signal 
"•■' ■'' ' ' vfrry, Aulhoo do not agree wlmlicr 
r were a suit of rich irupfuiim for a 
I w'olili II chains sonii'thiiig like the 

torques, I .<J us to haiiig iji>wn to the 

btvast anil , ^tMei profusion of nma. 

mrnt. "Vhc ld*t upmtoii prenuls, but jierliaps 
botli OR Itw. 

PllALEREUS, a village and port d 
this lost is neither large nor coniino^ 
which reason Thi'mistocles put the Alh 
building the Pinrui; h"il' i.mi...l lo A 
long walls (Nepos). '1 ■• U 

the city (Pausanias). I < i'hall 

of this place. Sec DrMrrRii s. 

PHALEIIIA, a town of Thcssalv. 

PIIALEUON, PiiALtniii, names 
Phalereus Portus of Aiheus. See P« 

PHALEUCUN Verse, in ancient 
kind of verse consisting of five feet ; t| 
which is a spondee, tlie second a d| 
the last three trochees. 

PHALEUCUS, a Roman poet, wh< 
the phaleucian verse. 

PllALMCA, festivals observed by 
tians in honor of Usiris, the name 
from aoXXof, simulacrum ligneum mc 
lis. See Phallus. 

PHALLOPHORl, persons who < 
phallus at llie end of a long pole, at th 
of the Puallica. See last article, and 
They appeared among the Greeks, besmi 
the dregs of wine, covered with the skitu 
and wearing a crown of ivy. 

PlIALLi'S, the morel, in botany, 
the order of fungi, belonging to the cr] 
class of plants. The fiingus is reticulal 
and smooth below. There are two tp 

1. P. esculentus, tlic esculent morel 
live of Britain, growing in woods, gT<« 
dows, pastures, Sec. The substance, wh( 
is wax-like and friable ; the color a w| 
low, turning brownish in decay ; tha 
the whole fungus about four or five ini 
■italk is tliick and clumsy, somewhat ti 
the base, and hollow in the middle. 

i< either round or conical ; at a mcditi 
the size of an egg, olHen much larga 
within ; its base united to the stalk ; 
face cellular, or latticed with irrc^lai 
Tlie magnified seeds are oval. It 
esteemed at table l>oth recent and drj 
commonly used as an ingredient to hei 
flavor of ragouts. We are informed by 
that morels are observed to grow m the- 
(MTifiaiiy in the greatest plenty in tha 
where cliarvoal has been made. Ifeoct 
women who collect them to sell, 
hint how lo encourage their growth, 
accustomed to make fires in certain pla 
wihkIs, wiih lieath, broom, vaccinnim. I 

IiiiiIirTiU It l.-r If, ..111 11,1 . nioTV 

' ■ ... I will 

emi>e<iurnce<, large wixkIh having 
fire auil dfitroyed by it. the magistral 
At til intrrTKisc his authority, and tb« | 
now intenlirtfvl. 

2. P. ini; 1, «r 
i« alaii a n.' i:iii! 
xnd on lianiix. i m: 
v,il fir v<ilva, ill 

iinJ nf ll... V 

which i« lull of I 
ItT, wluch, when 




(TaBoh. In the next atage of 
foddcnly bunts into several 
se^^ents, froni ihe centre 
trect, white, cellular hollow 
Ittf or six inches high, and one 
i-iike friable substance, anil most 
I smell, conical at each end, the 
ts«lMe. concave, membranaceous 
. and the summit capped with a 
an inch \oag, having^ a 
suifece ; its baie detached 
, tad its lutnmit umbilicated, the 
|t>p«ifanued, and sometimes 
Fciae of this pileus i.i covered 
- matter, similar to 
ines of t)ie volra ; 
iii,mi;r. concealed in ret>- 
uv found the seeds, which 
spherical. Ah soon as 
plant begins to diifnse its 
■hich are so powerful and 
L Ihe fungus may be readily 
It only, before it appears 
tbii time the viscid matter be- 
I of t}ie lolva grows turbid and 
I the plant attains its full ma- 
: liacid substance in the pileus 
~ discolored, putrid, and ex- 
aAen*;irds turns black- 
Fvitb the seeds and internal 
I itseir, melts away. The fetid 
I to remit, the fun^s fiules, and 
(t time .sapless and coriaceous, 
llie food of worms. The 
this fungus greatly allures 
htiDi; upon the pileus, are 
cid matter, and perish. We 
ditxch, that the people in 
oed volve by the ridi- 
and demon'* eggs ; and 
"wid dry them either in the 
T, and, when reduced to powder, 
1 of spirits as an aphnxlisiac. 
; the £gyptians, was the em- 
It was very fervently wor- 
tcspecially by lliose who were 
I introduced among the 
I in boixtr of it were called 
See Mtsteries. Among 
' emblem called lingam is 
' porpoees- SeellisDoos. 
aomctimes applied to an 
the head of the caique of 
The Greek Xof«c, and the 
and iubo, have each been 
I of uit« description. 

' of Chios, famous 
«Ti c. 43. 

> of Constantinople, north- 
' > Ihe sea. Here reside a 
! Gfeek Eamilies, the Greek 

I of Halicamassus, who was 

^Gracian auxiliaries, sent to 

Egyptf whom he deserted. 

7 lowa of Epitus. lir. sxxii. 

clcgUc po«t of 

Vain a])- 
See F*N- 

Greece, who wrote a poem upon an unnatural 
crime, wherein he supposes that Orpheus was 
the first who practised it. Some fragments of 
his poems are extant. 

l'II.\NOI)EMUS, an ancient Greek historian, 
who wrote on the antiquities of Attica 

PIIANTASIA, the daughter of Nicarrhus of 
Memphis, in Egypt. It has been said that she 
wrote a poem on the Trojan war, and auothcr on 
the return of Ulysses to Ithaca, from which com- 

Fositions Homer copied the greatest p.nrt of his 
liad and Odyssey, when he visited Memphis, 
where tlicy were deposited. 

PHANTASM, n. j.-\ Fr. pitantatme, jAan- 
PuANTAS|v», Italic; Gr. fatTattfta, 

Pbaxtas'tic*!., i^vraina. 
Puastas'tic. } pearance ; 

appearing only to the imagination. 


All the interim i* 
Like a phaattum or a hideoui dream. 

This Armado is a Spaniard that keeps here io 
A phantofm, a monarcho, and oae that makes sport 
To the prince and his hook-mates. /J. 

They believe, and ibcy believe amiss, becanie 
they be hut pJiantaamt or apparitions. 

Raleigh'i Hiittny, 
If the great ones were in forwardDCSs, the people 
were in fury, entertaining this air^' body or phantmm 
with incredible oficction; partly out of their great 
devotion to the house of York, partly out of proud 
humour. Bacon's Hatty Vil. 

In this infernal vale 6rst met, thou callest 
Me father, and that phantaim callest my son. 

Assaying, by bit devilish art, to reach 
The organs of her fancy, and with them forge 
Illusions, as he list, phantatms and dreams. Sd, 
Jesus, in performing his cures and other miracu- 
lous works, did never use any profane, silly phmntai- 
tic ceremonies. Bamu. 

Phantasm is also sometimes used in a synony- 
mous sense with idea, or notion retained in the 
mind, of an external object. Locke, who uses 
this word frequently, tells us that he means the 
same thing by it as is commonly meant by spe- 
cies or phantasm. Gassendi, from whom LxKke 
borrowed more tlian from any other author, says 
the same. The words species and phantasm are 
terras of art in tlie Peripatetic system, and from 
this we are to learn the meaning of them. 

PHANTASY, or Fancv, the imagination, 
sometimes called the second of the powers or 
faculties of the soul, by which the species of 
objects received by the external organs of sense 
are retained, recalled, further examined, and 
either compounded or divided. See Iiiagi>a- 
Tios. Others define the phantasy to be that 
internal sense or power whereby the ideas of 
absent things are formed, and represented to the 
mind as if tliey were present 

PILVNTOM, n. i. Fr. phantome. A spectre ; 
an apparition ; visionary api>earance. 

If he cannot help believing that such things ho 
saw and heard, he may still have room to hrlieve 
that what this airy plwntna saiil is not alxolutely to 
he relied on. AU'vkurji. 


Ai Pallw witl'd, along th« sable tkna, 
To calm the qneen, the pAunlom suter Bie». 




A constant vapour o'er th« palace flics j 
Slrangt: /lAanlnmi rising as ihe iiiisls arise ; 
Dreadlul as hermits' dteam» in haunted shades, 
Ut bright as visions of vipirmg maid*. IiL 

Restless and impatient to try every overture of 
pment. happiness, he hunts a piantom be can never 
uverlalte. liugm. 

Uliss! sublunary bliss— proud wordsj and vain ! 
laiulicit treason to divine ilecree ! 
A bold invasion of the rights of heaven I 
I clasped the phanlimt, and 1 found them air. 

Then grace the bony phaniom in their stead 
With the king's shoulderknot ami gay cockade ; 
Clothe the twin brethren in each other a diess. 
The same their occupation and success. Ccmper. 

PHANUKL, of the tnbe of Asher, tlie fiither 
of the prophetess Anna. See A.vna, and Luke 
ii. 36 — M. 

t'llAfJN, in fabulous liLslory, a young man of 
Mytileiie, in the island of l^tsbos, who reteived 
from \'eniis an alabaster vase filled with an 
essence which had the virtue of conferring beauty. 
lie had no sooner anointed his body with it 
titan he became the most beautiful of men. Tlie 
Kidiea of Mytilene fell desperately in love with 
him ; and the celebrated Sappho threw herself 
down a pnicipice, because he would not encou- 
rage her passion, lie i.s said to have been killed 
by a husband who surprised him with his wife. 
Oviil, in his Epistles, gives a letter from Sappho 
to rhaon, which Pope has translated into Eng 
lisli verse. 

PHAllA, in ancient geography, a village be- 
tween Egypt and Arabia Petni-a; or, according 
lo Ptolemy, at a promontory situated between 
the Sinus llerootKilites and Elanilicus of the 
Red Sea ; where Ishmael is said to have ilwell. 
In Hebrew it is Paran, andin most interpreters; 
Pharan in the Septuagint and \'ulgate. 

PHAU.VCYDKS, a commander of the Spar- 
tan Heet, who assisted Dionysius, tyrant of Syra- 
cuse, aKiin»t llie Carthiigitn i ^ '' '■ Tp. 2. 

PlIAll/F., in ancient g'.' ee (owns, 

viz. 1. A town of Achaia, m i • . |..-iih»-ius, on 
the Pierus, seventy stadia from the sea, and MO 
Boulli of Patne. 2. In Crete (I'liny), » colony 
from the Phara of Messeniu-— Sliy^ihanun. 3. 
Pharv, or Phenr (Sirabo, Ptolemy), or Phara 
(Polybius;, a town of Mesicnia. on the Nedo 
(Strabo), on the north side of the Sinus Mcsse- 
nius, and norlh-wesi of Abea ; anciently read 
Pilaris in Homer (Pausanias, Statius), though 
now read Pliare. 

PIlAHA.MoNn. the first king of France. He 
t lied at Treves, and over a 

A. D. 420, and to have 
. ..- ion Clodio. Se« FnAXt-c. 
o! the famous Salit^ue law Is 
'.il ii> him. 

Pli v!i, the name of the wil- 

deni< oiirhuod of Phara. adjoining 

to Kjii|..<li Also a town of Arabia Felnru, m 
lh« (}>ilf of Slier, formerly a bishop's see, but 
now <■ Oirty miles north of Tor- 

Pi oativci of Phane.— Pto- 


PILARAOH, Heb. np-ifi, i.e. nttk 
(^mmon name of the kings of Egypt. 
says tliat in the Egyptian language 
Pharaoh signifies a king ; and that vti 
did not assume this name till they asl 
throne, when they quitted also th 
name. There are ten monarchs of 
mentioned in Scripture, viz. 

1. PiiARAOU, in whose time Abfl 
down to Egypt, when Saiali, who p 
for Abraham's sister, was, by the <x 
Pharaoh, brought to his palace to t 
wife. See Abraham and Sarah. 

2. Puaraou, who reigned when , 
rived in Egypt. See Joseph and J M 

3. Pharaoh, who perscctited the 
and published a decree thalall the ma 
born of Hebrew women should be d 
the Nile. 

4. Puaraou, before whom Moses 
many miracles, and in whose sight 
visited with ten dreadful plat^es. II 
X. This Pharaoh having at last been 
to send away the Hebrews, and to sufl 
go out of Egypt, repented of the Id 
given, and pursued them at the M 
army with his chariots. But he «ras i 
tlie Red Sea, wherein he had rashly 
the eagerness of his pursuit. Exod. I 
historians give us the name of thit 
Appion calls him Amasis ; Eusebiu* 
Cnenchris ; Usher calls him Amenopl 

5. Puaraoh, who pave protection 
son of the king of Edom, who gave h 
the sister of his own queen, enriched 
lands, and brought up his son Gcatd 
own court. 1 Kings xi. 17 — 22. 

6. PnARAOH, who (rave his daugfat 
riage to Solomon (1 Kings iii. 1): b( 
Geier, set it on fire, drove the Canaafl 
it, and pave it for a present to Soloiai 
of a dowry for hts daughter. 1 KingI 

7. I'uARAon, or Shishak, who entel 
roboam in his dominions when he 
Solomon. He also declared war aga] 
boam, besieged and took Jerusalcl 
away the king's treasures, and thoseoC 
of God. particularly the golden bue 
Solomon had made. Some tliink IM 
brother of Soloraou's queen, and 41 
avenge the neglect of his sister by Sok 
Ecyrr. SuisnAK, aand 1 Kings xiv, t 

8. Puarauh, with whom lieiektd 
league against Senn.ichcrib, king ol 
A.M. 3290. See St.vKArnritiii. iU 
bty the same whom Herodotus tiunf 
priest of \'ulc3n, who came to meet S^ 
before IVlusium, and to whose assisUH 
was believed to have lent an army of | 
gtiMweil the bow-strinjx and the thai 
bucklers of Sennacherib's soldiers. $ 

9- PiiAnAoii Nil nil, or Nethos, soi 
milieus, who made war with Josiah, 
dm-d him. .See 2 C'hron. xxxr. 20—1 
dotus aUo mentions this prince. Si 
and Nr.cno II. 

10. Pmaxaoii Hophban, whopnlen 
alliance with Zedckiah king of Jud, 
t«mpted to assist him asainst N< 





il^nnst tli» Pbaraoh Enkiel 

al of his prophecies. See 

He is ealleti Aprjej in Hero- 

I 161. He is also mentioned in 

14. See also kaiah xix. 11, 

Ivi. 16, See. See Afriu and 

, or F«BO, 15 the name of a game 
\§t ptiocipal rules of which are : the 
" i eofUkiting of fifty-two cards ; 
one aifter the other, and 
■tely at his right and left 
! may at his pleasure set one 
one or more cards, either 
has begun to draw the cards, 
drairn any number of couples. 
t stake of the punle when the 
: out m an odd place on 
loses as much to the ponte 
in an even place on his left 
tkjet wins half the pontes stake 
to be twice in one couple. 
the ponte, bein^ but once in 
I to bi^ Inst, the ponte neither 
Ibe card of the ponte being 
! Mork, and the last couple con- 
twicc, he then loses his whole 

I shown bow to find the gain of 

-»"'■'■'• of cards reniain- 

. I l>er of times that 

: . , ii. Of this pnjbleni 

s. Tit when the pontes 

three, or four times in the 

t tn* <ase, the gain of the bunker 

I Buinber of cards in the slock. 

I his gain is 

tw X 1 ■ 
■ X {*-!) 
kit pin is 

(n— 2) X y 
supposing^ = i 



wZtffMin^ y= \- In t)<c fourth 

L.n r/ i(m! lanter, or the loss of the 
-i in — 5 

,^i^*'''^iX(n-\)X (n-3) 
> LV Moivre has calculated a 
I gain or loss for any particu- 
I ot dM play ; and he observes 
jij the least disadvantage of the 
the sanie circumstances of cards 
I dK studt, is when the card of the 
■t t«Ke in it ; tlie next greater when 
■, ike nexl when once, and the greatest 
f turn I He has also demonstrated 
kale ni* pv cent, of the banker, upon 

kUbll ■ adventured at this game, is 
S4« l)« Moivre's Doctrine of 
TT, kc. 
ton ot Jndah and Tamar (Gen. 
I, ttc), so nametl from the circum- 
Imdiagbis birth, by his mother Phiirez, 
Hvloac fcitli- ill* wns are mentioned 
k twi. JO, Jl : snil his posterity down 
k wd Man, tn Matt, i .and I.uke iii. 
UtZITCS, I^K dascoidants of I'harcz. 

PHARI. A valley and fortress in thesoatbem 
part of Tibet, near the Uootan frontier, named 
also Parry Jeungh and Pansdong. Lat. 27° 58" 
N., long. 89" V E. 

The valley of Phari is extensive; and tne sta- 
tion of the Phari lama, who is here a sort of 
prince, being superintendant of a goombah or 
monastery, and governor of an extensive tract of 
rucks and deserts, which yield verdure only dur- 
ing the mildest season of the year ; at which time 
this neighbourhood is frequented by large herds 
of long haired cattle. The musk-deer are also 
found in great abundance here. There are also 
partridges, pheasants, quails, and a great multi- 
tude of foxes. Winter may be said perpetually 
to reign in this fortress; tlie mountain I'huniu- 
lari is for ever clollied with snow, and from its 
remarkable form is proKihly that which is ncca- 
Monally visible from Pliurneah and Knjemall. In 
the vicinity wheat does not ripen, yet it is some- 
times cultivated as forage for cattle. Such is 
the intensity of the cold here, although in so low 
a latitude as 28° N., that animals exposed in the 
open fields are sometimes found dead with tlieir 
heads split open by frost. In 1792 the Chinese 
established a mililary post at this place. The 
fortress is of an irregular form, but deemed of 
great strength. On the north-west is an extensive 
suburli, and on the south a large basin of water. 

PIlAIUS, a town of Laconia. — Pans. iii. 
c. 10. 

I'lIAKISA'ICAL, nrf,-. 1 From Pharisee; 

Pharisa'ism, n. I. 5 Heb. |J^!^ to sepa- 

rate. Ritual ; externally religious. 

The causes of superstition arc pleasing and sen- 
sual rites, excess of outwiid and jtiiarimicut liolint' -, 
over-^'reat reverence of traditions, which cannot but 
load the church. Baetn. 

Suffer us not to be deluded with phariuical wash- 
ings instead o( clirisiun riformiDgs. King Chartrj. 

St. Jerome, whom they fondly term their cardinal, 
compares some popish fashions of his time with the 
pharimiietil. lip. Hail. 

To some, fhariuitm necms rather ■ several order 
thana sect. Id. 

Pn.tRiSAiSM. Serrarius places the origin of 
Pharisaism about the lime of Kzra: Maldonat 
makc.i It only to have arisen a short tune before 
our Saviour's birth. Others, with more probabi- 
lity than either, refer it to the time of the Mac- 

PHAR1SKE8. a iiunous sect of the Jews, 
who distinguished thera,selves by their zeal for 
the traditions of the elders, which, they pre- 
tended, were delivered to Moses from Niount 
Sinai along with the law, and therefore both were 
of equal authority. From their rigorous observ- 
ance of traditions, they looked upon them- 
selves as mote holy than other men, ana therefore 
separated themselves from those whom they 
thought sinners or profane, so as not to eat or 
drink with them ; and hence from the Hebrew 
word Cr\S, I. e. to separate, they had the name 
of Pharisees or .ScpanitisLi. This sect was one 
of the most ancient and most considerable among 
the .lews; but its original is not well known, .Ser- 
nirius places tlieir rise about the time of Esdras, 
because it was then that the Jews first began to 
have interpreters of their traditions. Maldouet, 




on the other hand, thinks it cannot have arisen 
among the Jews tilt a little before the time of 
Christ Others, perhaps with more probability, 
refer the origin of the Pharisees to the time o{ 
the Maccabees. Dr. Lightfoot contends, that 
Pharisaism rose up gradually, from a period 
which he does not assign, to the maturity of a 
sect ; end it is certain from Josephus, that in the 
time of John Hyrcanus, the high-priest and prince 
of the Asmonean line, about 108 years before 
Christ, this sect was not only formed, but made 
a considerable figure; as also that it had ad- 
vanced to a high degree of popularity and power 
about eighty years l>efore Christ. Calmet places 
their origin about A. M. 3820, B. C. 184. Ac- 
cording to Basnage, Aristobulus, an Alexandrian 
Jew, and a Peripatetic philosopher, who flou- 
rished about 125 years before Christ, and wrote 
some allegorical commentaries on the Scripture, 
was the author of those traditions, by an ad- 
herence to which the Pharisees were principally 

This sect was in great repute in the time of our 
Saviour. They held a resurrection of the body, and 
supposed a certain bone to remain uncorrupted, to 
furnish the matter of which the resurrection 
body was to be formed. They did not, how- 
ever, believe that all mankind were to be raised 
from the dead. A resurrection was the privilege 
of the children of Abraham alone, who were all 
to rise on Mount Zion ; their incorruptible bones, 
wherever they might he buried, being carried to 
that mountain below the sur&ce of the earth. 
The state of future felicity in which the Phari- 
sees believed was very gross : they imagined that 
men in the next world, as well as in the present, 
were to eat and drink, and enjoy the pleasures of 
love, each being re-united to his former wife. 
Hence the objection stated by the Sadducees, 
which our Saviour so satisfactorily refuted. — See 
Matt. nii. 23 — 33. The Pharisees seem to have 
had some confused notions, probably derived 
from the Chaldeans and Persians, respecting the 
pre-existence of souls ; and hence Cnrist's dis- 
ciples asked hLn concerning the blind man. — See 
John ix. 2. Witii the Essenes, they held abso- 
lute predestination ; and with the Sadducees, 
fiee-will ; but how they reconciled these seem- 
ingly incompatible doctrines is no where ex- 
plamed. The sect of the Pharisees was not 
extinguished by the ruin of the Jewish common- 
wealth. The greatest part of the modem Jews 

are still of this sect ; being as much i 
traditions or the oral law as their ance; 
See Karaites, Essemes, Sadducees, 
PHARITiE, people of Pharis. Se 
PHARMACA, among the ancients, i 
dicated or enchanted compositions of ! 
nerals, &c., some of which, when taken 
were supposed to cause blindness, madi 
&c. ; others infected by touch ; sue 
garment sent by Medea to Creusa, pn 
cundum artem ; and others operated 
sons at a distance. Pbarmaca sot 
employed as antidotes against these m. 
compositions : thus the herb raoly 
Ulysses from the magical influence 
The laurel, the rhamnus, the flea-bane, t 
stone, were used for similar purpoi 
Potter's Gnec. Ant. 

PHARMACI, in antiquity, were tw 
who were employed in the lustration oi 
tion of cities. Some say they were l 
but others maintain that a man to rep 
males, and a woman to represent thi 
performed this oflice. They performei 
and wore figs about their necks called 
those of the man were blackish, and th 
woman white. Figs were an emblem c 
PHARMACITIS. See Ampelites 
chemical art, which treats of the prep 
medicines. It is so named by way of c 
from Spagarico-chemia, a s-pecies of 
wholly employed about the transmutati 
tals by the philosopher's stone. 

PHAR\lACOP(EIA, (from Greek 
remedy, and irouiv to make), means a t 
scribing the preparations of medicines, 
uses, manner of application, &c. We 
rious pharmacopoeias, as those of 1 
Quercetan, Zwelfer, Charas, Bates, Sa 
mery, Lewis, &c. 'The latest and most 
are the Eldinburgh and London disp< 

an apothecary ; or a person who pre 
sells medicines. See Apothecary. 
is seldom used but by way of ridici 
from Greek fapiiatov and ruXnv to s 
Horace, Satire 2, lib. i. ver. i. 

PHAKMACUM. Greek ^/uuw 
dicament or medicine ; whether of a s 
poisonous I uality 



-ECTIC, adj. "j Gr. ^pjumv- 

i'ticaL, I nto(. fafiiattv, 

L'octsT, ■>.(. I and Xiyo 1 fap^a- 
'l4, I cov and irouw 

^OUST, I (fr.pharmacopir) 

J ^apfiaxov and 
•■> (Ff. pAarmafifj. All from faf- 
Pbarmaceutic and pharma- 
[ to the knowledge or prepara- 
pharmacologi^t, one who 
t or medjcines : pharmacopoeia, 
r m buok containing rules for mak- 
ling medicines: pliarinacopolist, 
I Ikem : pharmacy, tbe art or prac- 
j medicine). See below. 
I|addas weighs with watchful eye, 
^fit ia mpions jAarmacij, Garth. 

Mtlla I* tocommenderl by the jiharmaeolo- 
I thMiihtnt ai>d coDjilutiDalor of broken 
Woodmird on FouUt. 


juer m»j be defined the art of pre- 
■MaM^ compounding, and prejerv- 
I Mbrtuces which are employed in 

tr«at of it usually commence 

bjr engaging in tbe considera- 

l phnciplea. Thus the table of 

Died by one of the most mo- 

fwiiten on the science in question 

*4f the more general agents influ- 

phnii irtuttcal combinations, including 

mioo ; a. attraction of agi^regation ; b. 

klaHnction or affinity ; 2. Repulsion. 

I by which it is produced : caloric, 

ilectncily, and galvanism. 

•-Of the constitution and combinations 

Mneca. 1. Uf solids. 2. Uf 6uids. 

li rifaiui fubslaoces or gases. 

L— Of pharruaceutical operations, and 

^^ ■' of the apparatus. 

of Dr. Tliomson is exceed- 
ind calculated to convey just 
M Dliociples of the science; but, a.i 
Pto oT the two first sections have been 
i odcr the bead of Chemistry, we 
Mvltn to that article, and proceed di- 
ht men immediate objects of pharma- 
tatmeei vii. that of effecting changes 
laUkiwl in medicinal substances which 
liiDpIc by the hand of nature. 

operations may be said to be 
or chemical ; the first apply- 
of mode ; the second effecting 
Thus pulverisation, Iritu- 
gnnoliition, are instances of 
(fifision of bodies; while sifting, 
, are modes of mechaiiical s<!pa- 
f dHir pHU ; the former being the ap- 
rf • power or powers to overcome the 
fc«e» oy which the particles of bodies 
~ ' the bodies still retaining their 

identity as to quantity, the latter consisting of 
modes of taking one portion of a mass bom 

The chemical changes effected in substances 
by pharmaceutical processes are arranged in 
three classes; 1. Operations which produce 
changes by a separation of their constituent 
parts without any manifest decomposition. (It 
13 sometimes diSicult to say where mechanical 
change ceases and chemical change commences, 
and it is in this link of combination between fur- 
mative and essential change that the operations 
in this first division are to be arranged.) 2. 
Operations in which bodies acting upon each 
other produce obvious decomposition, or essen- 
tially change the nature of such bodies. 3. 
Operations in which combinations of bodies with 
oxygen are effected by means of augmented tem- 

Mecraxical Operations. 

1. Pulveriiation. — This consists in reducing 
substances to powder by beating, or forcibly 
overcoming tlie aggregative attraction by which 
the particles of bodies cohere. It is usually per- 
formed in mortars, which are made of various 
malenals according to tlie substances acted upon, 
for in some cases the materials of tbe mortar 
would enter into chemical combination with the 
matter employed, and thus the prooess would be 
interfered with. Mortars are principally made 
of marble, iron, brasx, glass, porcelain, oi 
Wedgewood's ware. Of whatever materials 
mortars are made, they should be internally at 
bottom of the form of a hollow hemisphere, and 
their sides should have such a degree of inclina- 
tion as to make the substances fall back to the 
bottom every time llie pestle is lifted. The ope- 
ration, however, is retarded when too great a por- 
tion of the ingredients falls under the pestle ; 
hence a large quantity of any substance should 
not be put into the mortar at a lime, and th« 
finer parts should from time to time be removed. 

\°egetable matters require to be dried before 
they can be pulverised ; and woods, roots, and 
barks should be previously cut, chipped, or 
rasped. When roots are very fibrous, as those 
of ginger for example, it is advisable to cut them 
diagonally, which prevents the powder from being 
full of hair-like filaments. Hesins, and gum 
resins, which soften in a moderate temperature, 
or in warm weather, should be powdered m cold 
weather, and only gently beaten to prevent them 
from running into a paste instead of forming r 
powder ; and when the powdered substance is 
intended to be dissolved in any menstruum ex- 
cept a pure alkali, the pulverisation is much 
facilitated by mixing them with a portion of 
clean well washed white sand. The pulverisa- 
tion of camphor is assisted by the addition of a 
few drops of alcohol ; sugar is the best addition 
to aromatic oily substances as nutmegs, mace, 
&c. ; and to the emulsive seeds some dry pow- 
der must b« added, without which ttiey cannot 



be reduced to powder. Metals which are 
scarcely brittle enough to be powdered, and yet 
at* too soft to be tiled, u zinc for instance, ' may 
be powdered while hot in a heated iron mortar ; 
or metals may be rendered brittle by alloyinj 
them with a small quantity of mercury ; but as 
metals are not required to be reduced to the state 
of very fine powder for pharmaceutical pur- 
poses, those processes are seldom performed.' 

Trituration as to elTect is the lamc as puWeri- 
ration by heating ; it is produced by a routory 
notion of the pestle, or upon a lari;e scale by 
rollers. Dr. Thomson remarks thai the fine 
powder> kept in tlie shops aie generally ground 
in this manner ; but there appears to be an error 
In reducing vegetable matters to the state of im- 
palpable powder; for in this state, both during 
the process- of grinding and afterwards, the air 
•nd light act powerfully upon them, and produce 
chan7es which, although they are nut well under- 
stood, yet appear to alter the medicinal virtues 
of the substances. 

lA^vigatton is in fact trituration assisted by the 
addition of a fluid, which does not act chemi- 
cally, or as a solvent, upon the material. This 
process is usually performed upon a Hat stone, 
■nd the rubbing is elTected by a muller of the 
same material with the stone. tUrths are thus 
prepared for pharmaceutical purposes, and also 
some of the metals. Water or spirits of wine, 
or some unctuous material, are usually employed 
in letigation, and the substances used in the 
operaiioQ are for the most part previously pul- 

Granulation is used for the mechanical diri- 
sion of some of the metals. The substance is 
melted or beaten into tine leaves, and then stirred 
briskly until it cools; or it is poured in its melt- 
ed state into water, and <tirred or ai:itated till 
it rmds. The process is calle»l granulation, on 
account of the nieiillic particles being separated 
by it in the form of small grains. 

Rasping and filing scarcely need be men- 
tioned as modes of dividing substances. 

Sifting consists in separating the finer (wra 
the coarser parts of substances, by causing the 
former to pass through apertures in sieves formed 
of iron wire, hair cloth, or gauie. For very 
light and valuable powders it is necessary to 
employ close sieves, otlierwise a great deal of the 
matter would be lost in the sKilation. 

(f'aiAin^' or tlutruitum cuniists in agitating 
the material in a fluid which do€5 not act upon 
it as a solvent, b»it merely suspends it. The 
liquor containing thus the finer particles of the 
malprtnl is poured off from the seiliment, and 
suffered to remain at rest fur some time, when 
these fine and washed particlM gradually settle, 
ami the supernatant water is poured olT, or drawn 
from the material by a syphon. 

Filtraliim is a species of fluid sifting ; filters 
are V'npnllv made of fine rhrse rtaiinel,<»r linen, 
'" '|>»r, called filtering pap«r. When 

I' .c it is usual to form thein into a 

ii.i).. ..1 111;. ' nd this bag from a h<Kip 

or frame. V\ ' . employed it is doiiblnl 

up in the nh.i,.. ,.; ^ <.une, and in.ierird into a 
funnel ; it is often requisite to introduce glaxs 
rods between th« paper and the funnel, lu otditr 

to prevent the sides of the paper 
fromlieing so closely in contact as 
with the percolation. When very ac 
such as the strong acids and alkalis, 
tration, the glass funnel that is ei 
partly filled with powdered quart] 
times sand placed over this, so an 
coarser materials shall be at the 
funnel, and the finer on the surface, 
stance to be filtered is poured on the 
the sand slowly, which it passes ihn ~ 
the lower substrata, and thus arc i" 
of the liquor left behind. 

Esprcuum is a species of filtratioai: 
this la>t case force is employed. £xn 
principally employed to obtain the juicmj 
vegetables, and tlie unctuous vegi l;4hle ( 
material is first beaten or bruiseil, then i 
in a bag, not completely filled, and sub 
pressure between the plates of a sen 
riie pressure should be applied L-Tadualll 

Vegetables treated in this manner ou 
perfectly fresh ; and they should for 
part be subjected to the pressure ima 
upon being bruised, for the bruising < 
them to ferment. But subacid fruits rii 
juice, and of a better quality, when ll 
mitted to stand a few days in a 
earthen vessel previous to piessure. 5 
when the vegetable matter to be expn 
very juicy, the addition of a little watet I 
sanr. It is proper to peel oranges an<f 
before they are presied. in order to pn 
essential oil of the rind fiom miiin 
expressed juice. I'or unctuous i 
are used in expression, and the 
may be previously subjected in a 
steam of hot water. 

Detpumatitm is employed in the 
fluids being so thick and clammy as i 
with facility through a filter. The 
heated, and thus throws up a scum, »h 
be carefully removed ; or more l 
of eggs are em ployed in the process of I 
tion ; this entangles the impurities of 
and rises up with tliem to the »ur£ice. 
case of clarifying spirituous liquors istogla 
be employed, for the process which co 
in the spirit without the assistance of heal,' 
forms a scum which dev>ends to thr 
the vessel, and carries the impurities ' 

' Ilesides the above methods of ni 
sepaiating the parts of substances fn'< 
llier, fluids of different s^iecific — :■ 
together, are separalwi by meanv 
funnel. It i> chiefly used fm - , 
eswntial oils from the water with wh 
entangled dining ibeir dislillntiop. 
is first stopped at ihe bottom, m 
the mixed fluids, the heaviest d 
subsides into the narrow pail In tuw 
■he cork at the bottom is taki-n i" 
stopper above a little looseiKd, it (!"• 
which menus the lichter is easily ' 
a separate state. ."^ 
heavier, otitert lighi' 
be thus «'■ • ' •■ 

The ; 
and in ui...; ;. , » u.^ 



Attmtej w« (hall be principally 

puUieation of that aathor. 

M which we have above apoken, 

boUing an intermediate place 

ivc and absolutely enenlial 

cftcted by 1s(, Caloric, indticin;; 

ion, evaporation, exsiccalioii, 

icatioa, dephlegination, subli- 

Wtler, and other fluids, causing 

maceration, digestion, infu- 

tion ; 3d, Uy other chenii- 


Liquefaction. — This term 

operation by which certain 

to a moderate heat, are 

ing through several in- 

■ .i ftu f M . Fat, lard, waji, 

ether similar bodies, undergo 

is therefore employed in 

the combination of these 

of ointment. The best 

ig (he process of liquefaction 

noir liquefaction in the sudden 
solid to the fluid state, which 
ich are liable to it suffer on ex- 
T1>ere are no intermediate states 
the fusible body, when heated 
point, immediately assumes the 
point diflers very cousiderahly 
but in general simple sub- 
ibte than compounds ; and 
cannot be fused with- 
ime other substances to pro- 
in. Thes« are gCDerally saline 
drnominaied flaxes. Fusion is 
in crucibles, the best of which 
pure clay or potter's earth. 
Of various forms, three cornered, 
ih covers, 
also made of cast-iron, of fine 
gf plalina. The first, however, are 
I aline substances are melted in 
made r«d hot in a current of 
to mftr oxidation ; but in other 
' ve dunble, and can sustain sud- 
tni of hiral and cold without craclc- 
<■ !lic crucibles combine 

*- 1 necessary for this set 

; poilicularly those of platina : 
', we too expensive for ordinary 

■ it tfic dissipation of a liquid by 
Mt Mil u employed in pharmacy 
Ih the view of obtaining in a sepa- 

Sftxtd substance which may be 
•■ttf or some other I'vaporable 
I, hf exposine an aqueous solution 
degree of heal, the caloric 
tea with the water renders it vola- 
il in the form of an elastic 
H; while the particles of the salt, 
M auuir to each other, and within 
of tJMir mutual attraction, reunite, 
ii oktaincd in its concrete state. In 
tnfoatiOD the air is the principal 
fcwf Boo being independent on 
Mk vr iBortMcd lemperntnre It is 
nixf tel ibc p n e a t of evaporation 

is only had recourse .o when tlie part of the body 
which is thus dissipated is of little value; when 
a solid is to be separated from a more valuable 
fluid, such as alcohol, distillation and not eva- 
poration is employed. 

Evaporating dishes are made of different ma- 
terials ; the best are those of biscuit porcelain 
made by VVedgewood, When glass or earthen- 
ware dishes are employed the heat is best applied 
through the medium of sand ; or, if a still more 
moderate heat be necessary, by means of boiling 
water over whith ihe evaporating dish should be 
placed. The first is named a sand-bath; the 
second a water-bath. Evaporating dishes m the 
general way should be flat-bottomcS and shallow, 
so as to expose a large surface to the action of 
the aj^plied beat 

£riicca<i(>n. is a variety of evaporation. It ii 
generally employed for depriving salts of their 
water of crystallisation. The bodies to be exsic- 
cated are heated in an iron ladle or pot, and un- 
dergo first what is called the watery fusion, that 
is, are heated and dissolved in their own fluid ; 
this fluid, by continuing the process, is evaporat- 
ed, and the body is left in the form of a dry 
mass. When the substances to be exsiccated 
are liable to decomposntion in a temtierature 
above 312°, as is the case with some of the com- 
pound oxides, the process roust be conducted 
by the heat of a water-bath. 

DittUlatioa is also a species of evaporation, 
differing from it only in this, that the vapor of 
volatile matter, instead of being dissipated and 
lost in the air, is collected and condensed in 
close vessels. Some of the vessels used in this 
process will be found in the plates appended to 
the article Chemistby. The simplest is the re- • 
tort and receiver. The common still is a well 
known apparatus. It consists of two parts, the 
boiler, and the head or capital. The boiler, 
which is the part to which the fire is applied and 
contains the naatcnals, is. of a cylindrical shape, 
and may be sunk in a furnace or immersed in a 
water-bath when the temperature requires to be 
nicely regulated. The head or capital is a large 
hollow globe, the upper part of which is drawn 
out into a tapering pipe bent to a curve or arch, 
and terminating in the serpentine or worm. 
These parts are generally made of copper ; but 
the worm is a long pewter pipe of a decreasing 
diameter which winds in a spiral direction 
obliquely through a deep tub filled with cold 
water. The body, head, and worm require to be 
luted together; but in general slips of paper 
dipped in flour, paste, or pieces of wet bladuer, 
are sufticienl for this purpose. In this apparatus 
the vapors are raised into the head, whence they 
pass into the worm, where they are condensed 
and issue in drops from the lower end of the 
pipe. By degrees the water in the refrigeratory 
tecomes warmed and requires to be renewed, 
and thence the necessity of the tube being fur- 
nished with a stop-cock, by which the heated 
water may be drawn off without disturbing the 
apparatus. As in this species of distillation the 
vapor ascends before it is condensed, it is named 
distillation per ascensum. The distillation bv 
the retort or cucurbit is named disiillation per 

I i 



In mmr cases, aJ id llie distillntion of several 
essetilial oils, Uie vapor, instead of passing late- 
rally or ascending, is forced to descead. To 
produce tins effect a plate of tinned iron is fixed 
within any convenient vessel so as to leave a space 
beneath it ; and, the materials to be distitlea be- 
ing laid upon this, they are covered by another 
plate, accurately fitted to the sides of thv vessel, 
and strong enough to support the fuel which is 
burnt U|>on it. By this means the volatilised 
matter of the materials under the fire is forced 
into the lower cavity of the vessel and there con- 
densed. I'his mode of distillation is denominated 
dislillnlion per descensum. For an account of 
Wculfe'it appanlus, and its modifications, see 
pliles of Chemistrv. 

Rtctijicatian is the repealed distillation of any 
product obtained by distillation, when it is not 
jierfectly pure. This second operation is carried 
on at a lower temperature, so that the more vo- 
latile parts only are raised and pass over into the 
receiver, leaving the impurities behind. When 
the fluid is simply rendered stronger, as in the 
case of alcohol, by bringing over the spirit and 
leaving beiiiod the superfluous water, the opera- 
tion is named dcphlegmation, or coticenlnuion. 
When tlie liquid is distdled off" fmm any sub- 
stance tlie process is called abstraction ; and co- 
liobation if the product be redistilled from the 
same materials, or from a fresh parcel of the same 

Siihliination is a species of distillation in which 
the product of volatilisation is condensed in a 
solid form ; but, as this condensation takrs place 
at a higher temperature tlian that of watery va- 
por, a much more simple apparatus is required. 
, Tlie process is conducted sometimes in a cruci- 
ble, with a cone of paper or another crucible in- 
verted over it, in which the product is condensed ; 
and, as in this case it is light and spon;;y, it was 
formerly denominated flowers, For other mat- 
ters which are less voUtile a cucurbit and capiul, 
or a flask and phial, are employed, and sunk 
about two-thirds in a sund-lkiih. In these cases 
the product is a solid, and is denominated a sub- 


Siilution. — For an account of the laws and 
circumstances of this process, see the article 


Liriviatitm. — VMien a naline body consists of 
both soluble and insoluble ingrodicnts, the solv- 
ent of the former, acting upi^iii the salt, pro<luccs 
lixivialion, which process, whin conducted on a 
fj^t scale, IS generally performed m Urge tubs 
or vats huviug a hole near the bottom containing 
a wooden spigot and faucet. A layer of straw ia 
placed at the bottom of the tub, over which the 
tnlnunce i< spread, and covered by a clolli ; af- 
ter which hot or cold water, according as tlie salt 
is more or less soluble, is poured on. The water, 
winch jKKiii takes up some of the soluble parts of 
the ulinr body, is after a little whilv drawn ofl° 
I'v ''■" -••■■• ■ ...) n (xe»}\ portion of water is 
»" Hid drawn ofl^ until the whole 

ol ( r i< 4liMol»ed. The utraw in 

11' ' ' .. I tiller, .ind the cloth pru- 

tt'^ ' ixiiii making a hollow lu the in- 

gredients when it is poured on, by 
might escajie witliout acting on the wh 

In smaller operations lixivialion may I 
ducted in glass matrasses, and the lie, i 
the name given to the solution, filtered 
paper in a glass funnel. 

By maceration soluble portions of { 
chiefly of a vegetable nature, are obtain 
lution ; ttiese substances being immertetl J 
water or in spirituous fluids for a suff 
of time. It IS frequently employed i 
tion for infusion and decoction, wbicbl 
rendered more effective by the previoui i 
tion of the materials. 

Digestion iii similar to maceration, 
in this last case the power of the fluid is i 
by a gentle heat. It is usually perfor 
glass matrass, and the evaporation of i ' 
impeded by slopping the mouth of the I 
slightly with a plug of low, or tying 
piece of wet bladder perforated with sa 
When the menstruum is valuable, as alc 
instance, anotlier matrass with a smaUerl 
may be inverted over the former and Ibe jl 
secured by a piece of wet bladder ; or, i 
perhaps preferable, a lung open glass ' 
be luted to the mouth of the matrass ' 
tains the materials. By these meaosl 
the liquor which is resolved into 
heat is condensi'<l and conveyed 
the materials. Tlie matrass may be ^ 
heated by a common fire, or a lamp, a | 
bath, or a sand-bath ; and, when eilliet 
latter is used, the malrass should not I 
deeper in the water or the sand than the ] 
that IS filled. T|ie process has been dea 
ed circulation, when the condensed Tap 
retumeil ujion the ingredients. 

Infiaion is intended chiefly to extract ^ 
lalile and aromatic principle of 
which would be dissipated by decoctioal 
gcslion ; and abo thi>se parts of 
which are more readily soluble in water, as I 
sugar, extract, tannin, the wills and part 
resin from tlie insoluble parts. The 
poured boiling hot on tlic materials lAn 
reduced to a coarse nowiler, and ke 
closely covered vessel till tliey are cold, i 
infusion or liquor is decanted off for usf. 
sions are sometimes eflcctcd with cold 
but for the most pari tliese though more { 
are weaker than the infusions by hext. 

Decoctions or Ixiilini;, is em|iloycd ' 
vantage to extract the mucilaginous 
plaiit^as well as their bitlemess and i«v 
vegetable pnnciples which do nut easily \ 
mere infusion. It is generally pcrf 
slightly covered vessels ; but when ihe 
uin IS valuable, a* alcohol for insUncc, a | 
and receiver, or the common still may 
in ilie body of which the decoction is pti 
while the va|ior5, which olherwise would I 
are condcnst-d and preserved. 

hlilraclwn. — If the liquor obtained by] 
lufusmn or decoction be subjected to era 
the watery part is di.wiiiatcd, and the [i»it 
is extracted by it is obtained in the oolidl 
and IS denominated au cxtnicL It is 


I ttnaet of tome materials will nol 
'. et the principles of those me- 
ets BT Cbsmical Acexts. 
I — Thb it the conTprsion of a 
o( more or levi consistency. 
■plojred to effect this ate increase 
M.tlcohol, acids, and runnets. The 
l^«> arise from a new arrangement of 
'icwj by the affinity exerted be- 
I parudes contained in the fluid 
"—■ ; substance. 

BCtp BT THE Chemical Action 
or Bodies on akother. 

-This implies the separation 
para of bodie^i from one an- 
ivioX in some cases hy heal so 
> th( aifinity of agi:regalion. Klec- 
rClltuiiun may also effect decomposi- 
■ M Ike greater number of instances it 
Mk tt a tupcrior affinity that holds the 
B *f lfa> substance about to be decom- 
, and produces new com|K>unds. 
I operations decom[>osition is 
I it is of the utmost importance 
I of medicine to be acquainted 
I circumstances. 

-This differs from mere solution 
trihr acconi{>anied by some 
•. of the dissolved body. In 
C is caused by the process, 
tiab becomin;; extracted in a 
The making a common saline 

! of dissolution. 
-Hetc also decom|>ositioa oc- 
I U» subataace extricated is tlirown 
MbI of ochennae separating itself. The 
Ml toprodneethis separation is called 
' the separated substance the 
for tlie prescriber to 
( substances which, when 
produce precipitation, other- 
,be foiled in attempting the 
atible principles. The 
^prceipitants is extracted by 
I, from the System of Chcmis- 
I Thomson; all the substances 
kfteiaucy being omitted : — 

Tartaric acid. 

Fixed alkalies. 

Sulphuric acid, sulphates. 
Oxalic acid, oxalates. 
Phosphoric acid, phos- 
phate of soda (not direct). 



Ammonia, hydro-sulphii- 
ret of potassa. 

Muriate of soda. 

Muriate of soila. 


Succinate of soda, benzo- 

aie of 9o<lii. 
Solpfaueof soda. 


. Acids. 




alkaline carbonates ? 
Water, hyUro-sulphutet 

of potussa. 
Nitrate of lead. 

Muriate of barytes. 
Muriate of an alkaline 

Boracic Sulphuric acid. 

Nitric . 

Acetic . 

Benzoic Muriatic acid. 

Succinic . Sulphate of iron. 

Oxalic Muriate of lime. 

Tartaric . Polassa. 

Citric . AceUle of lime. 

In some cases where decoin[>osition is effected 
by the addition of another substance, the sepa- 
rated body is not precipitated, but rises to the 
surface, aud is tlience dtuiominated a cream : 
thus, by the addition of any acid to a solution of 
soap, the alkali unites with the acid, while the 
oil IS separated aud swims on the surface of the 

Crj/stallUaiion. — Sec Chemistbt. 

Fermentation. — For an account of those 
changes which vegetable substances undergo 
when separated from tlie living plant, and placed 
under certain circumstances so as to act upon 
one another ; and for the different compounds 
and principles which are severally the results of 
the vinous, acetous, and putrefactive fermenta- 
tions, whether naturally occurring or artiticially 
produced, se« also the article Cukmisihy. 

Having thus premised an accouut of tlie ge- 
neral principles of pliarmaceutic science, with 
its application .to medicinal puqjoses, we now 
proceed to detail the several processes ordered 
in the London and Edinburgh Phannaco{xiias ; 
and in this, the main part of the present article, we 
shall follow the plan adopted by Dr. A. T. Tliom- 
son, giving first tlie translations of the directions 
ordered by the colleges, and then some few re- 
marks on the qualities of tlie composition. In 
respect to that portion of the treatise which re- 
lates to the incompatibility of one substance 
with anotlier, Dr. fliomson will be wholly our 
guide. It should, however, be premised tliat 
chemical niceties may in some few instances suc- 
cumb before actual observations on the effects of 

We do not include the articles of the Dublin 
Phannacop<pia, fearing too great extension of 
the paper; and we may here take occasion to 
say Uiat it is much to be lamented that one ge- 
neral prescription is not adopted throughout the 
whole of the united kingdom. In an ap|>endix, 
however, will be found some of tlie more recent 
remedies, principally of the French school, which 
the Dublin college ha.' recently adoDted. 

In tlie article CiiEMisTiiY, and under the word 
Acid, will be found remarks on the principle 
of acidification and the composition of acids. It 
will there he seen that all acids having been sup- 
posed compounds of oxygen with certain bases, 
the name of die particular acid was taken (roui 

the base, and the terminations ic and out were 
(MoployeiJ to indicate the degree of oxidation, or 
ratlier of acidification ; thus sulphur combined 
with a particular mea<iure of oxygen was named 
sulphureous acid, with a (greater quantity, or to 
asaturatini; point, sulphuric. The recent changes 
which chemistry has undergone hare materially 
modified these the Lavoisierean principles of 
com|>osiuon and nomenclature ; but they are to 
a certain extent correct, and hare beeu received 
by the framers of the Pharmacopwias. 

In the following account of the acids, the 
alpltabetical arrangement will be adopted accord- 
ing to the London Pharniacopoia ; but it may 
be right in the first place to qopy Dr.l'hom.son s 
table of arrangement, according to Uieir radicals 
or bases :— 

1. Acids composed or a simple radical 


Sulphur 1. Sulphuric acid. 

A ^_ 12. Ni»Toug acid. 

^"•^ • -J 3. Nitric acid. 
. Acids composkd of a compoukd Radi* ■ 
cal axd (jxyce*. 

r 1. Acetic acid. 

Carbon and hydrogen 5 ^- ^.""^ =^"^. 
• J ~o ^ 3. Uetixoic acid. 

(.4. Succinic acid. 

3. Acids composed or a simple kaoical 

axd Chlorine. 

Hydrogen . 1. Muriatic acid. 

Acidum acclicttm Jitutum. London. — Diluted 
acetic acid. 

Let dilute acetic acid be distilled from a glass 
retort Into a glass recaiver kegt cool ; let the 
first pint be thrown i^way, and preserrc the six 
succeeding pints. 

Acidum ac€titvm lenue. Edinburgh.— Weak 
acetic acid. 

Distil eight pounds of vinegar ia a glass ves«el 
with a gentle heat. Tlirow away the pound 
which first comes orer; and the five pounds 
which follow will be the weak acetic acid. Tho 
distillation may be continued so long as a color- 
lesi acid comes over; but this, bein^ too much 
burnt and unfit for internal use, may be mixed 
with the pound that first comes over, and kept 
for various chemical purposes. 

Of the appelUtions xiven to this preparation 
Dr. Tli..".^..ri . ,,r..irl. M that of the FAiinburich 
Coll nahle one; the pre- 

par.ii: .1 td in a more diluted 

state than that m which it exists in vinegar, hut 
purer, Ix-'iiig frc^d in a great dcvrree from the 
mucilage, extractive, supertartrateof [Hitana, and 
other extraneous matters which vinegar coDtainx. 

Qualilirt. — Distilled vinegar ought tu be color- 
Ihs and transparent, ainl of a specific gravity 
from 1-007 U) I 0095. Its u*w n pungent, and 
purely acid. It is sometimes adulterated with 
sulphuric acid: '■"' '*"' "l"ii<p.iiion may b« 
Jctected by a y- produced when 

«:oUl« of 'liar}i> "M.-M. When 

leid uk] tin arti the oduli . tlie 

addition of a solution of - -lien 

ttuows down a dark-colon. 1 ,■ .^ i . .i. , if cor>- 
|Wr b*v« bWB cnploycd in i .. .. i ,. . 1 1 raliou, llic 


acid will become blue by being 
with ammonia. 

Medical properties. — It "is fitter for [ 
tical purposes than common vinegar, i 
of its greater purity, and from not beii 
decomposition. Its medical u<«s : 

Acidum octticwn Jortt. Edinfa 
acetic acid. 

Take of sulphate of irtm dried 
superacetate of lead ten ounces. Ill 
them togetlier, put them into a retoni 
in a sand-bath with a moderate heat,! 
any acid comes over. 

Tliis acid differs from distilled rine| 
being stronger and purer. Acetic aci 
be prepared by applying a decomposiq 
ture to the metallic acetates, which w| 
ordered to be done by the London I 
by mixing the sulphuric acid with I 
or by mixing the acetates and sulphaU 

Qualiliet. — Acetic acid is very pii^ 
taste ; it has a grateful odor ; it is Tea 
its specific gravity is 1-063. It u 
water in any proportion ; and, diiria| 
ture, heal is evolved. 

Medical propcrlic*. — It is rubefeci 
applied to the skin, and may be eiMJ 
produce speedy vesication; but it is 
used for correcting impurities in the 
a refreshing scent in cases of fiuni 
teric aifectioD. 

Acidum bauaicvm. London. — ', 
Take of benzoin one pound ; put it 
vessel placed in a sand-bath, and sul 
heat of 300° grailually augmented; 
nothing more ascends : press the 
between bibulous paper, that the 
*epai«ted ; then tublimc again with 
raised above 400°. 

Edinburgh. — ^Take of benzoin 
ounces, fnit>carboiiate of soda eight 
sixteen pounds. Triturate Uie 
sutK-arbunate : then boil them in 
an hour, constantly aeilaiing t 
Kepeat the boiling with other six 
water, .ind strain, Mix the strained li 
evaporate tlieni tu two pounds, 
and drop into it diluted sulphuric 
a.s any precipitation is produced. 

Dissolve the precipitated benzoic 
boiling water ; strain the solution, whi 
through linen, and set it aside to i 
Wash the crystals with cold water j 
and preserve them. 

Quulititt. — Benxiic arid possensw 
able taste, rather pungent, and a ffagi 
It appears in the form of feathery Hoed 
tals, (juitc white, and of a oilky chad 
specific gravity is 0-6ir. When heal 
out a strong suffocating vaixir. It is 
twenty-four times its weight of boil 
Cold alcohol takes about one half i 
boiling alcohol its own weight. 

Meilu-at prtiprrtiei. — Not much iiaei 
cine, allhoiii'li r.i.n.i-.l m thr pharn 
Its medicii i« iodevd questi 

fonns an n i the comrxnind 

cnniphor of llit- Iximlim, and of the kl 
tincture of opium of tlic Edinburgh C 




London. — Citric acid. 
I jute* » pint ; prepared chalk an 
1 to saturate tiie juice; diluted 
» fluid ounces. Add (he chalk 
^dW lemon juice heated, and mix 
r«ff the liquor. Wash the citrate 
IcaHiai in repeated quantities of 
I dry it. Pour on (he dried 
rioted snlphuric acid, and boil for 
dioi »lriiin the liquor through n 
Fby stromt pressure, and filler it 
ft. ETspoiate the filtered liquor 
liWil, so that crystals may form in 
that tlie cryit;»I<i may he ob- 
«■"? be dissolved in water a 
T. tillered each time, and 
y roc « M II is obvious enough that the 
' IM riuUc unites with the citric acid 
miW (oTioo juice, and forms an insolu- 
llerf liTO". which is decomposed by the 
ittr the citric acid free. 

ho — laU should be white and 

(Bl ; ttiev »:k without smell, but are of 
t Aup taste. Tliey are soluble in water. 
Wieniled with tartaric acid, the adultera- 
fb* ieiected by addition to the solution 
utulphate, or muriate of potassa, 
carbonate of polassa, when, 
id be present, an insoluble 
of potassa will appear in small 
sliould citrate of lime still re- 
klW crystab, it is detected by di.<i- 
in water, saturating the solution 
and aildin^ to it some oxalate of 
will prtcipitate the lime. If 
''pelasia b« present, it will be di<<- 
solutioD yielding; a precipitate 
this being insoluble in 

— The same as lemon 

rrticulars being superior, in 
wants the freshness of the 
from the fruit, but it is much 
at for nlemporaneous use than 
jaice. It is said to equal this 

Rn dissolved in eight waters, 
half of the crystals to i pint 
(lortion that Dr. Thomson 
on of lemon juice, and we 
:>tlowing table, showing the 
cid required tu decompose 
: allulinc salts mentioned 

Uii.isc Sti-n. 

■ta of aoda . . . 

bonate of nda . . 

MM tl pota«M . . 
I of potassa 
) of ammonia 

CiTBic Acid. 

gr. X. 
gr. xij. 
gr. XT. 
gr. xviij. 
gr. xxvj. 

I of o«e tcruple in a pint of water, 
id Willi Mgar that has been rubbed on 
Ma perl, fonns a grateful refrigerant 
t, nMBlMliin lemonade, and which is 

equally useful io febrile and inflammatory com 

Aculum muriadcum. I^ndon. — Muriatic acid. 

Take of dried muriate of soda two pounds, 
sulphuric acid twenty ounces by weight, distilled 
water a puit and a half. First mix the acid with 
half a pint of the water in a glass retort, and add 
the muriate of soda after the mixture is cold. 
Pour the rest of the water into the receiver ; ihen 
bavin? fitted on the retort placed in a sand batli, 
distil the niuhatic acid over into this water with 
the heat gradually raised to redness. 

The specific gravity of this acid is 1-160, and 
100 grains of it arc saturated by 124 grains of 
the subcarbonate nf soda in crystals. 

Edinburgh — Take of muriate of soda which 
has been previously exposed to a red heat, sul- 
pliutic acid and water of each two pounds. Pour 
the acid mixed with eight ounces of the water 
and cooled upon the muriate of soda in a glass 
retort, to which a receiver is to be adapted con- 
laining the remainder of the water ; then distil 
from a sand-bath with a moderate fire. In a short 
time the vessels may be luted together, and the 
distillation continued to dryness. The specific 
gravity of this acid is 1-170. 

' These processes were formerly explained by 
saying that the decomposition of the muriate of 
soda is affected by the superior aBinily of sul- 
phuric acid for soda, aided by the affinity of the 
muriatic acid fur soda being weakened by the 
heat, which fjvors its tendency to assume the 
elastic form, in which slate it passes over into 
the receiver, and is there condensed by the 
water. But, as the doctrine of chlorine is now 
admitted, we must adopt the following explana- 
tion of Sir Humphry Davy, who regards dry 
common salt as a compound of thirty-six parts 
of chlorine and twenty-four of sodium, and con- 
sequently containing neither muriatic acid nor 
soua. In the processes of the Pharmacopoeias, 
therefore, for obtaining muri;ilic acid, the water 
of the sulphuric acid is decomposed, its oxygen 
unites to the sodium, and forms soda, which, 
combining with the sulphuric acid, produces a 
sulphate of soda; while the hydrogen of the de- 
composed water combines with the chlorine and 
forms hydrochloric acid, or muriatic acid gas : a 
gaseous fluid consisting of equal volumes of hy- 
drogen and chlorine, or by weight, of hydrogen 
2-7, chlorine 973, in 100 parts, which dissolving 
in the water contained in the receiver constitutes 
the liquid acid. The residue of the process is 
sulphate of soda with an excess of acid ; to 
separate which, without breaking the retort, 
boiling water may be poured into the retort after 
its contents have cooled down to 212°.' See 
Clir.'niiiTiiY and Acin. 

Qua/»/i«j— The liquid acid thus obtained is 
nearly colorless, with a very caditic taste and a 
pungent odor. ' According to the new nomen- 
clature the muriatic acid of the shops is hydro- 
chloric acid, or, to retain the common name, 
hydro-muriatic acid. Tlic real acid contained 
in the liquid a«id is a compound of equal vo- 
lumes of chlorine and of hydrogen. The fluid 
muriatic acid found in the shops often contains 
sulphuric acid with small portions of iron and 
sometines copper ; the first is diluted by di- 



' luting llie aciil witli five or six parti of distilled 
Witter, and adding a few dropi of muriate of 
barytej, which is precipitated white if sulphuric 
acid be present ; iron is discovered by laturatinj; 
the diluted acid with carbonate of soda, and 
adding pnissiateof potassa ; if a blue precipitate 
be fonned, it may be concluded that iron is pre- 
sent. A blue color being produced by super- 
saturating tli« acid with ammonia detects copper.' 

Medical pntpertict. — ' This acid is Ionic and 
nntiseptic. It has been elhcaciously used in 
typhus fevers, and in some cutaneous eruptions. 
It is a common and useful adjunct to gargle.i in 
tlie proportion of from f. 51s. to 3ij. in f. .V'i- of 
any ttuid in ulcerated sore throats and scarlatina 
maligna; and in a very highly diluted state, viz. 
mviij. in f. yv. of water, it has been recom- 
mended as an injection in gouorrhsea. 

Tins aciil has even been regarded as an anti- 
dote in general syphilitic afieclions ; but the ob- 
servations of Mr. Pearson have shown this 
opinion to be erroneous ; yet, by its salutacy 
enects ou the stomach and general health, it is a 
medicine capable of ameliorating the appear- 
ance of venereal ulcers, and restraining for a 
time the progress of the disease, where it (s de- 
sirable to gain a little time previously to enter- 
ing on a mercurial course. The dose is from 
tt^ X. to ni XX., in a sulGcient quantity of water, 
or in any bland 6uid. It is incompatible in 
prescriptions with alkalies, most of the earths, 
oxides, and their carbonates ; siilplmret and tar- 
trate of pntassa, tartarised antimony and iron, 
nitrite of silver,and acetate of lead . In typhus, 
and fvverj of a typhoid ty|>e, ' I have,' says the 
author » hoin we are now quoting, ' generally given 
il in the infusion of cinchona or cusparia bark. 
Dr. Paris states that he has found it a preventive 
of the generation of worms, when given after 
copious evacuations of the bowels. Largely 
diluted in any mucilaginous fluid, and sweetened, 
It is a useful remedy in calculous cases, de- 
pending on on excess of the phosphates. 

' When muriatic acid is taken as a poison it 
may be detected by its sensible qualities ; but, if 
mixed with wine or other fluids, let a portion of 
il be distilled from a small retort over a candle 
into a [ihial containing a solution of nitrate of 
silver. The precipilalion of muriale of silver, 
which is soluble in ammonia, but not in nitric 
acid, will take place if the poison contain mii- 
ruitic acid. The best antidotes if exhibited in 
lime are soap and calcined oiagnctia suspended 
in water. 

'A very important properly of muriatic acid 
in llic state ot ga.^ it the )>ower it possesses of 
neutralising putrid mutniaLi, discovered hy 
Murveau in 177.3. It is therefore used as an agent 
for destniying infection in sick rooms and nos- 
pitils disengaged by pouring sulphuric acid 
on common salt,' 'riiomsoii. See the article 


Aeidkmnilricum. LoihIod. — Ntlric acid. Take 
of Dilrate uf potassa dried, and sulphuric acid, 
Mch by wci)(ht two pounds ; mix them in a glass 
retort, and dittil the nitric acid from a saudliaih 
until red vapors me pridiiced. Tlicn, having 
itdded an ounce of dry nitialc of potassa, redistil 
Uie acid m a similar luaouer. 

The specific gravity of this tctd is \i 
grains are saturated by 2 1 2 grain s of , 
subcarbonate of soda. ^^H 

Edinburgh Take of nitrous ^H 

tity, put it into a retort ; and, bannp 
ceiver which must be kept cold, ap| 
gentle heal, until the reodest part I 
passed over, and the acid which remai 
retort,alieady almost free from color, bl 
nunc acid. j 

Aciilum nitrvaun. Edinburgh. — Nl 
Take of nitrate of potassa bruised two p^ 
phuric acid sixteen ounces. PourtMi 
the nitrate of potas!>a in a glass telon, 
from a sand-bath with a gradually inc( 
until the iron pot become of an ob«| 

The specific gravity of this acid is 1 

These processes do not altvays ensu 
solute purity of nitric ot nitrous acid, 
as the nitrate of potassa itself may nol 
free from contamination ; but the medi 
perties of the materials are not affectaj 
slight impurities. ' 

QiuUitift. — The nitrous acid of the I 
Pharmacopoia is orange-colored and ^ 
consists of^ nitrous gas in a state of I04 
nation with nitric acid and water. 

The liquid nitric acid is of an exceed 
yellow color, nearly indeed colorless, 
latilised hy heat, and light decompose 
constituents, independent of water w| 
it its fluid form, are stated to be 2S'93 I 
74-07 oxygen, in IIX) parts; or one 1 
azotic gas and two volumes and a half; 
i^s. The strongest fluid acid contaifl 
live per cent, of water, and sevtuty-fi( 

Jcidum nitricum dilutum. London./ 
nilnc acid. 

Take of nitric acid a fluid 
water nine fluid ounces. Mix. 

Acidum nitrotum dilutum. 
luted nitrous acid. 

Take of uitrous acid and of water «<{ua 
Mix, avoiding the noxious vapors. 

' These processes are intended (or 
convenient apportionment of the dose la 
bitionof this acid. In the former edilil 
London Phamiacopiria, the proporliol 
and water were equnl by weiiilil ; but I 
lion in the present edition makes a vei; 
ant difference of strength in a givea d 
the diluted acid, prepared oAer Uie fiq 
last of the above furiniilie.' 

When preparetl, according to the dij 
the London College f. ^ contains aba 
of nitric acid, of r.50O specific gravity 
saturate 1 14 grains of crystallised suli 
of soda ; while the same measure of 
acid, prepared afler the Edinburgli %n 
and the former London formulc, con 
U9t) 5 of the same acid ; a difleience «• 
lead to errors in practice ; and it Iheri 
regretted, particularly as do ic«sott 
fur the change. 

Medical prtiprrtiei. — Nilric _ 
aiitiscplic. Whfii very largely 
Ivi it forms an agreeable and viTy usefu 



ij of tlie typhoid type. In 

(dilated, it has been eflicaciously 

IB chronic hepatitis, even when 

ETTCoed, and nu also been found 
Mtainiag violent sickness in dys- 
■nd the majority of the cachexise. 
MtlKrvations of Dr. Scott, published 

S 1196, this acid excited considera- 
I a remedy for syphilis; bat after 
lnals,bj almost every practitioner 
Kia the country, its antisypbiliiic 
N Mt beca foood by any means to 
I MeMtnIi of them transmitted from 
t»»tiwniumpiiblicationsof Dr. Scott, 
Im Aown tnat be did not employ 
, htt a miiture of three parts of mu- 
lao of oitrvc. It checks for a time the 
fite diaeu*, but does not pernianent- 
i* lyvptaDis ; and, as Mr. Pearson 
»»•» * «t would by no means be war- 
mtetitute the nitrous (or nitric) acid 
nof ■etcnty for the cure of venereal 
C II H, Ibowever, in many case}, of 
ildacMig a mercurial course or prior 
MaMMMBt. when the constitution is 
■iiaidrqiute to support the effects of 
■ ty MS tonic powers it promotes 
I hndik, wid lessens the action of the 
WmtAy 00 the mouth and fauces ; yet 
fmtmd too for, it atfects the mouth and 
|i|alina. When dropsy supervenes 
riCMCMSof mercury, which is not un- 
I hafcui-dowo constitutions, this acid 
dnrf observes, given in as large doses 
mA «iU permit conjoined with di|;i- 
i JaUJ Te of the utmost benefit. We 
{ it «f ceosiderafale service, given at 
hM vitb mercury in old obstinate ul- 
r fa kn, although no venereal taint 
Myecled; and it is employed with 
imeti tiiiouUnt in the form of lotion, 
fmttmt of {. 3>i of the diluted acid to 
t, 10 febd ulcers attended with a thin 
hckariie, and in caries of the bones. 
■4 Ml tilt* country for some years past, 
IMkcco used combined with muriatic 
iW aboth (see Medicixc), and in 
fmtaeia ■ slight eicitement of the 
itita IMte in the mouth, and in other 
Mljr (he ame effects as when it is 
■By; bus the chief perceptible effect 
drnad u on the bowels, which it keeps 
Optu, Lhloled nitric acid has often 
jmi M ■ poison. It is detected by 
mlofcd spots which are observed on 
la, •■d baniU of tlie patient ; and, if 
!■ iw it, by the same color being 
ki(» •oMion of tho alimentary canal, 
I wi»br»' 19 converted into 

liaor. or " li often perfora- 

iraf IIm IKk) ran ii.' obtained, the ex- 
Miafe eolored fumes nn trailing it 
t ffiagi ii a certain test of aqua-fortis. 
tUmi4 flHiiic^ia suspended in water 

» *f ika diluted arid is from nj^x. to 
CVi.«f water, given three or four 
Wkn ned as a bath, the mixed 
I to the water, iiutil it is 

about as sour as weak vinegar. — Nitric acid, even 
when di'iuted, is incompatible in prescriptions 
with oxides, earths, alkalies, the sulphurets and 
the acetates of potassa, and of lead. It decom- 
poses the two last turned salts, and forms nitrates 
of lead and potass. We have thus been copious 
in our accounts of the acids — of the muriatic and 
nitric, — and have extracted largely from Dr. 
Thomson, for the reasons intimated above in re- 
spect to the first; and because the last(aswe have 
seen) has been proposed, and extensively and mis- 
takenly, but at the same time u.<efully, adminis- 
tered, as a counteractive of the syphilitic poison, 
and of the constitutional affections which that 
poison at different times engenders. 

Acidum $uccinicum. Edinburgh. — Succinic 

Take of powdered amber and pure land, each 
of equal parts ; mix them together and put them 
into a glass retort, of which they may fill one 
half. Having adapted a large receiver, distil 
from a sand-bath with a gradually increased heat. 
A watery liquor with a little yellow cil will first 
come over, tlien a yellow oil aud an acid salt ; 
and lastly, a reddish and black oil. Pour the li- 
quor out of the receiver, and lettbe oil be sepa- 
rated from the water. Press the acid salt col - 
lected in the neck of the retort and on the sides 
of the receiver between folds of bibulous paper, 
that it may be freed from the adhering oil ; then 
purify it by solution m hot water and crystallisa- 

Sand is ordered to be used in these prepara- 
tions, to prevent the amber which swells much 
from passing over into tlie receiver. 

Qualiliti. — When the crystals of the acid are 
pure they are white and shining; they have an 
acid taste, and are highly volatile. They are 
iiartly soluble in cold water, but more readily in 
not water, and in alcohol. The sulphuric and 
nunc acids also dissolve tliem without producing 

When succinic acid ii adulterated with tar- 
taric acid, the adulteration may be detected by 
carbonate of potass. Nitrate of silver delects 
muriate of ammonia, and the sulphate of potassa 
would be found by barytic water. 

Medical propertiei. — Very little use is at pre- 
sent made of this acid in medicine, although it 
would seem to possess stimulating and probably 
expectorant virtues. 

Aciiium tufphHrifuiH dilutum. London.^Di- 
luted sulphuric acid. 

Take of sulphuric acid a fluid ounce and a 
half, distilled water fourteen fiuid ounces and a 
half. Let the acid in mixing be gradually added 
to the water, 

Edinburgh. — ^Take of sulphuric acid one part, 
water seven parts; mix them. 

Dr. Thomson expresses bis regret that when 
the London College in the last edition of the 
Pharmacopaia altered the proportion of the acid 
and water, they did not adopt those of Edin- 
burgh and Dublin, so that there might have been 
a standard strength for the whole kingdom; at 
present one fluid ounce of the lyondon contains 
eighty grains of the strong acid, while in the 
Edinburgh and Dublin pbarmacopceias it consti 
tutes an eighth part. 



Tbe heat generated during the mixture of tlie 
acid and water 15 guarded against by the gradual 
admixture ; and the dduled acid beini; pua-r than 
the strong from the circumitance of not being 
able to hold in solution some sulphates which 
the latter contains, the Dublin College iiave very 
prn|it<rly ordered the decanting of tbe dear liquor 
ironi the sediment. 

Medical Proprrtiet. — Tonic, refrigerant, anti- 
septic, and iu some cases astringent. It it a 
very useful medicine in some chronic disorders 
of the skin; and in heemorrhagic aHecUons it it 
often highly beneficial. Dose from nt.x. to 

Acidumtulphyricumaromoticum, Edinburgh. — 
Aromatic sulphuric acid. 

Take of alcohol two pounds, sulphuric acid 
six ounces. Drop tbe acid gradually into the 
alcohol. Digtst the mixture in a covered vessel 
With a very grntle heat for three days; then add 
one ounce and a half of bruised cinnamon bark, 
and one ounce of bruised ginger root. Digest 
again in a close vessel for six days ; then biter 
through paper placed in a glass funnel. 

This seems but little more than a simple solu- 
tion of ginger and cinnamon in alcohol and sul- 
phuric acid, very little of the ethereal principle 
being generated from the admixture of the al- 
cohol and acid. 

Qualities. — The odor it aromatic, taste a grate- 
ful acid, and color rather brown. 

Medical properties. — Aromatic as well as tonic, 
and therefore especially applicable to stomach 
Affections. We should have liked to have seen 
It adopted by tlie London College, inasmuch as 
the sulphuric acid is very often highly serviceable 
in dyspeptic disorders, and the aromatic ad- 
ditions make it more applicable in these com- 

Acidam tarUirirum. London. — Tartaric acid. 

Take of supettartrate of potassa two pounds 
and a half, dintilled water three gallons, prepared 
chalk one pound, sulphuric acid one pound. 
Let the superlartrate of potassa lie boiled with 
two gallons of diMille<l water and the prepart-d 
chalk be gradually added until bubbles cease to 
be prudtic'd. Let the mixture be set apart 
that the tartrate of lime may subside; pour off 
the fluid and wash repeatedly the l.irtrate of 
lime with distilled water until it come olT taste- 
less. Then pour upon the tartrate the sulphuric 
acid diluted with a gallon of the boiling distilled 
water, and set the whole apart for twetily-foiir 
hours, occmonally stirring it. Filter ttie liquor 
itnd r«a|>ucHte it in a water-bath to obuio the 

Tilt linie in this preparation sefwi 
tarir acid from the potusu, and theti 
it up to combine with the nulphuric .^ujii. 11 .1 
little acet4t« of lead i< dropped into a >mall 


'■< fore ii i< set aside li>r 
>te will lit bioducnl if 
, iti.iiiiv mil then a little 
i<e 4dded. 
< :iMe, without 
It 1* readily 


more '*■ 

■inell, uiil 
•oluhle III «u 
ud auths. 

MnArofrr<'P>r(ir4.— UcftigcnuU; «ti«n added 

I tartcata* with aUalit* 

in sniuiion to a solution of carbonate of I 
uuo'l substitute for common soda water ttl 

Appendix to ntc Acidi. 

We shall here use the freedom of 
tile whole of what Dr. Thomson has 11 
into his valuable Dispensatory under 

' In tlie following appendix,' says 
propose to give a short account of 
winch although they have not a place ia 
the Uritish Pharmacopirins, yet ai« of 
portance ; the ooe being a remedy of 
ble efficacy in a certain class of dis>9M*,4 
the other demanding the attention oi IW 
cal practitioner from the frequent empli 
it as a poison. 

1. Acidum hydrocyanicum. Ilydi 
(Prussic) acid. — I'his acid is found in aiaaab 
getable productions, such a« the I 
pruous padus, or bird cherry ; the I' 
peach and nectarine trees, bitter aliiir.iius| 
the kernels of many fruits ; but for the pi 
of nieilicine it is artificially prepared. 

Preparation. — The bent metliod of 
hydrocyanic acid for medicinal use 1 
lowing, which was first employed by 

Mix two ounces of Prussian bli 
ounces of red precipitate of mercury, 
six ounces of water. Boil the mixisre 
minutes, constantly agitating it, when 
liquor will disappear, and tlie mass 
yellowish gray hue. Pour the whoW 
and wash the residuum with a little 
which is to be added to the filtered 
this upon an ounce and a half 
filings, and add three drachms 
phuric acid. Shukc this mixture w 
the powder subsides, pour the fluid 
and distil one-fourth pan of it over il 
luted receiver. This ii the hydroc; 
containing an admixture of a little 
ncid which is readily separated bj 
barytic water. La Plancbe 
sixth only to be distdled over, and 
rectified by means of a gentle fire over 
bonate of lime, drawing off afW 
fourths only of the one-sixtli of the 
treated, by a second distillation. Thai 
obuined of a uniform strength by 

In the above process the iron ( 
sulphuric acid, added to the solu 
from boiling the mixtiir« of I' 
red precipitate of mercury in ' 
the water, aud the reduced mercury 
with the ov»oo«pn, the base of llie 

;in(t inc cy;iric»^cn :ii-iii'g upon uit/ 
drosen of tlie d«compo«ine water ft 
cyanic vapoti, which are aMorbtd by \ 
111 tlie receiver, and constitute the hyd 

Physical ami cknnicat proptrt 
anic acid prepared in the above 1 
net u a colorlna, transpaieot 

peculiar odor not uolike that of bifl 

II is at firti bkaod aii4 nvcel to Otti 
ultiouiely iapnaw* a mnfwt t 

i it twy vobtile; and owine to this 
I ijtrilliii I if a drop of it fall upon 
fe apcdfic f<a*>ty i> 0-9'J6. 

H I m il ii °' ' ' ' 'i lemperatiire and 
|B^«e»' . irbonic ai.'id, arn- 

lewWi«4c-u ii;r>iii/|^en gaji, whjcli are 
lind leave b«)iind a carbonaceous de- 
Uietefbrv be kepi in an opaque 
It is very inflammable, bum- 
Banoe, and » soluble hutb in 
hul. According lo Oay Lussac 
■ peculiar base which he has 
D, acidified by hydrocen. Cya- 
iiwi consisting of two propor- 
I and one of nitrogen. But the 
ia medicine contains one part 
If add nlemd to by Gay Lussac, and 
liiad«hatfvf water. 
i pnptrtttt and uta. — Hydrocyanic 
^Mkea isio the stomach in ltir|:e doses 
I iaMMMaoeous and most puwerful se- 
IBaftag completely the nervous ener^ 
inibbilily of the body, and conse- 
Maagtiiaiung life; but in an animal 
1 riM action of the heart Gontinnes for 
I «A(( ibe animal has apparently ceased 
IWebaerrationof this curious fact led 
Brra, in 1809, to administer prnssic 
\ w^mtAj in pulmonary intlammaiion, 
mtA Ikat it quickly subdued tlie vio- 
tm imeof 'without having any re- 
> MOte tlun preliminary bleeding.' 
— Iiliiliii 1 1, however, were altogether 
Mai wUh this remedy until after Dr. 
I paUialied his first es»ay on this aub- 
115; ahen Dr. Granville, Ihroujih the 
iC Ac LoDdon Medical Kepository di- 
Mr aacntion to its powers ; and I refer 
• am desirous of tracing the introduction 
iicid tDl» uie, as a medical agent, to 
~,bere refers to a Treatise on 
hydrocyanic acid, second 

Dally exhitited. is a remedy 

spasmodic coughs of every 

cularly asthma, chrcmic ca- 

aping cou^. It has also been 

' trish taccos in palpiiations of the 

Medical and Pliytical Journal, 

].) In my own practice I have 

powers in that affection of the 

IS often mistaken for phthisis 

od atiut In* fatal In Inietuber- 

if nee does not ena- 

r of prussic acid ; 

roueht forward lu 

influence in this 

. iiould not be over- 

sv I have slated in another place 

nvilU'i Treatise, second edition, 

judicious exhibition of prussic 

liy «la(|ca of pulmonary consump- 

l^^iracb 10 bring that disease under 
lOsI of tn. Prussic acid has been found 
rif atifcl k the treatment of those ept- 
nkirfti siiib which this country is occa- 

InMti; and no remedy u so well 
M ■ idjiaicl to tonicj for rcmovinc; 
i)if*{lU. aflSectioos which are attended 

with acidity of the stomach, and accompanied 
with heat and soreness of the tongue. In thesa 
cases It reduces the morbid irniability of the 
stomach, and thereby enables the juices of thai 
organ lo be more slowly secreted, and of a more 
healthy character. [Here Dr. Thomson intro- 
duces the following note : — Ur. Klliotaon has 
published a small volume containing the result 
of his practice with prussic acid in dyspepsia, 
and has stated that accident led him lo try the 
powers of the medicine in this class of diseases. 
Kespvct for my own character obliges me to say 
that nothing could surprise me more than this 
statement of Ur. Elliotson, as he acknowledges 
having read the first edition of Dr. Granville's 
treatise, which contains a letter from me, dated 
the 20tli of February, 1819, stating my senti- 
menls of the utility of prussic acid in dyspep- 
sia, and tlie modus operandi of the remedy pru- 
viously to his having employed it.] 

Its beneficial eflects in asthma and in hooping 
cough are also well established. M. Haller 
recommends it in aneurism of the heart and 
aorta. (\'ide Trait* de la necessity de ne point 
insisler sur ru.sage interieur des excitans dans 
I'empoisonnrmeiit par I'acide hydrocj'amque. 
Par. II. S. Haller, Paris, 1824.) Cases are also 
on record in which this acid has proved service- 
able in the treatment of painful and difficult 
menstruation, floudings, hemoptysis, and ner- 
vous diseases. It certainly is a very powerful 
sedative, and may be employed in all cases in 
which sedatives and narcotics are indicated with 
decided advantage. 

As a local remedy, prussic acid is the only 
application which can lie depended on for allay- 
ing the itching and tingling which are so dis- 
tressing, in impetiginous affections. 1 have 
lately employed it with unvarying success in 
these comphiinis; and having published my 
observations (vide Medical and Physical Jour- 
nal, February 1822), I am in hopes of having iU 
value delerinined in the hands of others. I have 
found it useful also in combination with small 
doses of oxymuriale of mercury in acute 
rosacea, and several other cutaneous diseases. 

The dose of prussic acid is from ni^ij. to 
It^viij. It may be administered in distilled 
walr>r, or in almond emulsion, or in infusion o*' 
cinchona bark, as circumstances may require. 
When un over dose has been taken, its deleterious 
effects are best counteracted by hot brandy and 
water, and the ammoiiiated tincture of iron 
M. Haller recommends Vileeding, aromooiacal 
frictions, and acidulated drink ; but more reli- 
ance is to be placed on stimulants. As a local 
application it may l>e used in the form of lotion, 
ill the proportion of a fluid drachm to a fluid 
ounce and n half of distilled or of rose water, or 
as a cataplasm, composed of crumbs of bread, 
soaked in a solulion of a f. 31^ of the acid m 
f. J), of di-iiilled water. It is incompatible in 
prescriptions with nitrate of silver, die salts of 
iron, and the mineral acids. 

Although the instantaneous power of prussic 
acid, in destroying animal life, when it is taken 
in doses sufficiently large to 0[ieiate as a fKiisnn, 
may perhaps always prevent medical art from 
proving bcnificial in such cases; yet it is of 



importance to be uble to asrertain, in judicial 
etiquiri<» relative to luicide or to niurder, that 
prussic acid lias been administered as a poiion. 
Tliis may be done if the animal he opeiiod from 
eighteen to forty-eight hours after deatli. The 
foTlowiog means pointed out by Dr. Granville 
for detecting its presence in the animal system 
after death should be known : — Collect the 
blood contained in the ventricles of the heart, a 
portion of the conlenU of the stomach, and any 
fluid that may be found in the head, the chest, or 
the abdomen ; agitate the mixture for some lime 
with distilled water, and filler the liquid, taking 
care to preserve the whole at a low temperature. 
To a small quantity of the filtered liquid add a 
few drops oi a solution of pure {lOtassa in alco- 
hol ; then add a few drops of a solution of sul. 
phate of iron, and if a reddish precipitate of the 
color of burnt terra siena now fall down, which, 
on Oie addition of a little sulphuric acid, 
changes to a bluish-green, and gradually on ex- 
posure to the atmosphere becomes a beautiful 
blue, we may conclude that the death of the 
individual has been occasioned by prussic acid. 
The stomach is first to be examined entire, to 
ascertain whether the odor of that acid is per- 
ceptible in it ; after which it is to be cut io 
pieces under distilled water, and .1 portion of it 
distilled with an equivalent portion of the water 
until one-eighth ol the liquid has passed into 
the receiver. That liquid is to lie rendered 
■lightly alkaline with potassa ; then a few drops 
of a solution of sulpli.ite of copper is to be 
added to a small portion of it, and afterwards a 
sufficient quantity of muriatic acid to redissolve 
the excess of the oxide of copper. The liquid 
will appear more or less milky accordine lo the 
quantity of hydrocyanic acid present. This test 
will d"t«ct jgjgg of bydrocyanlc acid in solution 
in water. 

[In addition lo the statement of the medical 
virtues possessed by this acid as above made by 
Or. Thomson, we may add that it will in some 
cases of pain from a carious tooth be found ex- 
(.eedingly useful. In iLi application care must 
oe taken to convey a drop or two of the acid or 
a less limited quantity of the solution recom- 
mended by Dr. T. into the hollow of the tooth, 
and iti good effects will sometimes prove in- 

2. Acidum oxalicum. — Oxalic acid. 

Oxalic acid exists ready formed in many 
vegetable and some animal bodies. Combined 
with |iota5M It is found in the leaves of the 
oxalis acctosolln, and cornicuUta, riimex ace- 
tota, ■ndgcmiiium acidum, ami with linie in the 
roots of rhubarb, valerian, and many other 
plants. Berthollet procured it from honey, 
nair, tendons, albumen, and tome other plants; 
but that which Is found in the sho|i« manufac- 
tured for th« purposes of an Is produced artifi- 
cially by the action of nitric acid on sugar. 
The folluwing process, which was tirsl described 
by Bergman, is Mill adopted for the production 

oxalic acid. 

Into :i 
»g»r. i 
Mid of . 

-' put one ounce of white 

■lunccs of slroni; nitric 

1 M7. UheR tlkc whole 

is dissolved boi1 the liquor tintil i( 
afford nitrous fumes and acquires a 
brown color; thei add three ounces 
nitric acid, and continue the boiling utd 
fumes cease, and the color of the tluid 
pear. Empty tlie corteiits of the retort 
wide vessel, and upon cooling a ctystalll 
will take place, which is oxalic acid. 
ing the lixivium with two ounces 
in the retort until the red fumes all) 
pear, a second supply of crystals will be i 
ed. too grains of sugar, when properly I 
yifid fifty-eight grains of crystallised 
acid. The rationale of the process is t 
vious, the nitric acid is partially de 
and yields up a portion of oxygen whi^ 
of its components to the sugar, which isi 
pound of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen, I 
this addition of oxygen is converted intol 
acid. The relative proportions of the 
ponents of sugar is oxygen 49-4, carb 
and hydrogen CI, in 100 parts; that of j 
acid, oxygen 64, carbon 32, and hydr 
100 paru. 

Qualitifi. — Tlie crystals of oxalic 
they are properly prepared are four sided j 
with the sides altemaiely larger, termiiu 
their extremities by dihedral prisms, 
while, transparent, inodorous, have a ver^ 
sour taste, and redden all the vegetable bill 
cept indigo. One grain of oxalic acid 
nicatcsa sensible acidity to 2633 gram 
The crystals dissolve io twice theil< 
water at CS", and in their own weigh 
water. Alcohol at a roenn temperature i 
forty pans of them, and boiling alcohol I 
parts. They are spanngly soluble in elh 
crystals are In a sute of a hydrate, iOOj 
containing fifty-two only of acid, and f 
of water. 

(Jxalic acid combines with alkalies, i 
metallic oxides, forming oxalates. Mufi 
acetic acids dlssolj^ It wliliout alterattony 
IS decomposed botn by sulphuric and mtiilj 
aided by heat. 

Medical proptrlies and uk$. — Osalic 
small doses, when it is dinolved in cl 
quantity of water sweetened with nigart f 
an agreeable cooling beverage, wliich i 
used in febrile diseases in the same roann 
with the same intention, as lemonade, 
also be employed to check an external 
rhagy, which it appears to do by chin 
blood as it issues from the wound, and 
mechanically stopping its flow. It ii a ' 
poison when swallowed m large do! 
the resemblance of itx crystals to thosfj 
of magnesia, many accidents hi* 
for mistaking oxalic acid for tliat pur««lif 
The acid taste of the one salt and tlur bill 
of the other would always prevent such i 
were individuals to taste their nirdicinetl 
swallowing them ; but, besides the i 
of accidents, oxalic acid hat of late beea I 
■lueiitly employed by the wretched wti 
the purpose of self-destruction. It i«, I" 
imfiortant that every medical practitioon I 
lie Brquaintrd with the qualities of oxalH 
iLsiH'ccUon the aniiiuU economy, aud lb*] 



^tbcM when it has been taken in 
! tb operate as a poison, 
xtent of oxalic acid which may be 
anitjt has Dot been determined ; 
propertiei are more or less 
ling to the degree of dilution of the 
nine experiments on animals 
Lttn /ears since, and the published 
nces in dissection of »eTeral 
sing by oxalic acid, I was led 
I that * the primary morbid ac- 
ttvta n on the stomach itself, on 
biclt its chemical action occasions 
animal solid to enter into new 
and thence produces a decompo- 
Akof the acid and the pan to which it 
it' rf ut tlie acid, however, also enters 
I by absorption ; but, ' that the 
of death by oxalic acid is the 
the functions of the heart and 
! fympalhetically aflecled by the 
oe 10 the stomach.' (London 
J, »ol. lii. p. 386.) The sub- 
kbecn inrestigated with much care 
nuily by Dr. Christison and Dr. 
' [ observations published in the 
Journal, vol. xix. p. 163. 
hese gentlemen lam induced 
f opinion as to the extent of the in- 
ftte bring stomach, and to believe 
) M&te of that organ which was 
■t in my experiments on dogs, is to be 
i la the action of the acid on its coats 
Ih. I tro, however, still of opinion, that 
Ww to be attributed to tne sedative 
f te poison acting on the brain and 
■jic! ried by absorption, than 

^B) 11 on the nervous system 

Hkl K'l'"; <'t ihe stomach, an opinion 
^Bti iheir first conclusions, that * oxa- 
PKa introduced into the stomach in 
Maad higlily concentrated irritates it, 
fa H, by dufoWing the gelatine of its 
i dtath takes place by a sympathetic 
imrrouj system.* 

•ymptoms attending poison by 

e, burning pain in the stomach ; 

ant vomiting, (he matter ejected 

klj dark colored, and sometimes 

there have been violent 

i; the pulse soon sinks and 

ceplible, and this state is 

coldness of the limbs, at- 

dily of the lingers, and nails, and 

_ i; convulsions, but not iii every 

i«>d inMniibilily, precede death. With 

lappeannce* after death, no particular 

I) IH ntemil state of the body has been 

Oo opeoing the b<.idy, the stomach is 

Uy to contain a quantity of dark 

vhich i* probably exiravasated 

I by (he poison ; in some instances 

t ■smaeb have been found greatly 

[appearances of great vascula- 

of ■' - ~ 'IS coal, the ruga; 

I ea. off, and in some 

•ltolBcu.».a:.^. ...ivebeen found ten- 
nw iMHorucd, so that the contents of 
■pcd into the cavity of the 

abdomen. Tlie lungi and heart hare not been 
often examined ; but, in the lower animals killed 
by oxalic acid, both have presented indications 
of inflammation having existed in them, |>ar- 
tieularly the lungs. The vessels of Che biain 
have been found turgid. 

The fakil effects of poisoning by oxalic acia 
are so rapid that little opportunity is afforded of 
counteracting them by medical art. The first ob- 
ject certainly, in every case, is to evacuate the 
poison from the stomach, and when the stomach 
pump is at hand it should be instanily employed. 
The vomiting which usually supervenes precludes 
the necessity of employing emetics ; and copious 
dilution, which in other cases of corrosive poi- 
son IS advisable, is more likely to promote the 
absorption of the acid, and consequently increase 
its powers. Before, therefore, emetics are em- 
ployed, if they should be deemed necessary, the 
activity of the poison should be weakened by al- 
tering its nature by some substance with which, 
in chemically combining, its solubility is dimi- 
nished. That chalk produces this effect I dis- 
covered in making the experiments already 
alluded to, and several instances have since oc- 
curred in which its adminisiratinn has saved the 
lives of individuals poisoned by oxalic acid. The 
lime of the chalk unites with the oxalic acid, and 
forms an oxalite which is perfectly inert. Mag- 
nesia may be employed instead of chalk, and it 
has the advantage of not inconveniencing the 
patient by the extrication of carbonic acid gas, 
which is copiously evolved when the chalk unites 
with the acid ; but as the oxalate of lime is more 
insoluble than the oxalate of magnesia, and con- 
sequently more inert, it may be questioned 
whether the inconveniences of the gas may be 
equivalent to the greater security from the em- 
ployment of chalk. A mixture of chalk and 
water, or of magnesia and water, should there- 
fore be instantly given when oxalic acid has been 
taken in a large dose ; and, after the local effects 
of the poison have been counteracted, the system 
should be supported by cordials combined with 
opium, and the oxalate afterwards be carried out 
of the system by the aid of purgatives. 

To obtain legal evidence in cases of poisoning 
by oxalic acid when none of the poison is found, 
we may be guided to suspect the nature of Uie 
poison by the symptoms and Ihe post mortem ap- 
pearances ; but a correct opinion can be formed 
only by an analysis of the vomited matter, the 
contents of the stomach and its coats. For this 
purpo>e, the vomiled matter and the contents of 
the stomach should be separately diluted with 
distilled water, and the coau of the organ itself 
boiled in distilled water. These solutions should 
then be separately filtered and decolorised with 
chlorine, and subjected to the following tests. If 
oxalic acid he present, hydrochlorate (muriate) 
of lime will occasion a prccipitile which is solu- 
ble in a small quantity of nunc acid, but not in 
muriatic, unless a very large quantity of the acid 
be used. Sulphate of copper throws down a 
bluish-white precipitate in any fluid containing 
free oxalic acid, which is insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid ; and nitrate of silver occasions a 
heavy white precipitate, which, when dried and 
healed over the flame of a candle on the point rf 



n spatula, beconiei brown at the edge, then sud- 
denly fulminalej, and u all dissipated in wliile 
fumes. Tilts is a very delicate lest; for Dr. 
Chnstison informs us that, from a quarter of a 
5tain of oxalic acid dissolved in 4000 parts of 
water, he and Dr. Coindct procured enougn of 
the oxalate of silver to show its fulmination twice. 
(Edinburgh Medical Journal, vol. xix. p. 198.) 
Alkalies akd S.ilts. 

Under the -word Alkali, and in the article 
CuLMisTRY,will be found definitions of alkalies 
and sialemenls of those recent discoveries, more 
especially of Sir 11. Davy, which have thrown 
new light on their composition. VVe may here 
repeat that the general properties of these bodies 
are those of combining with acids forming; neutral 
nits in which ihc qualities of both the compo- 
nenLs are lost, of clian^ini^ the blue colors of ve- 
getables to green, and of comliiniiiK with oil into a 
soapy matter which thus occasions, to a certain 
extent, the union of oil and water. Alkalies 
also have an acrid urinous taste ; are exceedini;ly 
caustic, so much so as to eorro<le or dissolve 
animal matter; they have a great affinity for 
water, which, in some cases, they abstract so 
rapidly and readily even from the atmosphere, 
that it is necessary to keep them in well- stopped 
((lass bottles, and they are susceptible of fusion 
or volatihsaiion by strong heat. 

Of the alkalies, the potassa, soda, and ammo- 
nia, only are used in pharmacy in an uncom- 
bincd state. 

The London College, adopting the alphabetical 
order of anaDgement, first speak of the prepa- 
ntioni of atnmonia, then of potassa, and lastly 
of soda. 

Prefaratioks of Ammomia. 

Anmmnia tubcarbonas. Ixmdon, (formerly 
called ammonia pr«parata, and sal comu cervi.)— 
Subcarbonate of ammonia. 

Take of muriate of i^mmonia a pound, pre- 
pared chalk dried, one pound and a half. Let 
tbem be powdered separately, then mix them 
and sublime with a gradually increased heat 
nntil the retort become red hot. 

Suhcarbonas ammimut. Edinburgh, — Subcar- 
bonate of ammonia. 

Take of muriate of ammonia one part, the 
softer carbonate of lime, dried, two parts. Let 
them be separately pulverised, then mixed, and 
sublimed from a retort into a receiver kept cold. 

lu this formation a double decomposition 
takes place. The muriatic acid of the muriate 
of ammonia is attracted by the lime, and the 
carbonic acid by the ammonia. The subcarbo- 
nate of ammonia which is formed sublimes, 
while the muriate of lime remains in the retort. 

QualUiet. — ^The salt is commonly seen in a 
white, hard, semi-traitsparent mass. It ii solu- 
ble in water, but when warm water is uied it is 
in some measure decomyioaed. It it not soluble 
in alcohol. It is decum|<osed by the acids and 
alkalies a* well as by their >uhcartx>nittes. Mag- 
nesia also partially decomposes it. The tuper- 
lanrate ot (mtassa, sulphate of twgimia, the 
metallic salts, and some of the earths, 2fo dcoom- 
pOM this salt, lu apecilic gravity is 0-96)>. 

Mtdicttl pnptrttt$. — i>ubcarU>iiate of ammo- 

nia is one of tlie most useful t' mulantaj 
the pharmacopoeias afford. It may be i 
tcred in several cases, where, in couseqo 
the inflammatory diathesis which prevaili 
excitants would be inadmissible ; u 
instances of erysipelatous inflamnjalioo^l 
debility, and also in childrens' coropU 
of its virtues being dependent upon ittj 
of neutralising acidity in the first 
atonic gout it is an excellent remedj 
some forms of dyspepsia and hysle 
part,' says Dr. Thomson, ' of puhcnscd i 
Donate of ammonia, and three parts of I 
of belladonna spread on leather in the I 
plaster, is an excellent application fgj 
rheumatic ])ains. Dose for internal I 
tion from six grains to fifteen. It 
venicutly rubbed down with a scrap 
matic confection. 

Liquor ammonuc. London. — Solutioo 

Take of muriate of ammonia eight 
lime newly burnt six ounces, water foi 
Pour one pint of the water upon the liiatl 
cover the vessel and set it aside for uij 
Dissolve the muriate of ammonia in 
mainder of the water previously heated; ! 
it the former mixture, and again cover the \ 
after the liquor has become cold strain I 
distil twelve fluid ounces of solution of I 
nia into a receiver whose temperature 
exceed 50°. The specific gravity of this I 
is 0'960. 

Jqua ammonie. Edinburgh. — ^W»tBr ( 

Take of muriate of ammonia one \ 
newly burnt one pound and a hal^ 
water one pound, water nine ounces, 
lime broken to pieces pour the water to I 
or earthen vessel, cover it up until the la 
fallen into powder and become cold ; theo^ 
munate to a fine powder, and tnturata \ 
lime in a mortar, after which put them I* 
into a bottle glass retort. Place the retoi 
sand-bath and adapt to it a receiver fni 
with a tube passing into a phial contain 
distilled water ; the phial, however, I 
cienlly large to hold double the qu 
water. Then apply the fire, gr-idualty I 
until the bottom of the iron pot be rwd I 
so long as f;as and vapor are pioduced. 
cific gravity of this solution is 0-939. 

The muriate of lunmonia in these pr 
decomposed by the lime, this last 
greater affinity for the arid than hat Ihv I 
ma; the ammonia is consequently disi 
and passes over, and the proiduct a l 
solution of it. 

Qualitift. — Ammonia in this liquid (bl 
colorless fluid, very pungent lu its 
having an extremely acid taste. I( noil 
all the acids and fnrnit with them niniti 
It soon l)ecomes cai)>onated by mcrt ( 
to the atmosphere. Ands and metallic i 
alum are incompatible with it in fttn 
When It IS at all carbonated the presence '«<f 
oarbonie acid may be detected by addtn? »o*C 
of the solution muriate of hin> . 16 

a precipitate; if indeed it at ;:: .1 


! of cailKmic acid tnay be in-' 

if fmotin.— Stimulant, anucid, and 

IL Date fro<n nix to nyxx. If uken 

••ad 4«alh does not immediately ensue 

|lt (laBMitiet of vinegar should be 

BVB *nt Qiml> 

immm Jthlt. Edinburgh.— Distilled 


IwMr of amnonia one part, distilled 

^^im. Mil ihf.m. 

^ponocoat dilution ii always suffici- 

l,IH>pi*p*niion might have been dis- 

> MBMu* orr/afif. London. — Solution 
laf MMnoaia. 

I ■bcafb ooa tg of ammonia two ounciH, 
Mte «Cid (nor pints or a sufficient quan- 
M A* aetd to the subcarbonatr of am- 
id Ibe eflcrreicence cease. 
BtWJi — Bill*. Edinburgh. — Water 

f fh ii M te of ammonia in powder any 
y«ar«paa it so much weak acid as will 
Mnt* itic ammonia. 
hMer. perhaps, that the saturation be 
pns ami taste, and then tasted as in 
lii CoHffv ; for the distilled vinegar is 
I vuHd strength. 

ki. — TItis Indoor is limpid and nearly 
Hia*. S1KM7 acids and fixed alkalies 
■jnesia, lime water, 
inate of mercury, 
iw HI ».iin, -HP II are all of course in- 
kliwidi itiB pmcnption. The sulphates 
t aarf acetate of lead are abo decom- 

at ynfvrftM.— An exceedingly useful 
PlM diaphoretic m disorders accom- 
ftbrile heat. It is also diuretic, 
taken while the patient is not 
i» oaafol aa a cooling lotion to the 
«f nhienitic affection, and Dr. 
us Uiat he has employed it with 
a lotion in pomgo affecting the 
f. 3iij 10 f. 5j. 
sajrorieikitii. London. — 
of ammonia. 
of ammonia four ounces, 
a pinL Dissolve the iubcarbo- 
in water, and tiller tlirough 

la wt w t uaa tii oanaoinc. Edinburgh. — 
Itt lafaearbooata of ammonia. 
*f iriieartMaaia of ammonia one part, 
^anfr few parts. Dissolve the sub- 
M ik dw water, and 61ler throueh paper. 
kia.— Liaipid and colorless ; it forms a 
anakea with twice its bulk of 

. — Stimulant and diaphoretic. 

i|ta*. to f. 3j. in any fluid tlial 

f*trmii<r»9 or Pot*M*. 

rpatwat London. — Solution of potassa. 
■ MAtafhooate of potassa a pound ; 
AlaatMf aooumt; boilmc distilled 
' pll«- OiasHtc Ibc aubcarbonate of 

potassa in two pints of the water. Add the re>- 
mainder of tlie water to the lime; mix the hot 
liquors together; then set tlie mixture aside in a 
covered vessel ; and, when it is cold, let it be 
strained through a cotton bag. If, on the addi- 
tion of any diluted acid, effervescence be excited, 
more lime must be added, and the filtration re- 
peated. A pint of lliis solution ought to weigh 
sixteen ounces. 

A(juu potastx. Edinburgh. — Water of potassa. 

Take of lime fresh burnt eight ounces; sub- 
carbonate of potassa six ounces ; boiling water 
twenty-eight ounces. the lime be put into 
an iron or earthen vessel with twenty ounces of 
the water. When the ebullition ceases, imme- 
diately add the salt dissolved in the remaining 
eight ounces of llie water; and, having thoroughly 
mixed the whole, cover the vessel till the mixture 
cool. The mixture beina cooled, aijilate it well, 
and pour it into a glaM funnel, the tube cf which 
is obsiructeil with a piece of clean linen. Cover 
the upper onlice of the funnel, while its tube is 
inserted into another glass vessel, that the solu- 
tion of potassa may gradually drop through the 
linen of the lower vessel. When it first ceases 
to drop, pour a few ounces of water into tha 
funnel ; but cautiously, so that the fluid may swim 
above the niatter. The water of potassa will 
again begin to drop. The affusion of water, 
however, must be repented until three pounds 
have filtered, which will be in the space of two 
or three days ; then let the upper part of the 
solution be mixed with the lower by agitation, 
and preserve it in a well stopped vessel. 

In this separation the lime, attracting the car- 
bonic acid of tbesubcarbonate of potassa, leave;) 
the alkali in a state of purity, or causticity. The 
liquid should be kept in closely stopped bottles, 
otherwise it will become carbonated by exposure 
to the air. 

Qualities. — Solution of potassa is exceedingly 
caustic, scarcely admitting of being put on the 
tongue. It is without color, and has an oily ap- 
pearance when shaken. If muriates be present 
10 it they may be detected by saturating a por- 
tion of the liquid with nitric acid, then adding 
nitrate of barytes to precipitate the sulphates if 
any ; and lastly adding a solution of nitrate of 
silver, which is precipitated if any muriate be 
present. Sulphates are detected by saturating 
the liquor with muriatic acid, and adding mu- 
riate of barytes ; and if lime be present blowing 
into a liqunr through a tube, by adding carbo- 
nic acid, will render it turbid. It is always more 
or less impure, as ordered by the phannacopoMas, 
but not to the extent of interfering with its medi- 
cinal virtues. Tliespecihc gravityof the solution 
ought to be 1050. It is a solvent of gum, ex- 
tractive and resin, and it forms soap when mixed 
with oils or fat. 

Medical prmtrlift. — Diuretic, antacid, and 
lidioutnptic Dr. Willan speaks highly of it in 
lepra; and Dr. Thomson says that it may be al- 
most regarded as a specific in the various species 
of psoriasis which depend altogether upon acidity 
in the pnma viie, and a hasty and consequently 
imperfect formation of the juices of the stomach. 

Dose itix . to f. 3j. or f. 3ij in some of the cuta« 
neous afleclions. 



Liquor potasts tubcarbonatis. London. — So- 
lution of carbonate of potassa. 

Take of subcarbonate of potassa a pound ; 
distilled water twelve fluid ounces. Dissolre 
the subcarbonate of potassa in tlie water, and 
filter the solution through paper. 

Quatitiet. — This solution ought to be quite 
clear, and without color or smell. It is of course 
incompatible in prescription with sulphate of 
magnesia and the metallic salts. It is likewise 
improper to mix with lime water, or magnesia, 
or substances containing much of the tannin 

Medical propertia.—T^ie same as the salt it- 
self. Dose from ttix». to f. 3ij- 

Potassa cum cake. London. — Potassa with 
lime. Take of solution of potassa three pints ; 
Kme fresh burnt a pound. Doil the solution of 
potassa down to a pint; then add the lime, pre- 
Tiously slaked by the water, and intimately mix 

Potassa cum cake. Olim, Causlicum commune 
mUius. Edinburgh. — Potassa with lime'; for- 
merly, milder common caustic. 

Take of the water of potassa any quantity. 
Evaporate it to one-third part in a covered 
iron vessel ; then mix with it as much newly 
slaked lime as will bring it to the consistence of 
a solid paste, which is to be preserved in a well 
stoppe<l vessel. The lime makes the alkali less 
deliquesced, and consequently more maiia){table 
as an escharotic. 

Potassa J'usa. London. — Fused potassa. 

Take of solution of potassa a gallon. Eva- 
porate the water in a clean iron vessel over the 
fire until, the ebullition having ceaicd, the }>o- 
tassa melts ; then pour it out upon a clean iron 
plate into pieces ol proper form. 

Potassa. Olim. Causlicum commtmt acerri- 
mum. Edinburgh. — Potassa; formerly stronger 
common caustic. 

Take of solution of polatn any quantity. 
Eva|)orate it in a covered very clean iron vessel 
until, the ebullition being over, the saline matter 
flows smoothly like oil, which happens before 
the vessel becomes red hot Then pour it out 
upon a clean iron plate, cut it into small masses 
before il hardens, and let it be preserved in well 
slopped phials. 

• The concrete potassa procured by these pro- 
ce«es is a hydrate sufficiently pure for medical 
pur|)0«es ; but it still contains the same foreign 
ingredients as the solution. To procure it as 
free as possU)le from carbonic acid, the evapora- 
tion should be performed in a silver vessel very 
quickly ; the vessel should be deep, so ihut the 
watery vapor which arises may exclude the ot- 
mospneric air. It is c^eiienilly run into moulds, 
and formed into solid cylinden, which are covered 
with paper, and kept in well stopped bottles. 
Till- method of Bvrtholli't (or oblainiiig it in 
I><.'rfrci purity, which u usually described in 
chemical ami pharmaceutical works, i> ton trou- 
blesome «im1 e>|>en<ivF to be )te<»'rally adopted. 
The fuiluwing method, proposed by Lcwitt, is 
more rconomical ' — 

A solution o( |M n limI till 

a [lelliclr forms c; wrd lo 

cool; and tliv miiih- tii[>o«ii. \«[iHn consists 

.cniefly of the foreign satu, carefully • 
llie evaporation is tbuii to be renewed,! 
off the pellicles that form on the surf 
fluid, which, as soon as these cease U> 1 
duced, and the ebullition is ended, mu 
moved from the fire, and constaiilly i 
il is cold. The mass is next lo l>e dii 
twice its weight of distilled cold wati 
lution filtered and evaporated in a clc 
silver basin until crystals are depositi 
heated fluid consolidate into a mas9 in J 
gree, a small portion of water must 
and the mass again heated to fluidil 
supernatant liquor is left of a broil 
which, after being kept for some lime i 
well-stopped phials, deposits the colorin 
and may again be evaporated and cr 
before. The cryst.ils obtained in 
evaporations are colorless, pure 

QualUifs. — When made properly, [ 
in the form of a white brittle substance,! 
like quicklime when being slaked, and I 
tic to be tasted. It is soluble iu 
alcohol, and attracts humidity from the ] 
is fused and volatilised by beat ; and U I 
with sulphur, tlte fixed oils, and the 

McJical pnipcrtifi. — Escharotic. 
usefully in strictures requiring caustic. 

Poluitg acclas. Lonlon — .\cvUleof| 

Take of sul^carbonate of potasu a ] 
a half; of the stronger acetic acid t« 
boiling distilled water two pints. Mix I 
with the water, and pour it upon the sub 
of potassa till all ebullition cease, 
filter. First evaporate the solution 
bath until no more bubbles rise ; 
it to gradually increased heat, and co 
evaporation till a pellicle form, whickl 
be removed and dried on blotting pap 
peat the evaporation again and again, i 
the pellicles as they form, and drying I 
the manner already described. 

Jcetas potassa. Edinburgh. — i 

Take of very pure carbonate of poB 
pound; weak acetic acid a sufficient r 
Iloil the subcarbonale in five pounds of i 
and add more acid at different tiroes, i 
watery part of ttie former portion beu 
dissipated by eva]>OTation, the acid newlj 
occasions no effervescence, which will bef 
when about twenty pounds of it have I 
sumcd ; then evaporate slowly lo drync 
qiiefy this impure salt wiili a gentle I 
short time ; then dissolve it in water, i 
through paper. If the liquefaction 

firo[>erly performed, the lillered Huul 
impid, but otherwise of a hrowti color. 
wards evaporate this fluid in a shalL 
vessel, M thai, when r<>moved from lh«^ 
may pass into a crysialhne mats. Fii 
acetate of potassa ought lo be | 
closely shut vnselt, 

Qualittet. — This salt po HHSM ■ j 
and a slinr|> lasle. It is delique 
t'hangrs into a sulM'arboiKli* by 
^^d heat. It is soluble in water ( 



I frith tartrate of potassa a pre- 
I occasiooed by the addition of tar- 
Dlalion ; and acetate of lead will 
bpitate soluble in acetic acid, sul- 
loiloted by nitrate of barytes, and 
I of ailTer. 

tin. — Aperient and diuretic. 
f employed in dropsical affectioni. 
tapcnenl two or three drachms — as a 
ooi half a drachm to a drachm often 

London. — Carbonate of 

LMlution of stibcarbonale of potassa 

means of a proper apparatus 

lie acid through the solution until 

Then filter. Kvaporate until 

! being careful not to increase the 

crparate the crystals from the 

on blotting paper. 

I is easily obtained from white 

Bated sulphuric acid. 

Edinburgh. — Carbonate of 

carbonate of potassa two parts, 

DiMolre the salt in the wa- 

\ of a proper apparatus throw 

I uf carbonic acid gas. Filter the 

\ It etaaea to absorb the acid, and 

it by a beat not exceeding 1B0°, 

•y form. 

acid IS easily obtained by pour- 
klphuric acid on pulverised car- 

[tecommeiided by some that muri- 
1 to etoke the carbonic acid from 

• This salt, prepared by these for- 
ttly speaking, a bicarbonate ; the 
f the pharmacopaeias being really a 

lis witnout odor, has a taste slightly 
i mild. It is not soluble in aico- 
ompatible in prescriptions with 
■Its, with the metallic salts, with 

lofauimooia, lime water, sulphate 
* alum. 

1. — Useful in the preparation 
CiDg draught. Dose of the salt 

LoodoD. — Subcarbonate 

m (pearl ashes), reduced 
I jBOonds, boiling water three 
Disaolve the potassa in the 
tbeti pour the solution into a 
and evaporate with a gentle heat 
thicken; lastly, being taker, from 
doously with an iron kpilula un- 
CDOCielc in small grains. 
wbctrbonaie of potassa may be pre- 
mitef mantMrr from tartar, previously 
I of an ash color. 

£<lmburgh. — Subcarbo- 

jcarboaalr of potassa be put into a 
ipMed to a red heat. Then tri- 

I an Kiual weight of water. Pour 

~ei ine impurities have subsided 

pot, and boil it to dryness; 

stirring the salt constantly towards the end of 
the boiling, to prevent it from adhering to the 

This salt, as above intimated, is rather a carbo- 
nate than a subcarbonate, ' being composed of 
one atom of each of its components.' See Che- 

Subcarbonai potatstt puritsimut. Edinburgh. — 
Pure subcarbonate of potassa. 

Take of impure supertarlrate of pokissa any 
quantity, wrap it up in moist bibuluus paper, 
or put it into a crucible ; and, hiving placed it 
among live coals, let it be burnt to a black mass; 
which, after having reduced it to powder, expose 
in an open crucible to a moderate fire, until it 
become white, or at least ash-colored, taking care 
that it be not melted. Then dissolve it in warm 
water; strain the solution through a linen cloth, 
and evaporate it in a clean iron vessel, stirring 
constantly towards the end of the process with 
an iron spoon, lest any of it should adhere to the 
bottom of the vessel. A very while siilt will re- 
main, which is to be Uh a little longer on the 
Are till the bottom of the vessel become red hot. 
Finally, when it is cold let it be preserved in 
well-slopped glass vessels. 

QualUies. — The same as those obtained from 
the potassa of commerce, with fewer impurities. 
The impurities of this salt we are directed to 
ascertain in the following manner : — * If one 
part of it be dissolved in e>ght parts of distilled 
water, and saturated with pure nitric acid, the 
presence of siliceous earth will be indicated by 
the solution becoming turbid, and, by weighing 
the precipitate, iis quantity may be ascertained. 
A precipitate being formed on the addition of 
muriate of baryies indicates the presence of the 
sulphates ; a white precipitate turning bluish on 
exposure to the light, un adding nitrate of silver, 
proves the presence of muriatic salts; and cal- 
careous earth is rendered evident by dropping 
into a solution of the subcarbonate a few drops 
of a solution of oxalic acid or oxalate of ammo- 

Medical proptrtiu. — Antacid and diuretic ; 
principally employed in the composition of the 
saline draught, in the proportion of a scruple to 
a table .-ipounful of lemon juice, or fidcen grains 
of the concrete tartaric acid. 

Potaut tulphat- London. — Sulphate of po- 

Take of the salt which remains after the dis- 
tillation of the nitric acid two pounds, boiling 
water two gullons. Mix them so as to dissolve 
the salt, and then add as much subcarbonate of 
potassa as may be sufficient to saturate the acid. 
Next boil till a pellicle be formed on the surface, 
and after filtering the liquor set it aside to crys- 
tallise. Pour off the water, and dry the crystals 
on bibulous paper. 

SuipliBi potaim. Edinburgh. — Sulphate of po- 

Dissolve the acidulous salt which remains af- 
ter the distillation uf the nitrous acid in hot 
water, and add so much carbonate of lime in 
powder as will saturate the superfluous acid, and 
leave the whole at rest until the fxces subside. 
Having poured off the fluid filter it through pa- 
per, agd evaporate until crystals form. 



Dr. Thomson prefers the Edinburgh process 
IS being quite equal to the others -with less ex- 

Quulities. — The lasle is nau<eous and rather 
bitter. The crj'stals decrepitate when heated, 
btit they are not efflorescent. They are soluble 
to a certain extent in water. The nitric, tnuri- 
atic, and tartaric acids partially it : 
iUt solution is also incompatible in prescription 
with muriate of barytes, muriate of lime, oxy mu- 
riate of mercury, nitrate of silver, and acetate of 

Medifal properties. — Cathartic and deobstru- 
ent. It is oAen combined with rhubarb and 
given in the form of powder, on account of its 
being less soluble and deliquescent than some 
other of the saline purgatives. Some practitioners, 
as Ur. Yeats, have much lauded it in complaints 
of children. Dr. Y. recommends it to be very fine- 
ly powdered. Dose for an adult from 15 grs. 
to 3j. 

Potnsstt tvpcrsutphat. London. — Supersulphate 
of potassa. 

Tnke of the salt which remains after the dis- 
tillation of the nitric acid two pounds, boilin;; 
water four pints. Mix them so that the salt may 
be dissolved, and filter. Then let the solution be 
boiled till one half is evaporated, and let it be set 
aside to crystallise. Pour off the water, and let 
the cry.«tals be dried on bibulous paper. 

Qualitici. — The crystals are acid and bitterish, 
soluble inwater, and reducible 10 simple sulphate 
of potassa by exposure to a red heat. 

Medical properties. — It has been introduced 
into the jiharmacopotia from an idea that it will 
afford a useful means of producing the sulphuric 
acid in combination with an aperient salt. Dose 
10 gis. to jij. 

Sulphia pnttasa cum sulphure. Edinburgh. — 
Sulphate of potassa with sulphur. 

Take of nitrate of potassa in powder, and of 
subliniod sulphur equal weights. Mix them well 
together, nnd throw the mixture in small quantities 
at a time into a red hot crucible. The defla^'ra- 
tion being finished, let the salt cool, and preserve 
it in a well-stopped glass vessel. 

Thi.i preparation was originally known onder 
the name of sal polychrest. In the process of 
makiiii; it hotli sulphuric and sulphurous acids 
are formed from the sulphur, but the oxygen 
which IS evolved by the heat is not sufficient to 
acidify all the sulphur employed, so that part of 
the latter goes into combination with the potassa 
of the nitre as sulphur. Thus, sulphate and su- 
persulphate of potassa are formed together with 
a sulpnuret of the same. 

Qualities. — The salt tastes acid, and reddens 
an infusion of litmus. It is soluble in water, 
and by ex|K>sure to air converted into sulphate 
of potasu. 

Metlical pnTJcrfiM.— Cathartic, like the sul- 
phate of potassa, by which last it is almost su- 

fotiusa tarlrat. London.— Tartrate of potassa. 

Take of sulKarbonate of potassa sixteen 
ounces, supertanntte of potassa three pounds, 
bniliiiK watrr a gallon. Dissolve the subcarbo- 
natti vf pot«i«u III the water, and add the super- 
IwtlMa of potana reduced to powder, till the 

effervescence cease. Filter the soM 
paper ; then boil it until a pellicle ^ 
surface, and set it aside to cryil 
water being poured off from the cryi 
be dried on bibulous paper. 

Tarlrat potatit. Edinburgh. — 1^ 

Take of subcarbonate of potassa 4 
penartrate of potassa three parts, ol 
quantity, boiling water fifteen part 
subcarbonate dissolved in thewatert 
portions the supertartrale of potasA 
fine powder so long as it excites eS 
which gradually ceases before Ihr4 
weight of the subcarbonate of potaA 
Let the solution when it is cool be i 
porated, and set aside to form crystd 

Qualities. — ^This salt is bitterish to 
is soluble in water, and deliquel 
weaker acids partially decompose H 
water, magnesia, muriate of oarytfl 
silver, and acetate of lead completely 

Medical properties. — A useful put 
rating without j;riping. Dose from C 

Agua supcrrarbonatis polattt. El 
Water of supercarbonale of potassa.. 

Take of water ten pounds, pure li 
of potassa one ounce. Dissolve anj 
solution to acurrent of carbonic aci4 
from carbonate of lime in powder tl 
sulphuric acid three ounces, and ' 
pounds, gradually and cautiously id 
chemical apparatus of Dr. Noolh ia: 
for this preparation. But, if a largd 
the solution be wanted, an apparatui 
admit of a siilTiciently great pressuB 
employed. The solution must be I 
well slopped vessels. 

Qualities. — Taste pungent and adi 
lently effervescing with all acids. 

Alcdirat propcrlies. — Antacid, tH 
lithontnptic. It is better for the sal 
in effervescence, than that prepared 4 
bonatc. Dose in calculous disorders! 
or three times a day. j 

PatPA«.tTioNs or SODAJ 

Soda carhonai. London. — Caibori 

Take of subcarbonate of >oda a i 
tilled water three pints. Dissolr* I 
bonate of soda in the distilled walnl 
carbonic acid be transmitted through' 
by means of a proper apparatus unti 
rated, and set it apart to crystallise 
crystals by comjiressing them in bidl 
Let the remainder of the solution bd 
by a heat not exceeding 130°, in ordi 
crystals may be procured. TheM 
compressed and dried in the lamc' 
before. J 

CarboMi tode. Edinburgh. — Cl 
soda ~ 

Take of suln-arbonate of soda I 
three parts. Dissolve the salt in \ 
subject It to a stream of carbonic I 
the acid be no longer absorbed, 
fluid he filtered and evaporated in a I 
ceeding 18°, so that crystals may fb>^ 
bonic acid is easily obtained (roin «• 



evbonate of lime and of iulpliu- 
tlj dituled with water. 

fbooate. Dose from IS grs. to 9ij. 
mdt. Edinburgh. — Phospha*e of 

MM> burnt to wbiteness and reduced 

■■Bpoonds, sulphuric acid six pounds, 

t it soda a sufficient quantity. Let 

bono be mixed with the sul- 

I IB in eartiisn vessel ; then add nine 

■M(r,*i>d mu ag;ain ; keep the vessel 

rbath for three days; after which di- 

' with nine pounds more of boiling 

|m1 itrua through a strong linen cloth, 

I Mint water gradually over it antil 

' ' of the phosphoric acid be washed 

ftrt In* strained liquor apart that the jm- 

•f subside, from which pour it o9°, and 

CM nine pounds. To this liquor, sepa- 

its impurities and heated in an 

et, add a warm solution of subcarbo- 

|if ada ontil the effervescence cease. Then 

I if( the liquor aside for the formation 

Ikoe being removed add to the 

XMBTf.a little subcarbonate of soda, 

pboipbonc acid may be accurately 

1 lii«pose it by evaporation again 

ImMrii (o long as these shall be pro- 

rffaaSy fet the crystals be kept in a well 

-This salt resembles in taste the 
I talimiy salt. It effloresces on expo- 
tiB Ac air, is soluble, and undergoes the 
»hen exposed to a sufficient 
MvBla of lime, baryles, and magnesia, 
! it, aiid the strong acids convert it into 

f np t rt ie*. — A mild and gentle ca- 
)m« fcom 3»j. to .^ift. 

Lsadon. — Subcarbonate of 

I «t ODpttie soda (barilla) in powder a 
iMg dotilled water four pints. Boil 
I the water for half an hour, and filter 

•. EtBponte it to two pints and set it 

•Am trpt»i» mtj (orta. Tliruw away the 
"^ [ bfnor. 

Edinburgh, — Subcarbonate 

■out carbonate of soda any quan- 
1 lit aiui then boil it in water until all 
' kc dissolved. Filter the solu- 
I paper, and evaporate it in an iron 
; when cold crystals may form. 
1.— Taste mildly alkalescent. It is 
, asd fusible at XbO" of Fahren- 
For dalactinf im|raritius use the methods 
■■dcT aabcarboDate of potassa. If 
H b* added to the solution of the sub- 
of aoda, and potassa be present, this 
r will fiana a pvecipiuie of supertartrate. 
iprvftrtm. — Xnucid,liihontriptic,and 
Dwc trom BQ. to Jj. 

tttictattt. London. — Dried 

I of soda. 

ml wfccaitionate of soda a pound, ex- 

I a to a boiling beat m a clean iron vessel 

) jt hasD«M perfectly dry, and stir it at the 

dBMtfiinllywtlh an iron spatula. Lastly 

i ialB a powiUr. 

Mtdtcid proyertttt. — The same as the subcs'- 
bonate but stronger, being deprived of the water 
of crjatallisation ; on this account also it is much 
fitter to form into pills. 

Soda tidphas. London. — Sulphate of soda. 

Take uf the sail which remains after the dis- 
tillatiou of muriatic acid two pouuds, boiling 
water two pints and a half Dissolve the salt in 
the water; then gradually add so much carbonate 
of .soda as will saturate the acid. Boil the so- 
lution until a pellicle appear; and, after having 
filtered it, set it apart to crystallise. Pour the 
water off from the crystals, and dry tliem on bi- 
bulous paper. 

Sulphas soda. Edinburgh. — Sulphate of soda. 

Dissolve in water the acidulous salt which re- 
mains after the distillation of muriatic acid ; and 
having mixed chalk with it in powder, to remove 
the superfluous acid, set it apart until the subsi- 
dence of the impurities. Then, having poured 
off the liquor, filter it through paper, and reduce 
it by evaporation, so as to form crystals. 

Qualitiet. — This salt is bitter as well as saline 
to the taate. It is soluble in water, and effloresces 
when exposed to the air. It also undergoes 
watery fusion when exposed to a sufficient heat. 

Medical properlics. — Purgative. Not so much 
used as fonnerly, on account of its bitter taste. 
Dose from Jj to j;ij. 

Aijua tupercarbonatis toda. Edinburgh. — 
Water of supercarbooale of soda. 

Take of water ten pounds, subcarbonate of 
soda two ounces. Dissolve and subject the so- 
lution to a stream of carbonic acid ga>, procured 
from three ounces of carbonate of lime, and the 
same quantity of sulphuric acid, with three 
pounds of water, gradually and cautiously mixed 
together. It may be prepared conveniently in 
Nooth's apparatus. But, if a large quantity of 
it be required, an apparatus will be requisite 
that is capable of affording a greater pressure. 
The fluid must be preserved in well corked 

Soda tortarizata. London. — Tartarised soda. 

Take of subcarbonate of soda twenty ounces, 
supertartrate of potassa powdered two pounds, 
boiling water ten pints. Dissolve the subcarbo- 
nate of soda in the water,and add gradually the 
supertartrate of potassa. Filter the solution 
through paper, then boil it till a pellicle forms on 
the surface, and set it aside to crystallise. Pour 
the water away from the crystals,and dry them on 
bibulous paper. 

Tartrot loda ct potoutt- Edinburgh. — Tar- 
trate of soda and potassa. 

Take of subcarbonate of soda one part, super- 
tartrate of potassa three parts, or a sufficient 
quaniny, boiling water fitleen parts. To the sub- 
carbonate, dissolved in the water gradually, add 
the supertartrate rubbed to a fine powder, so long 
as effer>escencc may be excited, which generally 
occurs before three limes the weight of the sub- 
carbonate is added ; when the fluid is cold filler 
it through paper, and after a proper degree of 
evaporation set it aside ttiat crystals may form. 

This is a triple sail, formed by the saturation 
of the superabundant acid of the supertartrate by 
the soda of the subcarbonate, the dissipation of 
the carbonic acid from the latter, and tne union 
of the two alkaline bases. j^ i^ 




Qaafiitn.— Saline and bitter. Soluble, and 
•li^litly effenrescenl. It is decompojert by a 
ni^h lieat and lUoni; acids, and muriates of lime 
and baryte«. 

Medual propertiet.—h mild cathartic, and 
iligUlly diuretic. Dose 3vj. lo Jift. 


The earths are, as it has been slated in the 
article CHEMiSTRr, metallic oxides : some of 
them beini; alkalescent, and some noU Of the 
former, lime, magnesia, and barytes, arc those em- 
ployed medicinally, the last indeed only in com- 
bination. Of the earths that do not possess 
alkaline properties one only is introduced into 
medicine, tii alumina, and this, like barytes, is 
only used when combined ; for alum itself is a 
sulphate. See Cbemistrt. ' 


Alumen tniccatum. London — Dried alum. 

Melt the alum in an earthen vessel o»er the 
fire, and let the heal be -ncreased till the ebulli- 
tion ceases. 

Edinburgh.— Melt the alum in an earthen or 
iron Teuel, and keep it over the fire until the 
boiling ceases : then let it be rubbed into a 

In this process the water of crysUllisalion is 
expelled, and the aluminous principle of course 
more concentrated ; but if the heat be too great, 
or not sufficiently gradual, its sulphuric acid is 
partly expelled and decomposed, 

Lii/uor aluminis compoiilus. London..— Com- 
pound solution of alum. 

Take of alum and sulphate of zinc each half 
an ounce, boiling water two pints. Let the alum 
and the sulphate of zinc be boiled in water, and 
then filtered through paper. 

' Half an ounce of tliis solution, and six 
ounces and a half of rose water, form an excellent 
collyrium in ophthalmia, after local bleeding.' 


Call. London. — Lime. 

Take of white marble a pound ; break it into 
tmall pieces, and expose these in a crucible to a 
rery strong fire daring an hour, or until the car- 
bonic acid be so thoroughly expelled that no air 
bubbles will be extricated on tlie addition of 
acetic acid. 

Cuir e Uttu. London. — Lime from shells. 

In the lame manner lime is also prepared from 

In order to obtain lime quite pure, these pro- 
cesses are not sufficient. See CntmsTRT, article 

Liquor caleii. London. — Lime water. 

Take of lime half a pound, boiling distilled 
water twelre pints. Pour the water upon the 
lime, and let them be agitated together ; cover 
the Tesael directly, and set it apart three Imtint, 
The solution must be pn-wrved ovor the uudis- 
sotred portion of the lime m well stopped glass 
bottles, and the clear fluid poured off when it 
is wanted for ua«. 

Sutulic colcit, lilt offua taleit. E^linburfh. — 
Solution of lime, or lime water. 

Take of lime fresh burnt half a pound. Put 

it into an earthen vessel, and sprinkl 
four ounces of water, keeping the ves* 
until the lime become hot and fall inl4 
llien let twelve pounds more of water ( 
on it, and mix, by agitation, the watal 
lime. After the lime shall have suhsi4 
agitation be repeated ; and do this { 
times, the vessel being kept shut in ot4 
vent the access of air. Lastly, let th|l 
filtered through paper, interposing gla| 
tween the paper and the funnel, thai 
may pass thruugh as quickly as posfl 
solution is to be preserved io w«l 
bottles. I 

The mode of the London college % 
by Dr. Thomson. t 

Qualilit$, — Lime water is withaul 
color; its Usie is styptic. It spee<U 
carbonic acid from the air, and iherefol 
to be kept in well stopped bottles. 

Medicul yroptrtiei. — Antacid and aal 
Dose from f. 5(1. to Oft. It is geiien 
give It combined with an equal qiiaiitt 

Murim calcis. London. — Muriate: 

Take of the salt which remains afta) 
malion of the sobcarbonale of ami 
pounds; water a pint. Mix them, ^ 
solution be filtered through paper d 
porate it till the salt becomes dry. ^ 
to be preserved in well stopped boltU| 

' This preparation is a ctiloride 4 
Muriate of lime can only exist in a sti 
tion in water ; and, in evaporating ( 
the muriatic acid is decomposed and 
chlorine and hydrogen ; while at 
the oxide of calcium, forming part 
ate, parts with its oxygen ; the chloi 
itself to the calcium, forming a chl( 
cium, which is obtained as a dry a 
oxygen to the hydrogen, fomiing wal 
evaporated." — Thomson. 

QuaUlk*. — A pungent bitter nit, 
soluble in water and alcohol, prod 
during solution. I 

Alediral ymptrlict. — Proposed h 
scrofulous disorders but very little ua 
from gr. j. to grs. iv. 

Liquor murialU caltii, London, 
of muriate of lirae. 

Take of muriate of lime two oaim 
water three fluid ounces. DiMoIre I 
of lime in the water, and let the toll 
tered through paper. 

Solutio nmriatii cakit, Ediobur^gh 
of muriate of lime. 

Take of the harder variety of carboi 
(white marble), broken into small | 
ounces ; muriatic acid sixteen oun 
eight ounces. Mix the acid with tin 
eradually add the pieces of carbon 
rile effervescence being finished, d| 
hour. Pour off the fluid, and rcduc4 
poraiion, to dryness. Let the residue I 
in iu weight and a hall of wai*r, at 
tion be Altered. 

The chemistry of the preparation 
the Edinburgh College is aulficM 
In the solution ordered by the Loil4 
of the chloride of calcium, an actual 



by the d«coni position of the 

-Taite pnngent and bitter. De- 
' lllc nlphunc, nitric, phosphoric, 
lie acidf, and by their neutral 
I hy the alkalies. 

Itn. — Recommended by some 
land glandular affections. Dose 

London. — Prepared chalk. 

; a pound ; add a little water to 

to a fine powder. Throw this 

el of water ; stir it ; and, after a 

r off the supernatant turbid water 

ct, and let it be set apart that 

•y subside ; finally, let the water 

' and the powder dried. 

taki* prgparatta. Edinburgh. — 

Mte of lime. 

! of lime, rubbed to a powder in 
ir, and lerigaled with a little water 
r stone, be put into a large vessel ; 
r upon it, which, after frequently 
kI, is to be decanted ofl', laden 
powder. Tlie subtile powder 
I when the water remains at rest is 
tLct the coarse powder which could 
' in the water be again levigated, 
I the tame manner. 
-Very while, soft, and light. It is 
nbooale of lime. 

■/ propirltn. — .\ntacid, and absorbent. 
mgrs XT. to 3]. or 3j. 
M tmryt4t. Edinburgh.— Muriate of ba- 

cf (ubonate of barytes, and muriatic 
tMfc otte part ; water three parts. To 
tand the acid, mixed together, let the 
t «l barytes be added, broken into small 
n* eflerrtscence beinj finished, digest 
then filter, and, after due cvapora- 
on be set apart for the formation 
; the evaporation so long as 
iler a ronnate of barytes to be 
the sulphate by a more compli- 
; bnt we do not give the process, 
I (uilkienl, and the carbonate is a 
always be procured. The mu- 
ia, more strictly speaking, a 

)■«— M«iia<e of barytes (chloride of 
I^JMijrtmble and bitter to the taste. 
He in water, but not in alcohol. It 
|B and ultimately melts by heat. It 
■yloyed in the following solution : — 
9 mmriatit bvryt*. Edinburgh. — Sola- 
■MnlaH of barrtes. 

if OMiiate of barytes one part; distilled 
>e( parts. Dissolve. 
■a. — Linipid, and without color. De- 
lta by tlte sulphates and nitrates of the 

H^ j p v f irt itt. — Stimulant, and deob- 

II Ha been employed both in scrofula 

Mfia, bvl it IS not at present much 

aL Doat (r«ro it(,v. to ». or more very 

LoadOR.— Magnesia. 

Take of subcarbonate of magnesia four 
ounces. Bum it in a very strong fire for two 
hours, or until no effervescence be excited by Itie 
dropping of acelic acid into it. 

Edinburgh. — Let carbonate of magnesia be 
subjected to a strong heat in a crucible for two 
hours, alter which keep it in closely stopped 

The heat dissipates the carbonic acid, and 
leaves the magnesia pure. 

Qualities. — White and very soft powder. Not 
fusible, and requiring for solution an exceedingly 
large proportion of water. 

Medical propcrtiei. — See under iuicar6oiui(e of 

Alagneaut tubcarbonat. London. — Subcarbo- 
nate of magnesia. 

Take of sulphate of magnesia a pound ; sub- 
carbonate of potassa nine ounces ; water three 
gallons. Let the subcarbonate of potassa be 
dissolved in three pints of water, and the sul- 
phate of magnesia in five pints, and filter; 
then let the rest of the water be added to the 
solution of sulphate of magnesia, and boil it, 
adding to it, while boiling, the solution of the 
subcarbonate of potassa, with constant stirring. 
Strain through linen, and lastly let the powder 
be repeatedly washed with boiling water, and 
dried upon bibulous paper, with a heat of 200°. 

Carbonas magnesia. Edinburgh. — Carbonate 
of magnesia. 

Take of sulphate of magnesia four parts ; sub- 
carbonate of potassa three parts ; boiling water 
a sufficient quantity. Dissolve the salts sepa- 
rately in l^wice their weight of water, and strain, 
or otherwise free from impurities ; then mix 
them, and immediately add eight limes their 
weight of boiling water. Boil the liquor for a 
short time, stirring it; then let it continue at 
rest till the heat be a little diminished, and 
strained through linen, upon which the carbonate 
of magnesia will remain. This, after being welt 
washed with pure water, is to be dried with a 
gentle heat. 

In these processes there is obviously a double 
decomposition ; the sulphuric acid leaves the 
magnesia to unite with the potassa, while the 
cons«xjuently disengaged carbonic acid of the 
latter attaches itself to the magnesia. 

Qualities. — Inodorous, perfectly white, and 
without much taste; it is exceedingly smooth 
to the touch, and nearly insoluble in water. It 
is decomposed by the acids, the alkalies, and 
neutral salts. A strong heat will also dissipate 
its carbonic acid, as shown in the preparation of 
burning magnesia. 

Medical properties. — An excellent antacid, 
stomachic, aperient, and lithontriptic. Only, how- 
ever, aperient when it encounters an acid in the 
stomach, so as to form a neutral salt Dose 
from grs. xv. to 3ifi. or more. 

For an account of the properties and habits 
of metals see Chemisiiiy. The metals winch 
are employed in medicine are antimony, arsenic, 
bismuth, copper, iron, lead, mercury, silver, 
tin, line. Mercury and tin ate used in their 
metallic stale, but not very commonly. Most of 



the roeOicinal article* from this clan of bodies 
are combinations with diflerent mixtures of oxy- 
gen, or of acid. Some of sulphur, and other 

Prepakations of Antihony. 

Sulphurttum anlimanu pneparatum. Edin- 
bun;h. — Prepared sulphuret of antimony. 

Put sulphuret of antimony, rubbed to powder, 
in an iron mortar, and levii^ted on a porphyry 
stone, with a small quantity of water, into a 
lar^e vessel ; then pour water on it. and, after 
baring frequently agitated the vessel, pour it off 
ibden with the fine powder. 

The coarse powder, which the water is not 
able to suspend, is to be levigated again, and 
a^in treated in the same manner. 

Qualities. — Tliis powder is of n leaden gray 
' color, is without much smell or taste, and is not 
soluble in water. 

Medical propertiet. — ^Alterative. Not very 
much employed. Dose from grs. v. to 9j. 

Antimonii sulphurcttwi pracipitaliim. London. 

— Precipitated sulphuret of antimony. 

Take of sulphuret of antimony, in powder, 

. two pounds ; solution of potassa four pints ; dis- 

^ tilled water three pints. Mix them, and let the 

mixture be boiled over a gentle fire for three 

hours, assiduously stirring it, and occasionally 

adding distilled water, so as to keep up the same 

^measure. Strain the solution through a double 

Llinen cloth directly, and, while it is ytill hot, 

■'drop in gradually so much sulphuric acid as may 

[lie necessary to precipilnte the powder. Then 

wash away the sulphate of potassa with hot 

water, dry the precipitated sulphuret of antimony, 

and rub it to a fine powder. 

Sulphuretum antimonii priparatum. Edinburgh. 
—Precipitated sulphuret of antimony. 

Take of solution of potassa four parts ; water 
three parts; prejiared sulphuret of antimony 
twu parts ; diluted sulphuric acid a sufficient 
quantity. Mix tlie sulphuret with the solution 
of potassa and the water ; then boil them in 
covered iron pot over a geolle fire during 
lliree hours, frei|uently stirring with an iron 
■paiula, and adding water as it may be requisite. 
Let the hot liquor be strained through a double 
linen cloth; and, when strained, let there lie 
•ilded to it so much sulphuric acid as may l>e 
necessary li> prrcipitalu the sulphurei, which 
must be well washed with warm water. 

The pmdiicl of theie proceses is a ralphu- 
reted hydrosulphurel of oxule of antimony. The 
following ii given as the theory of its formation : 
' During the boiling the pokista combines with 
the sulphur of ihe siilpliuret ol antimony, and 
forms sulphuret of potassa, which, decomposing 
part of the watrr, und attracting its ditrn^aKcd 
liydrogen, is parily converted into a •ulpliiireted 
liydrusulphurct of potassa, while its osysen, 
aided by the sulphiirelte<l hydrngen, oxidizes 
the aiitimnny, which i« dissolved tv the sulphu- 
retted by Jm«iilphurct of poIa»».i. The sulphuric 
acid whic h is now mhlei) to the strjined toliition 
while it is hot, and which in part coniaini po- 
tassa, oxide of ai ■ L'cn, 
«nmbine« with ' pliu- 
eicd hydrogen ^ v ,,,,,, >^ ,., ,,, iM,it«ny 

if precipitated, combined with the di' 
sulphur, and the remaining tulpliu 

(JuaWia.— This precipitate is of an 
color ; it is without odor, is slightly stypli 
la.ste, and is insoluble. When pure it doe« 
effervesce with acid, so that if adulterated 
chalk It may be easily tested. 

Medical properlirt — Alterative, diaphoi 
and slighly expectorant. Not so moch empV 
as formerly. Dose from gr. i. to grs. iv. 

Antimonium tartariiatum. London.— 1^' 
ised antimony- 
Take of glass of antimony (see C%f- 
finely powdered, supertartrale of pot^--- 
powder, of each one pound ; boiling diMil 
water one gallon. Mix the glass ofantimoi) 
the supertartrale of potassa. and add them 
dually to the boiling distilled water, coi 
stirring the mixture with a spatula ; tfa 
for a quarter of an hour, and set it aside, 
the solution is cold let it be filtered, and 
rate so as to form crystals. 

Tartras antimonii. Edinburgh. Olim, 
emciicut. — Tartrate of antimony : formerly, 
tar emetic. 

Take of sulphuret of antimony, and niirstr 
potassa, of eacii an equal weight ; supertaritalr 
potassa a sufficient quantity. Piltrate sepai 
the sulphuret and nitre ; and, having well 
tlicm together, throw them into a red hot cruc 
When the deflagration is over, let the red 
be separated from the white crust, and 
down to a very fine powder, which mint 
washed with several effusions of warm srater,: 
subsequently dried. 

This powder is now to be rubbed tog<!ther«iA 
an equal weight of supertartiate of poiUM, oi 
the mixture boiled in a glass vessel w«tk <Mt 
times its weight of distilled water during as 
hour ; then strained through paper, and te 
strained solution set aside io order that crflOlt 
may form by evaporation. * 

III the process of the London College the ia» , 4 
cess of acid in the supertartrale of potassa mff t 
upon the glass of antimony in such a manrxctgy^ 
to leave its sulphur untouched ; the tartrate '"li*cl|\^ 
remains is held in solution with the anlioKHM^ 
laitrate ; thence the product is a double aU, T%t' 
tartrate of potassa and antimony : the s r 
IS also formed in the other process by ti. . 

abundant acid of the supertartrale of piiuss* 
combining with antimonial oxide*. ' Tartratcof 
anlMiioiiy and potas*a,'says Dr. Thomson,* 
on the principles of the reformed nomi 
to be the name of this salt;' and he vwy 
perly regrets that ' all the oollcgM have not 
curred Id adopting the same preparation of 
mony for the formation of this important salt' 

Quttlitiei — Tartar emetic is while, withoOi 
smell, and has a sliglilly metallic last*, li H 
soluble in water; but when kept in solntion koag 
is spontaneously decomposed. It is often, Mi 
are told, adulterated with supertartrale of p*» 
l!«sa and tartrate of lime. When the fonaarit 
the r:i»e it is precipitated from its aqueous nl^ 
tion by the addition of spiril. If the i ijinh 
di'liqutfcc iti purity is to be susprctetl. * It |l 
dccoiiipused by hrJt, the mrong acids, the alka- 




lliluiiM cvbonat«s, ibe eartlii, liydro- 

k«f the metals anil their oxides, 

Mta of lime, and acetate of lead, 

|t( 4ecocti(nu or infusions of many 

tnt vegetables, as those of 

llvl, rbubarb. galls and catechu ; with 

: It ought never to be conjoined 

We think, hojwever, in the 

I dMmical objection to the cumbi- 

tMk mm! ftntimony, that we have seen 

MliDded nrilb advantage in some 

(bodi femedies have b«en simultane- 

' fnftrtia. — Emetic, sudorific, dia- 

, niJ allerative, according to the dose 

kit B pien. It is one of the very best 

I of antimony, and may, by a due 

Bl of dose to the circuoutancej of 

^Iitaa4e almost to supersede the other 

of antimony. Indeed the facility 

I It may be minutely divided consti- 

■■ of its advanta^s. Dose, as an 

I one to two grains, as a diaphoretic 

k«r<i|M>of a grain. The continental 

,Mp«eiaUy the Italians, administer it 

\tt frooi four lo twelve grains io violent 

• tartariiati. London. — So- 

I antimony. 

\M lartari«(d antimony a scruple, boil- 

wsler eight fluid ounces, rectified 

Md oancn. Dissolve the uriarised 

f ia (be boiling distilled water; then let 

Ibc added to the filtered solution. 

I anttniiynii. Edinburgh. — Wine 
I «r antimony. 

ti tutrate of antimony twenty-four 
■% tMDisii white wine one pound. Mix, 
Ifinnv the tartrate of antimony. 

MM a good menstruum for dividing 
I of antimony, aj it occasions a slow 
of It, occasioning it is said a pre- 
t tt amide of antimony with a portion of 
of potassa. Dr. Paris remarks 
I good sherry wine is employed, no 
I of the salt lakes place ; and, if any 
t occurs, it IS tartrate of lime, arising 
I accidental impurity in the bitartntte of 
) i» ike pteparauon.' 

' fropertitt- — The «ame as the salt. 
Vl tv. to f. 3i. From 3ij. lo ^R as an 

—>M»oii in/is. London. — Anttmonial 

i «f palpkuret of antimony in powder a 

shavings two pounds. Mix, 

I littm into a broad iron pot that has 

10 whiteness, assiduously stirring 

■•* to rise. what remains be 

poiwdeT; and, having put it into a 

nble. «tpo*e it to a lire which is to 

lly ratiM so as that a white heat be 

far two hours. I/et the residue be 

»» ttito y"' •^'"" 'iMwder. 

amiimoii phate cnlcis, ohm 

i/u, 1 .jli. — Oxide of an- 

tittl pbotpbatt of lim«, formerly anti- 

'o^ nlfliynt of antimony in coarse 

powder and hartshorn shavings, each equal 
parts. Mix, and throw them into a wide iron 
pot heated to redness, and let them be assidu- 
ously stirred until they are burnt into a gray 
colored matlei, which is to be removed from the 
Are, rubbed to powder, and put into a coaled 
crucil)U; over which another cruri1)le, having a 
small hole in its bottom, is to be inveited ai.d 
luted ; then apply the lire, gradually raising it 
to a white heal, which is lo be kept at this heat 
for two hours. Lastly, reduce the matter when 
it is cold to a very fine powder. 

Sulphur, by the action o( heat, is.expelled in 
this process from the sulphnret of antimony, and 
the metal becomes partially oxidised ; this oxide 
is partially rectified by the subsequent applica- 
tion of heat, and the phosphate of lime of the 
hartshorn shavings mixes with the antimonial 
oxide; but whether the mixture be mechanical, 
or the lime yields part of its phosphoric acid so 
as to form a phosphate of antimony as well of 
lime, seems not ascertained. The preparation 
is uncertain as to strength. It was proposed by 
Dr. G. Pearson as a close imitation of the cele- 
brated empirical composition which is sold 
under the name of James's powder. 

QuaUlici. — This powder was formerly much 
employed as a powerful sudorific at the com- 
mencement of fevers ; it is at present in much 
less use than formerly, and perhaps justly so on 
account of the uncertainty of its dose and 
operation. It is now principally employed as a 
idild and alterative diaphoretic, and given in 
conjunction with guaiacum, calomel, &c. Dose 
from grs. ij. lo gra. vj. 

PiLSPARiTuu EX Aroento. — Preparation of 

Argenti nitrai. London. — Nitrate of silver. 

Take of silver an ounce, nitric acid one fluid 
ounci;, distilled water two fluid ounces. Let 
the nitric acid and water be mixed together, and 
the silver dissolved in the mixture on a suiid- 
bath. Then let the heat be gradually increased , * 
that the nitrate of silver may be dried. Melt 
this in a crucible on a gentle fire until, the water 
having evaporated, the ebullition cease; llien 
pour il directly into proper moulds. 

Sitras argenti. Edinburgh. — Nitrate of silver. 

Take of pure silver flatted into plates and cut 
one part, nitnc acid diluted two parts, distilled 
water one part. Dissolve the silver in the acid 
and water previously mixed together, in a phial 
with n gentle heat, and let the solution be eva- 
porated to dryness. Then put the mass into a 
large crucible and place it on the fire, which 
must be at first gentle and gradually increased 
till the mass flow in the manner of oil ; then 
pour it into iron pipes previously healed and 
rubbed with crease. Lastly, the preparation is 
to be prcsened in a well stopped glass vessel. 

The silver in this process partly decomposes 
the acid, it becomes oxidised, and as it oxidises 
It is clissolvcl in the remaining acid. The 
quantity of acid ordered by ihe colleges is un- 
necessarily large: ten tfuid drachms being amply 
sufficient for the solution of Iwo ounces of silver. 

Qualitm. — Nitrate of silver is of a dark 
gray color, t« ithout any smell, but exceedingly 



pungent and caustic to the taste. It does not 
deliquesce when properly prepared and con- 
stituted. It is soluble in water and alcohol. 
• It is blackened and reduced by exposure to 
light or a strong beat, by phosphorus, hydrogen 
gas, and the h)drosulphurets; is precipitated 
from Its aqueous solution by mercury, copper, 
and some other metals; and is decompo.sed by 
the alkalies with the exception of ammonia, by 
the alkaline earths, sulphureted hydrogen, the 
hydrosulphurets, the sulphuric, muriatic, and 
arsenious acids, the majority of the neutral salts, 
kid by astringent vegetables, solutions, and hard 

Medical propertiet. — Tonic and antispasmodic 
internally ; escharotic when employed externally. 
It has been osed in chorea and other spasmodic 
aCTections, but more especially in epilepsy. 
Dose from one-sixth of a grain to tliree or four 
grains. Orhla regards salt as one of its best 
antidotes when taken in too larsc a quantity. 
Dr. Uwins, in his Treatise on Disorders con- 
nected with Indigestion, suggests whether the 
copious use of salt while the patient is taking 
this medicine might not prevent that discolora- 
tion of the skin which is sometimes the result of 
the continued employment of the nitrate as an 
internal remedy. 

Preparata cx Arskkico. — Preparations of 

Arttnicum album tublimahim. London. — Sub- 
limed while arsenic. 

Rub white arsenic to powder; then pal it 
into a crucible, and applying beat, let it be sub- 
limed in another crucible inverted over the 6rst, 
A superfluous process. 

Liquor arsenicalis. London. — Arsenical solu- 

Take of sublimed white anenie reduced to a 
very fine powder, subcarlwnate of pola^sa from 
tartar, of each sixty-four grains, compound 
tpirit of lavender four fluid drachms, distilled 
water a pint. Let them lie boiled tugplhrr in a 
glass vessel until the arsenic )« entirely dis- 
solved. Add to the sohiiion when it is cold the 
romiiound spirit of lavender, and lastly so much 
distilled water as will make up the whole to a 

Solulio ar$enkalis. Edinburgh. — Arsenical so- 

Take of oxide of arsenic rubbed to a very 
line powder, veiy pure subcarbonate of potasn, 
of each sixty-four grains, d istilled water fourteen 
ounces. Boil them lORether in a glass vessel 
until a'l the oxide he dissolved ; add to the so- 
lution when it i< cold half an ounce of thv com- 
pound spirit of lavender, and so much distilled 
water as will make the whole siiicen ounces, 

Qualitut. — In appearance like the compound 
spirit nf lavender. Decomposible by ' lime 
Water, bydrosniphuret of putassa, nitrate of 
Sliver, ihe sails of copper, and instantly form* a 
copious precipitate when dropped into an infu- 
lion or aeroction of cinchona bark.' 

Medical prnprriiei. — Tonic; principally tm- 
oloyed in inii-rmitienu, and in sslhtnic head- 
aches. Dr. Thniiison tells us that he haa given 
It with decided advantage after cupping and 


purging in tlireatened apoplexy, when II 
strength has been little and Uie complcxioo |4 
Dose iT\^v. gradually increased to iriixv «rtf c 

PrepaRatvu c Bismdtho Preparatim 


Bitmutlii lubnitrai. London. — SubmlalfA 

Take of bismuth one ounce, nitri' 
fluid ounce and a half, distilled w ' vi 
pints. Mix six fluid drachms of the 
water with the nitric acid, and di 
bismuth in the diluted acid ; then 
solution be filtered ; add the remaindi 
water to the filtered solution, and set is 
that the powder may subside. Next, lit ap* 
natant fluid having been poured off, «i.<k4l 
subnitrate of bismuth with distilled^t, ■! 
having wrapped it in bibulous paper, let i% 
dried with a gentle heat. 1 

In this process a hydrated oxide of bisinat 
formed, combined with a small propoititn^ 
nitric acid. 

Qualiliet. — White, without much smet 
taste. Insoluble in watek Sulphureted by4 
gen, and all the hydrosulphurets blackn, 
Reducible by charcoal. 

Medical properties. — Antispasmodic ami ltd 
Exceedingly useful in those painful aflitiiusit 
the stomach which go under the nimc of 
trodynia. It is highly lauded by Dr. Ycatt 
Dr. Uwins. Dose from five giaiiis to 

Pa.tPARATA E Ci'PHO. — Preparations of 

Mrugo preparata. Dublin. — Prcpand 

Let the verdigris be reduced to po' 
the more subtile parts separated in the 
directed for the preparation of chalk 

Cuprum ammonuicum. London. — / 

Take of sulphate of copper half u 
subcarbonate of ammonia six drachm*, 
them together in a glass mortar till the { 
vescence cease ; then wrap up the ami 
copper in bibulous paper »nd let it 
with a gentle heat. 

Ammoniaretum cupri. Elioburgh 
niarct of coppi'r. 

Take of pure sulphate of copper two 
tubcarbonate of ammonia three parti. 
them be thoroughly rubbed together ia 
mortar until all effervescence ceate, 
form a violet-colored ma>s, which wi 
bibulous paper and dry, first on a diall 
and subsequently with a Kentle heat. LmI 
preserved in a well stopped glass phial. 

During these processes part of iha 
the sulphate of copper is given 
ammonia. It seems not quite ecrtaia 
ther the resultioR compound be ' a 
phate of oxide of copper and ainmoa 
miiture only of subsulphate of cop{ 
lulphate of ammonia,' 

Qualitirt. — The nail 1* of a rich blut 
smells like ammonia and is exceedingly 

Mtdteal prnprrtui- — Tonic and anlis] 
Administered in chorta aod fpiltptgr, 




UB, pwlualiy increased to four or 

kit. London, — Solution 

I copper. 

nmini copper a drachm, distilled 

DtssoUe the ammonialed copper 

let tile solution be Altered 

Hkty of water used by the London 
fttgd to be too much, 'it beint; a cu- 
^■W lalt 15 more soluble in a smaller 
^■Icr, omn'^ to the larger quantity 
^nlic sobsulphate of copper and 
■Keluble oxide of copper, which is 

liet. — Principally used as ade- 

iit cvprt compoula, Edinburgh. 

nlutioii of sulphate of copper. 

ilphate of copper, sulphate of 

Hree ounces; wa'.er two pounds; 

I one ounce and a hnlf. Let the 

in the water in order to dis- 

tken add the acid to the liquor 

I paper. 

I of the sulphates. 
ttlUt- — Principally employed in 
sons, largely diluted. 

Fcaao Preparations of iron. 

ri pttrifitala. Edinburgh. — Puri- 

I m sieve over the filings, let a 
Jie<l so that it may draw the 61ings 
I the sieve. 

pHTificatum. Edinburgh. — 
Tmide of iron. 

[scales of tlie black oxide uf iron 

at the anril of the blacksmith, 

alion of the mafinel : for the 

tlie thinner and purer scales 

I the brger and less pure. 

liei. — These imperfect oxides 

uied as antlielminlics. Dose 

London. — Amrooulat- 

irbonale of iron, muriatic acid, 

onia, each a pound. Pour the 

Hpon Ihr ^iibcarbonale of iron, and 

jlf ' cease to arise. Let the 

.:h p,iper and boiled to 

iriiiiM ••ly the residuum wiih the 

Donia ; then directly sublime by 

of a strong heat: lastly reduce 

•tier to powder. 

■ rt ftrn, Edinburgh. — Mo- 
Bia and of iron. 

mid* of iron washed and again 

I of ammonia, each equal parts by 

llhem well together, and let them 

' a quick fire. Reduce the sub- 

" r, and preserve it in a well 

I otdered by the I.Andon college 
I • nature of muriate of ammo- 
mMfille of iron is produced : the 
ate of iron employed is 

QMaliittt. — ^The color of femim ammoniarum 
is of an orange yellow : it has an odnr of saffron 
and rather a styptic taste. It is soluble and de- 

Medical properties. — ^Tonicand emmenagogue. 
From being somewhat aperient it is occasionally 
admissible in cases where otherforms of llie me- 
tal would disagree. We have found it very 
useful when the combination is required o' a 
deobstnicnt and tonic. Dose from grs. iij. to 9ft 
or more. 

Stibcarbonal ferri prgparalvi. Edinburgh. — 
Prep.ired subcarbonate of iron. 

Let purified filings of iron be frequently 
moistened with water till they fall into rust, 
which rust is to be rubbed into powder. 

Qualitiet. — Color of a reddish brown; taste 
styptic; very little smell. 

Mcilical propertiet — Rust of iron has lately been 
used for tic douleureux. As a tonic and emmena- 
gotfue, and vermifuge, in ordinary cases, the dose 
is from gr?. v. to grs. xv. 

Ferri jubcarbonai. London. — Subcatbonale of 

Take of sulphate of iron eight ounces, sub- 
carbonate of soda SIX ounces, boiling water a gal- 
lon. Let the sulphate of iron and subcarbonate 
of soda he dissolved separately in four phits of 
water ; then mix the solutions together, and set 
the mixture aside io order (bat ihe powder may 
subside; then decant off the supernatant fluid ; 
wash Ihe subcarbonate of iron in hot water, and 
let it be dried, wrapped up in bibulous paper, 
with a gentle heat. 

Cnrbonas I'rrri prtrcipilatus. Edinburgh. — Pre- 
cipitated carbonate of iron. 

Take of sulphate of iron fourounces, subcarbo- 
nate of soda hve ounces, water ten pounds. Let 
the sulphate be dissolved in the water ; then add 
the subcarbonate previously dissolved in the wa- 
ter, and mix them together. Wash the carbon- 
.ite of iron wrhich is precipitated with tepid water, 
and afterwards dry it. 

Here a double decomposition is effected : the 
sulphuric acid of the sulphate of iron unites with 
the soda, and the carbonic acid is attracted by the 

Qualities. — Taste but slightly styptic. Color 
brown. No smell Insoluble in water. Decom- 
posible by heat. • 

Medical properliet. — Nearly the same as the 
last. VVhen given fortic douleureux the dose is 
sometimes a drachm frequently repeated. 

Ferri tulphui. London. — Sulphate of iron. 
Take of iron, sulphuric acid, each eight ounces, 
water four pints. Mix the acid with tlie water in 
a glass vessel, and to these add the iron ; then, 
when the effervescence is over, let the solution 
be filtered through paper ; and, after due evapo- 
ntion, set it apart for crystals to form. Having 
poured off the liquor, let the crystals he dried on 
bibulous paper. 

Sulphas Jerri, Edinburgh. — Sulphate of iron. 

Take of iron and sulphuric acid of each by 
weight eight ounces, water four pints. Mix the 
sulphuric acid with the water in a ^'lass vessel, 
and put the iron to them. When the elfcrvescence 
is over, filter the solution through paper, and after 
due evaporation set it apart that crysta s may 



form. Tlie liquor being poureJ off, dry the 
crytlals on bibulous paper. 

In iliMe nrocestes a sulphate of oxide of iron 
is formed, tne oxyneii of part of the water com- 
bining niili the metal, and its hydrogen being sent 
off in a gaseous form. The oxide thus produced 
unites with the sulphuric acid, and a sulphate is 
formed, which is dissolved in that part of the 
water which has not undergone decomposition. 

Qualiliet. — Color green, taste styptic, very 
little odor. Soluble in water and fusible by 
heal. Decomposed by the following substances, 
'the earths, the alkalies and their carbonates ; 
lime water, borate of soda, phosphate of soda, 
muriate of baryies, nitrate of silver, acetate of 
lead, and every salt the base of which forms an 
insoluble compound with sulphuric acid and 
soaps. It IS alr>o decomposed by all infusions of 
vegetable astringents.' 

Medical prnpirliet. — ^Tonic, deobstruent, an- 
thelmintic, and emmenagogue. A very useful 
preparation. Dose from gr. i. to gr. v. 

isulphat ferri ciiiccalia. Edinburgh. — Dried 
lulphale of iron. 

Take of sulphate of iron any quantity. Heat 
it in >in unglazed earthen vessel on a moderate 
fire, until it become quite dry and white. 

I'liis process merely deprives the salt of the 
water of crystallisation. 

Oxidiim firri rubrwn. Edinburgh. — Red 
Oiide of iron. 

Let dried sulphate of iron be exposed to a 
violent heat so as to convert it into a red colored 

The Dublin college properly order this oxide 
to be washed In order to separate a portion which 
still remains of the red sulphate, 

Ferrvm tttrtantatum. London. — Tartarised 

Take of imn a pound, supertarlrate of polassa 
in powder two pounds, water five pints, or a 
sufficient quantity. Let the iron and the super- 
tarttate be rubbed together, and subject the mix- 
ture in an open glass vessel with a pint of water 
to the action of tlie air for twenty days, daily 
slirrin-^ them and preserving a moisture in the 
mass by additions of distilled water. Then boil 
it in four pints of distilled water during fifteen 
minutes, and filler the solution. Evaporate in 
a water-bath uniil the tartarised iron be quile 
dry. I*t it be reduced to powder, attd pre- 
served in a stopped bottle. 

Tartna polatu et feni- Edinburgh — Tar- 
trate of potassa and of iron. 

Take of purified filings of iron one part, 
supertartrate of potassa in powder two parts, 
water one part. Itub them together and expose 
them to the air in a shallow earthen vessel for 
firti'vn days, stirring the mass daily with a spa- 
tula, and keeping it moist by frequent aildiiiont 
of water. Then let the whole he boiled for a 
short time in four times its weight of water, and 
pour oir the solution from the oiher firces. K.v;i- 
poiate the aolution to dryness in a water-hath ; 
and, having rublird the ni.iss into powder, let it 
be kept iti a wi !1 ^iup(>f<l hollle. 

It IS i> Dr. Thomson thai the pro- 

portion I'l lAic of (wLtssa empl«y»d in 

thes« preparaliuot may uol b« sufficient lor lh« 

quantity of metal ; the inteolioa is 6nt ta< 
the iron by a partial decomposition of l' 
employed, and then to combine this ifliid 
the sujierabundant acid of llie super 

QuuUtiet. — The color of this preparatM 
a brownish green ; it is without smell. < 
but a slightly styptic taste. ' The 'irong | 
lime water, hydrosulphuret of potA.'^a, 
fusions of astringent vegetables decomp 
and are therefore incompatible in fonoU 

Medical properties. — This form of if 
been supposed particularly applicable in d 
as combining a diuretic with a toaic i 
Dose 90 to 3fi. 

Liquor Jerri aUuilini. London. — S 
alkaline iron. 

Take of iron two drachms and a 
acid two fluid ounces, distilled water 
ounces, solution of subcarbonate of [ 
fluid ounces. Mix the acid and the t 
Iher, pour the mixture over the iron;' 
the effervescence shall have ceased pout i 
acid and solution. Add this gradually i 
intervals to the solution of subcarbonate i 
tassa frequently agitating until it beco 
brownish red color and no further effen 
he excited. Finally, set it aside for six ; 
and pour off the liquor. 

In this preparation the diluted acid I 
dises the iron, and, when the subcarf 
polassa, is added, carbonic acid is extn 
a red precipitate formed, which is uiti 
solved by the excess of poiassa. 

Qualititt. — Taste slightly styptic an 
exciting a sensation of coldness in the 
Water precipitates the alkaline iron 
clear fluid supernatant, which yields, | 
poralion, crystalsof nilmle of polasi 

Medical properties. — The same with I 
preparations of iron ; but scaicely at | 
ployed on account of the uncertainty of I 
position and strength. 

Tinctura ferri ommoniati. LoDdoD>> 
turt of ammoniated iron. 

Take of ammoniated iron four ouncM*! 
spirit a pint. Digest and filter. 

Tmelura ferri timriatii. Londou.- 
of muriate of iron. 

Take of carbonate of iron half a po 
riatic acid a pint, rectified spirit tlir«e | 
the acid be poured over the carbonati 
* glass vessel, and let the mixture be < 
shaken for three days. Set it ip 
frees, if there be any, may subside ; 
off the solution and add to it the spirit. 

Edinburgh. — Take of black oxide of if 
rified and reduced to powder three ounces^ I 
riatic acid about ten ounces, or sulKci«nl I4 I 
solve the powilvr. DigeU with a gentle 
and, the powder bring dissolved, let 
alcohol be added as will make the wIm 
amount to two ..-..•..i- ..,.| « half, 

llie London > i« of amocci 

strength than H ! uh formula, 

Qualilift. — This tiniUire has « rtrf 
taste, and is of a yellowish bruwn 
coutains th« iron in lh« slate of a chk 



i t black oxide of iron reni^iins 

With the alkalies aod the r ear- 

i a red precipitate, strikes a black 

> 01 astringent vegetables, and 

of acacia gum an orange 

BeDce these substances cannot 

rilions with this tincture.' 

ties. — A useful preparation of 

given in large doses under 

nces of suppression of urine. 

I from ni^v. to f. 3fl. 

London. — Wine of iron. 

one drachm, lupertartrate of 

Jer six drachms, distilled water 

I much OS will be necessary, proof 

luid ounces. Rub the iron and 

0e of polassa together, and expose 

glass vessel with one fluid 

be air for six weeks, stirring 

, and frequently adding so 

^Si«r as may be necessary to 
! in the mass. Then dry it with 
|rab it to powder, and mix it with 
knees of distilled water. Let the 

■Jti and then add the spirit. 
pThis IS 'a solution of tartrate of 
riib an excess of superlarlrate 
iron being being oxidised and 
I kcid of the supertartrate. 

TtUt. — A pleasant preparation 
i from f. 3j. to f. 3ft. 

, MX Utdbarcyro. — Preparations 
of mercury. 

nn creta. London. — Mercury 

ri&ed mercury (by weight) three 
' chalk five ounces. Let them 
er until the globules entirely 

ilion something seems to be ef- 
I oiidisemenl and merely mecha- 
Kof (he mercury. 

lUi. — Amoslexcellentalterative, 
[complaints of children that are 
tphatic weakness and mesenteric 
for ao adult from grs. vi. 

miiricu ojyJum. London. — Nitnc 

meicury (by weight) three 

acid by weii;ht a pound and a 

I water two pints. Mix them in a 

boil until the mercury he dis- 

• bit* mass remain after the water 

Rub tliis into powder, and put 

r very shallow vessel ; then expose 

U, sod let the fire be gradually 

I wpors no longer be emitted. 

ri rubntm per acidum ntlri- 

uxide of mercury by 

i meicary three parts, diluted 
ur parts. Dissolve the mercury, 
I ch» solution over a gentle lire to 
-"ti, being reduced to pow- 
v» cucurbit, and covered 
....i-s. Tlien iidapt a capital 
I having nlacMl it in a sand-hutli 
be roasted with a tire 

gradually raised until small red scales be 

QudHtia. — ' When properly prepared this is a 
peroxide mixed with some nitrate of mercury.' 
It appears in the form of briglit red scales which 
are corrosive and acrid ; tliey are insoluble in 
water but totally soluble in nitric acid, and de- 
composible by a red heat. ' It is sometimes 
adulterated with red oxide of lead, which may be 
detected by dissolving one part of the oxide in 
four of acetic acid ; if lead be present the solu- 
tion has a sweetish taste ; and, when sulphureted 
water is dropped into it, a dirty dark precipitate 
is thrown down. When pure it is perfectly 
volatilised when thrown on a red hoi iron. ' 

Medicul properties. — This, the ted precipitate 
of common language, is only used as an external 
application in cases of chronic, inflammatory, and 
old sores. 

Acetai hydrarpyri. Edinburgh. — Acetate of 

Take of purified mercury three ounces, dilut- d 
nitrous acid four ounces and a half, or a little 
more than is necessary to dissolve the mercury, 
acetate of potassa three ounces, boiling water 
eight pounds. Mix the mercury with the acid ; 
and towards the ctsiation of the effervescence 
digest, if necessary, until the mercury be com- 
pletely disolved. Tlien dissolve the acetate of 
potassa in the bailing water, and immediately to 
this solution, still hot, add the former, and mix 
them together by agitation. Set the mixture aside 
lo crystallise; then wash the crystals placed in a 
funnel with cold distilled water, and finally dry 
them with a very gentle heat. 

In preparing the acetate of mercury it is ne- 
cessary that all the vessels which are used, and 
the funnel, be of glass. 

In this preparation a nitrate of mercury is first 
procured by tlie action of tlie nitrous acid upon 
the metal, which nitrate is decomposed by the 
potassa of the acetate unilingwith tlie acid of the 
salt ; in this way a nitrate of potassa is procured 
which remains dissolved; and the acetic acid of 
the acetate combines with oxidated metal, and 
thus forms the acetate of mercury. 

Qualities. — This salt should appear in small 
flat crystals of a silvery whiteness : it is acrid to 
the taste; soluble in hot water, but not in alco- 
hol, and decomposed by alkalies and heat. 

Mdlicttl properties. — It is a form of mercury 
not much used ; in the proportion of grs. ii. to 
f. Jij. of rose water, some have recommended it 
as a wash in certain cutaneous disorders. Dose 
gr. i. twice a day. 

Hydrurgyri oiydvm cinertum. Londcn. — Gray 
oxide of mercury. 

Take of submuriate of mercury an ou: ce, 
lime-water a gallon. Boil the submuriate of 
mercury in the lime-water, stirring it assiduously 
until the gray oxide of mercury subside. Let 
it be washed with distilled water, and then dried. 

Osidum \i/drargt/ri cincreum. Edinburgh.— 
Cray oxide of mercury. 

Take of submunate of mercury half an ounce, 
lime-water Bve pounds. Boil the submunate in 
the solution for a quarter of an hour in a slightly 
covered vessel. Pour off the supernatant fluid, 
and let the oxide be washed with distilled water 
and dried. 



The lime water decomposes the subrouriale, 
and the gray precipitate is a protoxide. l[ ca- 
lomel be considered a proto-chloridc of mercury, 
we must admit (says Dr. Thomson) that the wa- 
ter of the lime-water is decomposed, and its 
bydrojen, nnitiog with the chlorine, forms muri- 
atic acid, which converts the lime into amunale, 
while its oxygen changes the mercury into the 

QuuUlUt. — Color gray. Insipid, without 
smell, and insoluble in water. 

Mcdieal properties. — Some hare considered 
this preparation as an exceedingly useful form of 
mercury, partly on account of the uniformity of 
its strength. Dose from gr. i. to grs. iij. 

Hydrargyri oii/dum rubrum. Londoa. — Red 
oxide of mercury. 

Take of purified mercury (by weight) a pound. 
Put tlic mercury into a tall glass vessel with a 
narrow mouth and broad at the bottom. Subject 
this vessel open to a heat of 600° until the mer- 
cury be converted into red scales, which are then 
to be rubbed into a fine powder. 

The heat in this process volatilises the mercury, 
and the metal in this siale attracts oxygen from 
the air and is thus converted into a red oxide. 

Qtialitiet. — This preparation produces spark- 
ling deep red scales, which are small and ex- 
ceedingly bnlliant, without odor, but of a sharp 
caustic taste. 

Medical proper liet. — Formerly it was consi- 
dered ait excellent form of mercury for syphilis, 
but is at present very little employed. Dose 
from one-iixth or eighth of a grain to one grain. 
It is apt to affect the bowels, and is therefore 
usually combined with opium. It is employed 
by some externally as an escharolic. 

Hi/drargyri oryinurioi. London. — Oxjrmuriate 
of mercury. 

Take of purified mercury (by weight) two 
pounds, sulphuric acid thirty ounces (by weight), 
dried muriate of soda four pounds. Boil the 
mercury with the sulphuric acid in a glass vessel 
until the sulphate of mercury become dry; rub 
this when cold with the muriate of soda in a 
mortar of earthenware ; then sublime it in a 
glass cucurbit, with a heal gradually raised. 

Muriat liydrarfyri rorroncut. tdinburgb. — 
Corrosive muriate of mercury. 

Take of purified mercury two pounds, sul- 
phuric acid two pounds and a half, dried muriate 
of soda four pounds. Boil the mercury with 
the sulphuric acid in a glass vessel placed in a 
sand bath until the matenal become dry. Mix 
this when cold in a gla>s vessel with the muriate 
of soda; then sublime in a glass cucurbit with a 
heat gradually raised. Separate the matter sub- 
limed from the scons. 

' According to the latest doctrines, the chlorine 
of the common salt leaves the sodium and uniting 
with the mercury of the hypersulphale forms a 
bichloride of mercury which sublimes, while the 
oxygen of the oxide of mercury combining with 
the sodium converts it into soda, which unilM 
with the sulphuric acid, and forms sulphate of 
•oda which remains m the bottom of the cu- 

Qiia/i/irs.— Corrosive lubliiMte, as it was for- 
merly called, appear* tii the form of very small 

shining white crystals, which have a ve 
taste, and are without smell ; they rffloii 
exposure to the air. It is soluble in ' 
hoi, and the acids. Alkalies and oil) 
and reduce it. ' It is also decomp 
tions of tartrate, of potassa, and an 
trale of silver and acetate of lead, and (bq 
cipitales in infusions and decoction* ] 
followingvegetable substaLces. Camo 
ers, horse radish rooUcolumba rool,( 
chona-bark, rhubarb root, senna 
aruba bark, oak bark, tea, and in J 
mixture, consequently it is incomp 
temporaneous formula with these sa 

Medieal properties. — Formerly veiyi 
ployed in syphilitic affections ; and 
tuting the main ingredient of several] 
medicinals which profess to contain no I 
in their composition. At present it is i 
in chronic affections of the skin than ] 
other disorder, whether these have or, 
syphilitic origin and character. I> 
tenth of a grain to a fourth, two or I 

Liquor fiydrargyri ojymuriatit. 
•Solution of oxymuriate of mercury. 

Take of oxymunate of mercury eigbtj 
distilled water fifteen fluid ounces, tedil 
rit a fluid ounce. Let the oxymuriate or 
ry be dissolved in the water and the spirit 

The dose of this solution is from f. 5fi. 
each fluid ounce containing half a | 
salt. The solution should not be I 
exposed to a strong light, as it thus 1 
composed and tlirows down calomel, 
lution is externally useful in tetters diln 
half its measure of water. 

Hydrargyrum prttcipifatum album. 
White precipitated mirrcury. 

Take of oxymuriate of mercury half ( 
muriate of ammonia four ounces, solutM 
carbonate of potassa half a pint, distill 
four pints. Dissolve first the muriate of] 
nia, then the oxymuriate of mercury in I 
tilled water, and add to the mixed sola 
solution of subcarboiiate of potassa. 
precipitated powder be washed until it I 
tasteless, then it is to be dried. 

The Dublin College order the pr 
be made by an addition to the fluid [ 
from the precipitated submuriate ofaqa 
water of ammonia, which Dr. Thomson l 
is a more simple and a more economictl] 
of obtaining the product. The corrosive « 
it will be recollected, is held in soluliaa| 
fluid in question, and is precipitated by I 

Qualitiei. — Muriate of mercury and : 
(so Dr. Thomson names it) is without 
taste; it is a sinouth white insoluble 
When adulterated with while lead the fr«il 
be detected ' by digesting one part of it 
parts of acetic acid, and adding to the 
a small c^uanlily of sulphuret of ima 
black precipitate, insoluble m sulphuric j 
dicites the pmrnce of lead. Ciialk and] 
are also sometimes mixed with it, kad 
detected by heating ihr nrrnaratioo lo 
tpoon ; if pure it is completely rotstiln 


March a black coal is led ; or 
lift a «Kile powder at ihe boltom of 

». — Used only as an oint- 
: other affections of the skin. 
tfm^icatwn. London. — Purified 

inio an iron retort, and having 
■tji the punfied mercury. 
\ furtjicatvt. Edinburgh. — Purifi- 

ory «ii parts, filings of iron one 
) together and distil from an iron 

rial. London. — Subrouriale 

mcrcory (by weight) four 
raeid (by weight) thirty ounces, 
I one pound and a half, muriate of 
I ounce*. Boil two pounds of the 
; sulphuric acid in a glass vessel 
f of mercury be dry ; when this 
be triturated with two pounds of 
\ u> earthen mortar, that they may be 
Then add the muriate of soda, 
cethertiil all ginbules disappear ; 
lime. Reduce the sublimed mat- 
\^nt powder; pass it tlirough a 
it carefiilly with the muriate of 
riously dissolved in a gallon of 
water. Set it aside that the 
^Mbaide. Pour off the solution, and 
r repeatedly with distilled water, 
ilntion of ammonia dropped into 
pg duwD. Finally, reduce it to a 
' : in the mauner directed for the 

rgyri mit'a lice calomelat. 
tild tubmuriate of mercury or 

ate of mercury four parts, puri- 
parts. Rub the muriate in a 

nth a little water in order to pre- 

Hi powder from rising ; then add the 

lOrf (icain triturate until it be extin- 

fat the dtied mass into an oblong 

only of which it shall fill, and 

land-baih. Again let the sublimed 

rated, and again sublimed ; then 

-fine powder, which is lastly to be 

ilh boiling diililled water. 

porlaiit pieparation is a proto- 

ury (and nut a submuri^te). In 

of tlie London College, following 

the mercury is first formed into 

which is mixed with the common 

rtcd into corrosive sublimate, but 

aotDenl of its formation, is again 

the ammonia of the muriate of 

1) isd converted into calomel. But 

■a»«cioally the case, that the cor- 

h is formed is a perchloride, 

calomel by one- half of the 

><th the additional portion of 

ng a prolochlonde. By Inlu- 

iry, a« directed by llie two 

the corrosive muriate the 

a gray color. The sublima- 

eembination of the mercury with 

(he chloride and its reduction to the state of prn- 
tochloride complete ; but this is not the case in 
Ihe first sublimation, for both metallic mercury 
and corrosive muriate are found unchanged in the 
sublimed mass ; and thence the necessity of the 
second trituration and subsequent sublimations 
By repeating, however, the sublimation loo often 
the product is injured, as corrosive muriate is 
formed in each sublimation. The final tritura- 
tion and levigation are intended to separate any 
corrosive muriate that may have been formed. 
In performing the process, the addition of a little 
water during the trituration of the ingredients in 
the first instance is very necessary; as otherwise 
the operator is apt to suffer extremely from the 
acrid powder of (he corrosive muriate which is 
elevated .'. — Thomson. 

Qualities. — Calomel is of a dull white appear- 
ance, without odor or taste ; it is insoluble. It 
is rendered black by trituration with lime-water 
and the alkalies, and it is also decomposed by 
sulphureted hydrogen and the hydrosulphureu, 
by antimony, iron, lead, copper, and soap. 

Medical propertiei. — This preparation in dif- 
ferent doses, according lo circumstances, is in 
greater use than any other form of mercury. It 
is employed as a purgative, alterative, and de- 
obstruent, and antispasmodic, and, indeed, as a 
diuretic and sedative, when combined with other 
substances and duly proportioned as to dose, 
which varies from the sixth of a grain to many 
grains and even scruples. 

Submuriat liydrargijri pr^cipitutui. Edin- 
burgh. — Precipitated submuriate of mercury. 

Take of diluted nitrous acid, purified mercury, 
of each eight ounces, muriate of soda four 
ounces and a half, boiling water eight pounds. 
Mix the mercury with the diluted nitrous acid, 
and towards the termination of the effervescence 
digest with a gentle heal, frequently shaking Ihe 
vessel. It is necessary for more mercury to be 
mixed with the acid than it can dissolve, so that 
a completely saturated solution be obtained. 

Dissolve at the same time the muriate of soda 
in the boiling water ; then to this add the other 
solution while it is yet warm, and mix tliem very 
quickly together. After the precipitate has sub- 
sided pour off the saline fluid, and wash the 
submuriate of mercury by frequent affusions of 
warm water, which are to be poured off each 
time af^er the precipitate subsides, until the 
water come off tasteless. 

In this process the mild muriate is mixed with 
the subnilrate of mercury, by which its powers 
are modified; for Ihe metal is oxydiscd to a maxi- 
mum by solution in nitric acid with heni, and a 
subnilrate is precipitated by the addition of water. 
Heat, therefore, ought not to be employed in the 

Qualiliet. — Calomel prepared in the above 
way is smoother and not so heavy as that ob- 
tained by sublimation, but otherwise is similar, 
with the exception of its containing the subni- 
lrate if prepared with heat according to the di- 
rection of tlie college. 

Medical propcrliei. — Essentially the same 
with common calomel. 

Hi/drarfyri tulphuittum tignim. Lcndon.— 
Black sulphuret of mercury. 



Take of purified mercury (by weiglit) one 
pound, suhliined sulphur a pound. LfI them 
be ruhbed tncieihirr till the lilobules diiappear. 

Sulphuretum lii/drarf:yri nigrum. Edinburgh. — 
fihick sulphuret of mercury. 

Take of purified mercury, sublimed sulphur, 
of each equal weights. Let them be trhurated 
together in a elass mortar with a glass pestle, 
until the globules of mercury altogether disap- 
pear. It may also be made with double the 
quantity of mercury. 

It seems that some chemical combination is 
effected by the trituration of the mercury with 
the sulphur, but that the metal is not, as it had 
been supposed by Fourcroy, at all oxidated. 

Qualilies. — The black sulphuret of mercury 
b without taste or smell. The application 
'6f heat occasions it to emit sulphurous acid 
gas. When aduher3ted with ivory black, which 
la not sellom the case, the fraud may be de- 
tected by thruwini; the m.-us on a red hut iron, 
when ashes will be left if there had been any ad- 
mixture of the irory black. 

Medical properties. — It has been chiefly em- 
ployed as an alterative in cutaneous affections, 
and as a remedy against worms. Dose from 
gr. V. to 3ft. 

Ilydnngyrt tulphitrelum rubrum. London. — 
>ed sulphuret of mercury. 
Take of purified mercury (by weight) forty 
nces, sublimed sulphur eight ounces. Having 
melted the sulphur over the fire, mix the mer- 
cury, and immediately upon the swelling of the 
masi remove the vessel from the fire, and cover 
it with force in order to prevent it from calcliing 
fire ; then rub it into powder and sublime. 

Qualiliei. — This preparation (cinnabar) is of a 
bright vivid red color, without taste and inso- 
luble. ' It is sometimes adultemte'l with red 
lead, dragon's blood, and chalk : the first is dis- 
covered by the same process as was described 
for discovering it in the red oxide; spirit of 
wine detects the second by extracting the color- 
ing matter ; and the last is discovered by an 
effervescence being excited by muriatic acid, 
and the production of sulphate of lime on add- 
ing S'llpliuric acid. 

Mrdieal prnpertiet. — Deobstruent and altera- 
tive. Not at present much employed. Dose 
for internal use gr. x. to id. Factitious cinna- 
bar, as it has been called, is used by some for 
fumigating venereal ulcers in the throat. 

Subinlphai hydrargt/ri Jlama. Edinburgh. — 
Yellow subsulpliate of mercury. 

Take of purified mercitry two parts, sulphuric 
acid three parts. Tut them into a gla^ cucur- 
bit, placed in a sand-bath, and boil lliein to dry- 
ness. Pulverise the white mass le(\ ai Uie bot- 
tom of the vessel, and tiirow it into boiling water. 
It will be immediately changed into a yellow 
powder, which is to be washed with frequent 
affusions of warm water. 

Ill tins process a supersulpliale of mercury i* 
first formed; but the continued application of 
beat eiucls and partly decomposes a portion of 
the aciil, til" "1.1 ii •'■•"omes more oxidised, and 
a subsulph.i' .'d. 

QuaUtKi ; .imtlon isof a ftnebright 

yellow; it » without smtll, but of u acrid 


It is changed by rubbing i( 
into the black oxide ; and a n 

by I 

ide ; 
duces It to its metallic state 

aiioit I 

by ej 

Medical properliet. — Principally i 
errhine. It has been found exlreni 
in chronic ophthalmia, and diseases o 
but even for this purpose its acrimoi 
to be sheathed with swme bland powd< 
or liquorice root, powder in the pr 
grs. V. to gr. j. of^ subsulphate. u 
grs. V. it operates as a powerful enietj 

Pr^pakata e Pluhbo — PreparatiQ 

Plumbi acetoi. London. — Acetals i 

Take of subcarbonate of lead a pd 
acetic acid one pint, boiling distilled 
pint and a half. Mix the acid with dM 
these add the subcarbonate of lead, 
then filter the solution through paper, i 
evaporated it until a pellicle appear i 
face, set it apart for the formatioit i 
Pour off the fluid, and let the ci 
upon bibulous paper. 

.Acetat plumbi. Edinburgh 

Take of white oxide of lead any 
weaker acetic acid a sufiicienl quantity 
oxide into a cucurbit, and (lOur over t 
its weight of the acid. Ijet the mill 
upon a warm sand-bath until the aci 
sweet ; then pour it off, and add fit 
successive portions, until no more s* 
communicated. Evaporate all the i 
from impurities in a glass vessel to ^ 
lence of thin honey, and set it aside 
place for crystals to form, which are ti 
in the shade. Again evaporate Che 
liquor new crystab may be obb 
repeal the evaporation until no more ( 

These piocesses are seldom emp 
acetate of the shops being generally I 
is obtained on a large scale by treatin| 
lead with distilled vinegar. 

Qualities. — Acetate of lead (sugv i 
possessed of an astringent and sweet I 
in die form of white crystals. It 
efflorescent, and is soluble. It iideeM 
the alkalies and their carbonates, ■ 
acids and neutral salts, lime, nugotel 
the sulphurets ; but it is not affected 1 
tion of gum. 

Medical prtmrtiet. — Powerfi 
and sedative. Dose from a quai 
a grain. It is in the general 
bine it with about half its q 
Externally it is much used as a coUyrl 
proportions of fifteen grains or a tcm 
a pint uf water. 

Liquor plumbi subacetatii. LoodoB^ 
of suhacetale of lead. 

Take of semivitrified oxide 
pounds, acetic acid (distilled vii 
Mix them, and lioil them down to 
stirring assiduously ; then set the tohl 
tliat the impurities may subside, andt 

Qualiltfs. — lilts solution u of • 
straw color, with a sweetish and Ml 
taste. ' It is partially decoraj 
diluted sritb distilled water 

anectea i 

1 cnllyrl 
a tcm 




piccipiute immeilialely lakes 
precipitated in the form of a 

t by the alkalies and their carbonates ; 
Ipncipitate is produced by the alka- 

*t». It is inae»>d the best t<>3t for 

barated hydrogen in any compound. 

I is klso incompatible with solutions 
Ike gam of which it coa^lates ; 

OMSl delicate test for mucilage with 
•in ac<{U9iniet). 

M fnftrtitt. — Only employed exier- 
It Mailed Goulard's extract from harin; 
IwJ uc c J into practice by a surgeon of 
licr«f A*t name. 

f a^Mii tubacetutit ditulus. London. — 
iMataea of subacetale of lead. 
Ifnlafbon of subacelate of lead a fluid 
(teflltil water a pint, proof spint a fluid 
, Mu them. 

ptrfhioas preparation, inasmuch as the 
I' M easly made extemporaneously, and 
|ih ■ttording to circumstances. 

IUTji ■ Zinco. — Preparations of zinc. 
'imjf^perata. London. — Prepared cala- 

k( Cut calamine and beat it to powder ; 
hi it hau> a state of very fine powder, lo 
HrdiiMied for prepannz ch.-ilk. 
laa amei iuipuna preparalus. Edin- 
-P«»p«r«d impure carbonate of zinc. 
b| raMhRl lo powder, in an iron moitar, 
■te of zinc roasted by those who 
and having levitated it with a 
1 1 porphyry, it Is to be put into a 
I and water poured over it, which, 
lly agitating the vessel, is to be 
r leaded with the powder. The fine 
nslMides after the water lias re- 
Ijihen to be drie<l. The coarse 
anoot suspend is again to be 
" as before. 

riKj. — Calamine is principally 
form of a dry powder to the 
> which infants are subject, and is 

1^^ useful application. 

Baa impurtuH pritparatum. Edin- 
•■Alpatcd imimre oxide of zinc. 
^npifvi in the same manner as the im- 
•OMteof line. 

yttitam. London. — Oxide of zinc, 
•f Mtphalc of zinc one pound, solution 
Bail one pint, or so mucli as may be re- 
dhwilhJ water one pint. Dissolve the 
> if tine in the distilled water, and add 
\ aohttiou of ammonia as may be neces- 
Miaiy to precipitate the oxide of zinc. 
r dba aolBlion, wash the powder repeat- 
k dwdlVd water, and dry itupona sand- 
al ciars. Bdmburgh. — Oxide of zinc. 

hl^ cnclble be placed in a furnace 
Mil bsiBiBf coals in such a manner as to 
mhtx iaclined to its mouth, and when 
vm tt aim beated to a moderate detrree 
■• A(«w inlo it a piece of tine of about 
■ pai|^. The zinc is soon inflnmed 
■■ilu) into while flocculi, which are oc- 
I7 lokt famoTed from the surface of the 

metal by means of an iron spatula, for the com- 
pletion of the combustion ; when the inflamma- 
tion is over, let the oxide of zinc be reniov(><I 
from the crucible. Then throw in another pn-ce, 
and let the operation be repealed as often as 
necessary. Finally, let the oxide of zinc be pre- 
pared in the same manner as the impure car- 
bonate of zinc. 

The quantity of water ordered by the London 
College is said to be too small. Mr. Brande as 
quoted by Ur. Thomson says the word congium 
should be substituted for octarium. 

Qutttitiej. — Insipid, of a pure white color 
and infusible, insoluble in water and alcohol, but 
soluble in acids. It is oRen adulterated with 
chalk, and sometimes contains while lead. By 
pouring sulphuric acid on the specimen, the first 
IS discovered by the eflerrescenee which is ex- 
cited, the second by an insoluble sulphate of lead 
being formed. 

Mtdicul propertiet. — Tonic and antispasmodic. 
Considerably employed in chorea and epilepsy. 
Dose gr. i. to grs. v. 

Zinci sulphtu, London. — Sulphate of zinc. 

Take of zinc broken into small pieces four 
ounces, sulphuric acid by weight six ounces, 
Wiiter four pints. Mix them in a glass vessel, 
an J, when the effervescence Is over, filter the so- 
lution through paper ; then boil it until a pellicle 
bei;in to form on the surfiice, and set it aside to 

Edinburgh. — Take of zinc cut inlo small 
pieces three parts, sulphuric acid five parts, 
water twenty parts. Mix, and the effervescence 
being over digest for a short time on hot sand. 
Then filter the decanted solution through paper, 
and after due evaporation set it apart for the for- 
mation of crystals. 

In these processes the zinc decomposes the 
water by the aid of the acid, and the oxygen of 
the water being attracted by the metal hydrogen 
becomes disengaged with effervescence. The 
greatest portion of tlie sulphate of zinc which is 
used in tiie shops is prepared by exposing blende 
in such a way that white vitriol, an it is culled, 
results. This white vitriol is purified by solu- 
tion in water, the solution being allowed to eva- 
porate slowly in an open vessel containing some 
granulated zinc; by tliis process any sulphate of 
lead that may be mixed with the sulphate of 
zinc is caused to subside, and the other salts are 
decomposed by the metallic zinc. 

Qualitie$. — ^The preparation is probably a su- 
persutphate; its taste is acidulous and mrlalllc. 
It is without smell. ' It Is decomposed by the 
alkalies, earths, and hydrosulphurets ; and 
throws down a dirty looking precipitate, from 
astringent vegetable infusions, with which there- 
fore It is incompatible in prescriptions.' 

Medicai propcrliri. — "roiiic, antispasmodic, 
and astringent. In scruple or half drachro 
doses It is emetic. It is also employed In ex- 
ternal aflitctlons, especially in ophthalmic com- 
plaints accompanied by a laxity of vessel. Dose 
as a collyrium 3j. to half a pint of rose water. 
Do»e for internal administration from one grain 
to three or four. 

Solutio tulphutU tinci. Edinburgh. — Solutioo 
of sulphate of zinc. 



Take of sulphate of zinc sixteen grains, 
water ei|;ht ounces, diluted sulphuric acid 
sixteen drops. Dissolve thesulpbute of line m 
the »aler, and, afler adding the acid, filter the 
solution llirous;li paper. 

Sulutio acttutit tiaci. Edinburgh. — Solution 
of acetate of zinc. 

Take of sulphate of zinc one drachm, acetate 
of lead four scruples, distilled water twenty 
ounces. Dissolve. Let the salts be mixed 
separately in ten ounces of the water; then mix 
the sulntions, and, after the precipitate has sub- 
sided, filter. 

Here there is a double decomposition ; the 
sulphate of zinc gives out its sulphuric acid to 
the oxide of lead contained in the acetate, and 
the zinc, ri;Huced to the sute of oxide, combine* 
with (lie acid of the acetate of lead ; the acetate 
of zinc remains in solution and is thus easily 
separ.ktcd from the sulphate of lead by filtering. 

Medical propntttt. — Employed principally as 
a collyrium, and in gooorrhosa after tbe ioflam- 
roation has subsided. 

SuLPBirRE*. — Preparations of sulphur. 

0/nimsu//)Aur<i(H/ii. London. — Sulphuretedoil. 

Talie of washed sulphur two ounces, olive 
oil a pint. Add the sulphur to the oil gradually, 
the oil being heated in a very large iron pot ; 
stir the mixture after each addition till union is 

Qualities. — Smell fetid and taste acrid, color 
of a reddish brown; it emits sulphureted hydro- 
gen when subjected to heal. 

Medical propertici. — Stimulant ; and, when 
employed externally, cleansing or detergent, it 
was formerly much employed in chronic affec- 
tioii! of the chest, under the notion of its healing 
nature, in doses of from n\ v. to tri ixx. 

Polatsa lulphurctum, London. — Sulphuret of 

Take of washed sulphur an ounce, snbcarbon- 
ate of pulassa two ounces. Rub them together 
and place the mixture in a covered crucible 
over the fire until they unite. 

Sulphiirctum potaaa. Edinburgh. — Sulpburet 
of potassa. 

Take of subcarbonate of potassa two parts, 
sublimed sulphur one part. Hub them together 
and put them into a large covered crucible, to 
which, a cover being adapted, apply the fire 
cautiously until they melt. Preserve tlie mass 
in a well closed vessel. 

We are told that id order to effect a complete 
combination the subcarbonate should be ex- 
posed in a crucible to a red heat previously to 
Its beiiiJiC rubbed with the sulphur ; the water of 
ih* subcarbonate would thus be dissipated, and 
at tlie <aine time a portion of tlie carbonic acid 
expelled, both of which, when nol driven off, 
alter the product. So that the direclioiu of the 
colleges for th« preparation are defective. 

Qualititt. — \V ithont much odor when dry, 
but emitting sulphureted hydrogen when moist- 
ened. Taste «rnd, texture brilile.breakui^wiih 
a glassy fracture of a brown color. It attracts 
moisture from the air. thereby becomes green, 
and gradually changed into a hydrogureted 
tulphuret of pol«ssa, combined with a situll 


portion of sulphate of potassa. It 
posed by acids, and its sulphur sub 
the mass is exposed to a violent heat 

Med'ual proptrlies. — Alterative ai 
degree diaphoretic. It has been m 
allay the extreme irritation of pruri; 
employed in other cutaneous, as ali 
mstic and pulmonary disorders. I> 
v. to gr. X. 

Sulphur latum. London. — Washed 

Take of sublimed sulphur a po 
boiling water upon it. so that the ai 
be any, may be washed away; then i 

Sulphur lublunatum lolum. Edinbur) 
ed sublimed sulphur. 

Take of sublimed sulphur one part 
parts. Boil the sulphur for a short 
water ; then pour off this water, and 
affusions of cold water, let all t1 
washed away. Lastly, dry the sulph 

Sulphur prgcipitatum. London.—! 

Take of sublimed sulphur a 
burnt lime two pounds, water 
Boil the sulphur and the lime togi 
water, then niter the liquor through 
let as much muriatic acid be droppe 
may be sufficient to precipitate tl 
Lastly, wash this with repeated i 
water until it lose all taste. 

' In the first part of this ptt)C« 
gureted sulpburet of lime is prodti 
combination of the lime and sulphu 
ing a decomposition of pan of the 
hydrogen of which unites with a po 
sulphur, and forms a liydrosulphure 
oxygen with another portion furmi 
acid that combines witti |>art of th> 
thus the solution contains a small 
sulphate of lime, and a sulpburet 
rather tlie base of limp, calcium, cor 
sulphureted hydrogen. This hydroi 
phuiet is then decomposed by the m 
which unites with the lime, and for« 
muriate while the sulphur is preci| 
sulphureted hydrogen gas is disengag< 

Qualities. — Color white, inclininj 
not materially differing from subliou 

Ui/droiulphurrtum ammoruc. Edmt 
drosulphuret of ammonia. 

Take of water of ammonia, sulphi 
of each four ounces, muriatic acid e 
water two pounds and a half. P( 
previously mixed with the water oo 
ret, and transmit the evolved gas 
water of ammonia. Preserve the 
well-stopped phials. 

Qua/ifirf.— Color of a dark greet 
and taste acrid. Acids decompoM j 

Medicai proptTtie$. — Sedative, 
principally employed in dia^ 
niv. gradually increased. 

VF,nET*MM». — V( 

For collecting vegetables we han 
ing directions given by the London 

Vegetables are to be gathered ( 
and place where they grow spontao 

wlien no dew is futiiid upon 

,, ' tre to l)« collecteJ yearly, and any 
^LiaTr been kept for more tliiin a year 
Itlhown aw»y. 

Pint the most part to be dug up 
oting out of their stems or leave*. 
lu bv collected at that season in 
ktion from the wood is more easily 

to be gathered aAer tlie expansion 
and before the seeds have come 


to be gathered when they are just 

I at to be eollected when ripe, and be- 
|l(vp from the plant. They ought to 
IlllB their seed vessels. 
^^m f^peraliv- London. — Piepara- 

^B io«n after being gatlirrod, except 
PRie to be used in .1 recent stale, are 
Jiljr ipread out and dried as quickly as 
»it)i » fenllf li»,it. so that tlieir color 
(be altered; they are then to be pre- 
ia proper situation) or vessels where 
tmoatare are excluded 
lyltit h we demre to be preserreil fresh 
iMied io dry sand. The squill root, 
^Bfi ts to be denuded of its and coats, 
pKfty cut Into thin slues. 

rfrmis if they be not ripe, or if they be 
4ritd, are 10 be placed in a damp silu- 
ItAiy may become sof^ ; (hen the pulp 
fpBwd out through a hair sieve; then 
Wh » gentle heat, frequently stirring; 
" I water evaporated in a water bath 
I act^Dtre a doe consistence. 

pods of cassia pour boiling 
I wash out the pulp, which is first 
I through a sieve with lar^'e holes, 
through a hair sieve ; then the 
dissipiled in a water-bath, until 
Bre a due consistence. 
TeT juice of ripe and fresh fruits is 
1 through a sieve without boiline. 
tTtu-culiv. Edinburgh. — The 
1 and flowers. 

flowen should be dried by the 
' • stove or a common fire in such 
■taaoe as will admit of the operation 
RMgdpljr finished ; for thus are their 
^^^^bcrred, the indication of which 
^^^^P^preferration of their natural 

*f b*mlock, and of other plants 
If * '■' vrilntile matter, are immc- 

p»r <<\ to be reduced to pow- 

Mpi to wen «iopperl glass vessels. 
)Ot<d H» KO-quiU freed from its outer 
» be imwvenrly cut into Ihin slices. 
lalioa ttf i)» being properly dried is the 
•f ill b«Ueme» and acrimony after it 

Edmhiurgb. — Extraction 

wUdi aieni > pulp, if unripe, or if 
dry, kre la be boiM in a small quan- 
lill tbey become son ; then the 
through a h«ir sieve. 

and afterwards boiled with a gentle beat in an 
eaithen vessel, stirring frequently in order to 
prevent it from burning, until it acquire the con- 
sistence of honey. 

In like manner the pulp of cassia fistula is to 
be boiled out from the bruised pod, and then 
brought to a due consisleuce by the evaporation 
of the water. The pulps of fresh and ripe 
fruits are to be pressed through a sieve without 
previous boiling. 

Succi spisiati. Edinburgh. — Inspissated juices. 

Beat the fresh substance and press it strongly 
through a canvas bag so as to obtain the juice, 
which being put into a wide and shallow vessel, 
and heated by means of boiling water saturated 
with sea salt, is to lie reduced to the consistence 
of honey. The mass when cold is to be put 
into glazed earthen vessels, and moistened with 
strong alcohol. 

Gummi Tcsina. London. — Gum-resins. 

Separate opium very carefully from all extra- 
neous matter, particularly from that on its out- 
side. Let it be preserved in a sof\ state proper 
for forming pills, and in a stale of hardness such 
as can be produced by drying it in the heat 
of a water-bath, so that it may be reducible to 

Those gum renins are to be considered the 
best which can be selected so free from impurity 
as to require no purifying opention. If, how- 
ever, they appear less pure, boil them in water 
until ihey soften, and squeeze them by a press 
through a hempen bag: then set them apart that 
the resinous matter may subside. Pour off the 
supernatant fluid, and evaporate it by a water- 
bath heat, adding the resinous portion toward* 
the end of the opention, that it may combine 
with the gummy part. 

Those gum resins which liquify readily are to 
be purified by putting them into an ox bladder, 
and holding them in boiling water until they 
become sufficiently soft to be freed from impuri- 
ties by pressing them through a hempen bag. 

Dissolve the balsam of storax in rectified spirit 
and strain ; then distil off the spirit by a gentle 
heal, until the balsam acquire a due consistence. 

OtCA ExpRESSA — Expressed oils. 

Oleum amygdalarum. London. — Oil of al- 

Macerate almonds either bitter or sweet in 
cold water for twelve hours, and bruise them ; 
then express the oil without heat. 

CHeum amygdali communit. Edinburgh.— Oil 
of the almond. 

Take fresh almonds and bruise them in a 
stone mortar; then put them into a hempen 
bag, and express the oil by a press without 

Medical prnpertiei. — Demulcent and emol- 
lient. Dose from f. Jft *" f- .?j- 

Oleum tint. London. — Oil of lioteed. 

Bruise the seeds of common flax, and then 
express the oil without heat. 

Medieat prppertiei. — Jjixative at well as de- 
mulcent and emollient. It has been much re- 
commended by some in hsroorrhoidal aflectioni ; 
but it is principally used either as an external 
applicatior> in cases of bums and scalds, or id 




the form of enemata. Dose by the mouth from 
f. 3fl to f. ^. as an enema from f. 3i>j- to f. 3»j- 

Ulewn ricini. London. — Castor oil. 

Bruise the seeds of castor, first deprived of 
their pellicles, and express the oil without heat. 

O1.E& DiSTiLLATA. — Distilled or rolatile oils. 

Olea diiliUata. London.^Distilled oils. 
The seeds of anise and carraway, the flowers 
of chamomile and lavender, the berries of juni- 
per and all-spice, the tops of rosemary, and the 
whole plants of the other articles are to be used. 

Any one of these is to be put into an alembic, 
and so much water is to be added as will cover 
it, the oil is then to be distilled in a large refri- 

The water which distils over with the carra- 
way, peppermint, spearmint, all-spice, and pen- 
nyroyal is to be kept for use. 

OUa volatilia, Edinburgh. — Volatile oils. 

So much water only is to be used as wilt pre- 
yent empyreuma during distillation. The dis- 
tillation may be immediately commenced after 
due maceration, and the oil afterwards separated 
firom the water. 

It is also necessary to observe in preparing 
tlicse oils and the distilled waters, that the quality 
of the materials, their texture, the time of tne 
year, and other circumstances may occasion so 
many differences, that it is hardly possible to 
give any certain and general rules which shall 
strictly apply in all cases. Many things, there- 
fore, whicn must be regulated by the judgment 
of the operator, are omitted, and the. more gene- 
ral only given. 

Oleum aniii. London. Oleum volatile pimpi- 
nelUe ami. Edinburgh. — Oil of aniseed. 

This is sometimes adulterated with water, 
spermaceti, or camphor ; but the fraud is easily 
detected, for, on moderately warming the genuine 
oil, the crystals dissolve, which is not the case 
with sophisticated. Tlie greater part of the oil 
of aniseed consnmed in tius country is prepared 
in Spain. 

Medical propertiei. — Carminative. Dose ttt.v. 

Oleum anthemidit. London. Oleum volatile 
antkemidis nMlii. London. — Oil of chamomile. 

Medkal propertiet. — Stomachic and carmina- 
tive. Dose n),v. 

Oleum carui. London. — Oil of carraway . 

Medial propertiet. — Stimulant and carmina- 
tive. Dose from mj. to xt[y 

Oleum juniperi. London. Oleum volatile ju- 
niperi communii. Edinburgh. — Oil of juniper. 

This when genuine is soluble in alcohol. 

Medieal propertiei. — Diuretic and carminative. 
Dose trj,iij. 

Ofeimi lavanduU. London. Oleum volatile 
havenduUt tpic4e. Edinburgh. — Oil of lavender. 

Medical propertiei. — Stimulant and cordial. 
Dose from ni,i. to mv. on sugar. 

Oleum volatile luuri tauajrat. Edinburgh. — 
Oil of sassafras. 

Medical Droprr/iet.— Sudorific, diuretic, and 
stimulant Not much employed. Dote niij. to 

Oleum menHit ptperUt. London.— 0/c urn 
volatile Mentkt piptritt. Edinburgh.— Oil of 

Medical propertiei. — Stimulant : 
tive. Dose n{j. to n^^iij. 

Oleum mentkieviridu. London.— 

Medical propertiei. — The same a 
mint, but loss pungent. 

Oleum origani. London. Oleun 
gani maxjorame. — Oil of common 

Medical propertiei. — Not used in 
casionally applied to a carious too 
pain, two or three drops being p 
of cotton and inserted into the tooi 

Oleum pimentt. London. O 
mytipimentte. Edinburgh. — Oil o 

MitUcal properties.— Siomichic 
lant Dose from tif^iij. to ttiv. in 
proper vehicle. 

Oleum pulegii. London. — Oil of 

Medical propertiei. — Stimulant, 
much use. Dose n^ij. to ni,». 

Oleum rosmarini. i.ondon. Oi 
roriimarini. Edinburgh. — Oil of re 

This when long kept deposiu en 

Medical propertiei. — Stimulant, 
externally in combination with othc 
a liniment. Dose for internal use 

Oleum herhte juniperi labina. 
Oil of savine. 

Medical propertiei. — Savine is 
some to possess specifically emme 
perties. Dose of the oil from ni.ij 

Oleum tuccini. London. — Oil of 

Put the amber into an alemb 
from a sand-bath, with a graduall; 
an acid liquor, the oil, and a salt 
with oil. Then redistil the oil a 
and a third time. 

Oleum tuccini. Edinburgh. — Oil 

Take of amber in powder, and 
equal parts. Mix them together i 
tort, the capcity of which the mii 
fills ; and, having adapted a lar^e 
distil in a sand-bath with a gradu 
heat. An aqueous fluid tinned 
yellow oil will come over first ; l 
oil with an acid salt; and lastly 
reddish oil. Pour the fluid from 
and separate the oil from the watei 

Oleum luccini puritsimum. 
Pure oil of amber. 

Distil the oil of amber mixed ' 
its quantity of water, from a e'as 
two-thirds of the water pass into 
Then separate this purified oil fr 
and preserve it in well stopped pli 

Qualitiei. — Exceedingly strong 
sant odor. Insoluhle in water : 
tially soluble in alcohol. 

Medical proprrtut. — Stimulant 
ent. Occasionally it has been u 
in cases of obstructed nienstruatio 
hysteric and spasmodic complaint 
to ttl". Externally it \% u.sed ii 
with opium in hooping cough a 
affections, and lie douleureux. 

Oleum trrthintiina rcctificatm 
Rectified oil of turprntine. Tak( 
peiitine a pint, water four pints: < 



t pau ftttriamum. EUiiiLiiirgh. — 

f al ef Mupentine one part, vratei four 
\ a» long as any oil comes over. 

I. — An'tbelniinlic, antispas- 
utittMnttoatic. Dt»e for wormx 
IftpUcfNy n^ixx. ; fortheumatism f. 3j. 
IM the kidneys may be guarded against 
; It with acacia miiciluge, or giving 
tot dnnk in combination will) 

1 DutiLtuTX. — Diililled walers. 

colle^ pria the following tli- 
rikc prvpatauon of distilled waters. 
Id De di:itillcfl from dry plants 
I it If o(famrij« ordered ; because fresh 
b« p^>cured at all limes of the 
ifnah plant* aieemployed, the weight 

: IS to be doabiet] . 
I iiallon of these tvaiers let fire fluid 
(poof spirit be added, in order to pre- 
tfnm spoilinij. 

London. — Dislilled water. 
' mter ten gallons. First distil four 
I an to be thrown away, and then 
Keep tlie distilled water in 

tUtU. Edinburgh. — Distilled water. 

be distilled in dean vessels until 

t«flW quantity employed have passed 

t water is necessary in (brmule con- 

of ibe following subitances : aci- 

(inn.aciduin citticum.antimonium 

treciiti oitxas, cuprum ainmonia- 

I lartanzatiim, hydrarvyn oxymurias, 

■ \>\ acetans, liquor 

^1 Mjlutio murialis 

■•.III, <iiii.i luijiiias, fern sulphas,' 

London. — Dill water. 
tin sccdi bruised a pound, pour upon 
I aach water as during the distillation 
~ ' ml to prevent ecnpyreuma. Let a 

London. — Carraway water. 
I af btuiMd carraway seuds a pound, 
I «ucr enoui;h to prevent empy- 
|4fiftiUation. I>Fta|nIionhedisiilled. 
aarondi. Edinburgh. — Water of 

h onng* peel two pounds. Add 
r Ihal, when ten pounds have been 
T^tt, ikafv (Imll remain sufficient to pre- 
Afiet due maceration distil 
, lowtneti add five ounces nf diluted 

o*ii mtehtM. EdinbtlTinh. — Water of 
I lad. pi«|arad n liie tame manner as the 

itiwaamomt. London. Aijua Unirt tin- 

E^itn^ryh. — i'tniiamon water. 
taf hfoacd' it, orof 


[ wl I. f tijf four- 

kcain, ' 'Jilt quantity 

r<o yia x ot <;..^..^-...- ...;c-r the disiil- 
hn a pklicm b<: dislilM. 

Aqvatawi cuuiit. Kdinbureh. — Waterof Caa- 
sia bark. Prepared in tlie same manner at tUe 

Atjuo fttniculi. London. — Fennel water. 

Take of fennel seeds bruised a pound. Pour 
on them a suthcient quantity of water to prevent 
empyreuma. Let a trallon be distilled. 

Aqua inenlhtt piperita. London. Edinburgh. 
— Peppermint water. 

Take of peppermint a pound and a half, or 
double the quantity of the fresh herb. Pour 
upou it so much water as will prevent empyreu- 
ma. Let a gallon be distilled. 

Aijua uirnthtt viridit. London.^SpeanniDt 

Take of spearmint a pound and a half, or 
double the quantity if the fresh herb he em- 
ployed. Distil a gallon in the same manner ai 

Aqua pimenls. London. — A^a myrti pimaUt. 
Edinburgh. — Pimento water. 

Take of pimento berries bruised half a pint, 
water a pint. Macerate the berries m the water 
for four-and-lwenty hours, and distil a gallon 
(ten pounds, Edinburgh) in the same manner as 

Aqua puleiiii. London — Aqua menlhtc pulegii. 
Ediiiburizh. — Pennyroyal water 

Take of pennyroyal a pound and a half, or 
double the quantity if the fresh herb be used. 
Distil a gallon (ten pints, Edinburgh) in the 
same manner as above. 

Aqua rott. London.— v^^ua roic (cntifolit. 
Edinburuh. — Rose water. 

Take of the petals of the hundred leaved rose, 
eight pounds (six pounds, Edinburgh), let a gal- 
lon (ten pints, Edinburgh) be distilled as above. 

Infl'sa. — Infusions. 

' The substances which water without the aid 
of boiling can extract from vegetable matter sub- 
mitted to its action are gum, mucus, extractive 
tannin, the bitter and narcotic principles, gum 
resin, volatile oil, acids, and' alkalies, a range 
which includes most of the principles on which 
tlie medical propeities of plants depend. These 
principles also are less liable tn be altered by 
infusion than by decoction, and consequently 
this form of preparation is to be preferred in 
every instance to which it is applicable. The 
strength and quality of the infusions are varied 
by the degreeof temperature of the water; those 
made with hot water being necessarily stronger, 
but parlicnlarly in liic case of biUers ; cold infu- 
sions are more -'rateful. 

' Infusions, like decoctions, are liable to undergo 
spontaneous decomposition, if kept even for a 
few days, and therefore the London college has 
properly directed half a pint only lo be made at 
one time, thus regarding them as extemporaneous 
prescriptions.' Thomson. 

Infutiim anihnnuiu. I jondon. — Infutum afilht- 
mijit nobil'u. Eflinburgh. — Infusion of chuino- 

Take of chamomile Nowers two drachms, boil- 
111? wnicr half a pint Macerate for li>n minutes 
(twenty-four hours, Minbutgb) in a slightly co- 
vered veuel, and slum. 

■ This infusion prrfcipitates solution nl isinglass 

L J 


P H A R M A C Y. 

whitish; infution of yellow cinchona bark, white; 
solution of SDlphale of iron, and or tincture of 
muriate of iron, black ; solution of nitrate ofsilver, 
white; ofoxymunaleof mercury, pale brown ;and 
of acetate and superacetate of lead, yellowish- 
while. These substance?, tliereforr, are incom- 
patible in prescription with this infusion.' 

Medical properties. — Stomachic and Ionic. 
Dose from f. Jj. to f. ^ij. 

Infufum armoracitt conipotititm. London. — 
Compound infusion of horse rodish. 

Take of fresh horse radish root sliced, of mus- 
tard seed bruised, of each one ounce, boiling 
water a pint. Macerate for two hours in a 
■lightly corered vessel, and strain ; then add one 
fluid ounce of compound spirit of horse radish. 

'This infusion precipitates infusion of ealls, 
yellowish, and infusion of yellow cinchona bark, 
white. The solutions of the pure alkalies do not 
affect it, but with their carbonates whitish preci- 
pitates are produced, as is al-io the case with so- 
lution of oxy muriate of mercury; while nitrate of 
silver produces a precipitate of a brown color. 
Hence all those substances, except the pure al- 
kalies, are incompatible in formulir with this in- 

Medical properlia. — Stimulant. Useful in pa- 
ralysis. Dose from f. Tij. to f. jiij. 

Infuium aurantii compotitum. London.'— Com- 
pound infusion of orange peel. 

Take of dried oranee peel two drachms, fresh 
lemon peel one dmclim, bruised cloves half a 
drachm, boiling water half a pint. Macerate for fif- 
teen minutes in a vessel lightlycovered,aiid strain. 

'This infusion precipitates sulphate of iron, 
black ; and also produces precipitates with su- 
peracetate of lead, infusion of yellow cinchona 
bark, and lime water.' 

Medical properties. — Stomachic. Dose f.,^ifl. 

Infutum calumba. London. Ijifttium colwnba , 
Edinburgh. — Infusion of calumba. 

Take of calumba root sliced one dmchm, boil- 
ing water half a pint. Macerate in a slightly 
covered vessel for two hours, and strain. 

'This affords precipitates wah infusion of yel- 
low cinchona bark, lime-water, and solution of 
oxymuriate of mercury." 

Medical pritprrlitt. — .Stomachic. Dose f.^ifl. 

I»l'ujum corytiphi)llotum. London. — Infusion 
of cloves. 

Take of bruised cloves a drachm, boiling wa- 
ter half a pint. Miceraie for two hours in slight- 
ly covered vessel, and strain. 

•This alTords prwipitales with infusion of yel- 
low cinchona hark, the strong acids, and lime- 
water. Solution alio of sulphate of iron occa- 
sions a copious black precipiuie; sulplmie of 
xinc, suporacvlatr of lead, and iiilratr of silver, 
brown precipiiaies. It also decomposes tartar- 
ised niicmony.' 

Medical proprrtiet.—\ warm stomachic. 
liott f. .^ifl. 

Infutum etutarilU. London. — Infusion of ca»- 

Take of cascariUa bruised half an ounce, boil- 
ing water half a pint. .Macerate for two hours 
in • vessel lightly covered, and strain. 

'This is incompatible in foriiiuli* with the 
following subtl«nces, which it precipiutcs : lime- 

water, infusion of galls, infusion of \ 
chona bark, solution of nitrnte of til 
and superacetate of lead, sulphate ol 
sulphate of iron, which is slowly ttal 
of a pale olive color.' I 

Medical projxrliet Tonic, stira 

perhaps ex|ieciorant. Dose f. Jifl. i 
Jnjusum catechu compoiitum. LoikI 
pound infusion of catechu. 

Take of extract of catechu two di 
a half, bruised cinnamon bark half 
boiling water half a pint Macerate 
in a vessel lightly covered, and then : 
Infutum acacie catechu. Edinbut^ 
of catechu. 

Take of extract of catechu pul« 
drachms and a half, cinnamon bark I 
a drachm, boiling water seven oun 
syrup one ounce. Macerate the ext« 
bark with the water for two hours, il 
vessel ; then strain and add the syrup 
'The following substances preo 
tannin of this infusion or otherwise b| 
pertics, anil therefore ought not to b«i 
furmuls with it : — Solution of isiuglal 
of yellow cinchona bark, the strong 
phaie of iron, sulphate of zinc, oxy 
mercury, lartarised antimony, and n 
of lead.' 

Medical properties. — Astringent. I 
Infutum cinchona. London. — Infiis 
chona bark. 

Take of lanced-leaved cinchona bl 
half an ounce, boiling water half a pit 
rale for two hours in a lightly cow 
and strain. 

Infutum cinchonee lancifoluc. Edinb 
fusion of cinchona. 

Take of cinchona bark bruised one 
ler one pound. Macerate for twenty* 
agitating frequently, and strain. 

' These infusions afford precipitata 
following substances: the strong acidl 
line ca'bonates, lime-water, solutions i 
of iron, sulphate of zinc, nitrate of silvi 
riaie of mercury, oxide of arsenic, stil 
of potftssa, and tartarised antimoo* ; 
ous infusions and decoctions 01 ' 
flowersi, calumba, cascarilla, hone-tad 
catechu, orange peel, foxglove, seoo^ 
valerian, simaruba, and elm-bark.* 
Medunt propcrlitl. — Tonic. Dosc 
Infutum eutpana, London. — Infusi 

Take of cuspana bark bruised iwi 
boiling water half a pint. MaoMa 
hours in a lightly covered vessel, and 
'The solution of sulphate of iron th 
a greenish-yellow precipitate, and a 
zinc a yellowish one : nitrate of silvfl 
nate of mercury, snporaccl.Tlc of lead 
of galls and of cnlechu, alu) produoc ■ 
in It. Tartarised antimony i* slowly da 
and therefore cannot properly be onll 
inuls wiib this infusion.' 

MedKnl propertia. — Tonic aod 
Dosef. ^.n 

Infutum iifUalit. LofMlos.»Iafia 
glov*. ; 



I dncd leaves of foxglove a drachm, 

^iulf a pint. Macerate in a lightly 

^for Iwo hours, and strain ; tlieu add 

on Haifa fluid ounce. 

purpuna. Edinburgh. — In- 


fotglore leaves one drachm, 

Itight ouocei, ipirit of cinnamon 

erate the leaver with the waipr 

iin a vesicl lightly covered ; then, 

; added, strain. 

.of sulphate of iron slowly 

"l prrcipitate from these iiifu- 

lof lead, and infusion or de- 

' cinchona hark, produce instan- 

noas precipitates.' 

rtia. — Diuretic, &c. Dose from 

rrmifotHum. London. — Com- 
I of iLenluin. 

Moot sliced, orange peel dried 

vh lemon peel two drachms 

fluid ounces. Macerate 

vessel lightly covered, and 

-Take of gentian root sliced half 
orange peel bruised, coriander 
f each a drachm, diluted alcohol 
one pound. First pour on 
I after three hours the water ; then 
rUe hours without heat, and strain. 
I of acetate of lead throws down 
tpitsle in this infusion, and sul- 
W »tnkes a brown color, but no pre- 
19 place for twelve hours/ 

-Tonic and stomachic. 

npoatum. London. — Com- 


bruised one ounce, liquorice 

I ounce, boilini; water two pints. 

■r hours ro a vessel lightly co- 
Let the TCssei stand near the 

mitatiuimi. Edinburgh. — Infu- 

l an ounce, bruised liquorice 
koM, boiling water two pounds. 
' fear hours in a lightly covered 

it a solution of mucus nearly 

It is clear, colorless, inodor- 

ny in<ipid .Mcohol precipitates 

•kite Aoccu'i, and precipitates are 

[by suHacrtate and acetate of lead, 

of fnttnated iron ; hence these 
^tiica«n|>atible in formulae with this 

-Demulcent. Dosef. Jij. 
(. London. — Infusion of quas- 

wood, chipped, a scruple, 
m pint. Macerate for two 
tj eOTcred rewel, aii<l strain. 
tuult*. Edinburgh. — Infusion 

J, rasped, half a drachm, 

ounces. Macerate in a 

\ *«mI for two hours, and strain. 

' These infusion* are not altered by any of the 
substances usually employed as adjuncts to bit- 
ters, and by two only of the metallic sails. Ni- 
trate of silver slowly throws down soi\ yellow 
flakes, and acetate of lead a white precipitate. ' 

Medical proprrtia. — Tonic. Dose f. Jifi. 

Infitiuin rluei. London. — Infusion of rhubarb 

Take of rhubarb, sliced, a drachm, boiling 
water half a pint. Macerate for two hours in a 
vessel lightly eo^'ered, and strain. 

Eilinluiri^li. — Take of rhubarb root, bruised, 
ha!>" an ounce, boding water eii(ht ounces, spirit 
of Cinnamon one ounce. Macerate the root with 
the water in a covered vessel during twelve 
hours ; then add tlie spirit, and strain. 

'The following substances either occasion pre- 
cipitates in these infusions, or otherwise alter 
their properties, and are therefore incompatible 
in formulx with them : the strong acins and 
lime-water, solutions of sulphate of iron, sulphate 
of line, nitrate of silver, oxymiinale of mercury, 
acetate of lead, tartarised antimony, and infusions 
of catechu, cinchona, and cusparia.' 

Mcdii-ni nroperlui. — Tonic and aperient. 
Uoie of the London formula from f.^j to f. Jiij, 
half the quaotily of the Edinburgh. 

Infuxum Tost rompositum. London. — Com- 
pound infusion of roses. 

Take of llie dried petals of the red rose half 
an ounce, boiling water two pints and a half, 
diluted sulphuric acid three fluid drachms, 
double refined sugar an ounce and a half. Pour 
the water on the rose petals in a covered glass 
vessel ; then drop in the acid, and macerate for 
half ail hour ; lastly, strain the liquor and add the 

Infufum rotit gaUktt. Edinburgh. — Infusion 
of the red rose. 

Take of the dried petals of the red rose one 
ounce, boiling xvnter two pounds and a half, sul- 
phuric acid diluted half an ounce, refined sugar 
one ounce. Macerate the petals with the water 
in an earthen vessel which has not been glazed 
with lend for four hours; then pour in the acid, 
strain the liquor, and add the sugar. 

'The incompatible substances with these infu- 
sions are those which are decomposed by tht 
sulphuric acid. The sulphates of iron and line, 
although they do not immediately alter it, yet 
slowly produce dark -colored precipitates after 
sonic hours.' 

MtJiral properiirt. — Refrigerant and astrin- 
gent. Dose f. 5'fi. 

Jiifiuum trnud rompotitum, London. — Com- 
pound infusion of senna. 

Take of senn.i leaves an ounce and a half, 
ginger root sliced a drachm, boiling water a pint. 
Macerate during an hour in a lightly covereil 
vessel, and strain the liquor. 

Infusum cauia itnnm. Edinburgh. — Infusion 
of senna. 

Take of senna leaves six drachms, gir,u;er rcot 
bruised a scruple, boiling water nine ounces. 
Macerate in a lightly covered vessel for an hour, 
and strain. 

' These infusions are precipitated by the 
strong; acids, the alkaline carbonates, lime-walor. 
solutions of nitrate of silver, oxymuriate of mer- 
cury, iuperacelate of lead, tartarised utiiooof. 



and infusion of yellow cinchona bark, which are 
consequently incompatible in formulae with 

Medieal propertie$. — Aperient. Dose, when 
given alone, from f. Jiij. to f. $\v. 

Infumtn ttnna compotUum. Edinburgh. — In- 
fusion of tamarinds and senna. 

Take of preserved tUmarinds one ounce, senna 
leave] one drachm, coriander seeds bruised half 
a drachm, raw sugar half an ounce, boiling 
water eight ounces. Macerate in a covered ear- 
then vessel which is not glazed with lead, fre- 
quently shaking, and at the end of two hours 

Tamarinds considerably cover tlie nauseous 
flavor of the senna. 

lafumm timaroubt. London — Infusion of 
Sima'ruba. . 

Take of Simaruba bark bruised half a drachm, 
boiling water half a pint. Macerate for two 
hours in a lightly covered vessel and strain. 

' The alkaline carbonates and lime water render 
this infusion milky, and the following substances 
occasion precipitates. Nitrate of silver, oxyniu- 
riate of mercury, superacetate of lead, infusion 
of galh, catechu, and yellow cinchona bark.' 

Medical properties. Tonic and antidysenteric. 
Dose f. Tift 

Infutum tabaci. London. — Infusion of to- 

Take of tobacco leaves a drachm, boiling water 
a pint. Macerate in a lightly coveted vessel 
during an hour and strain. 

Medical properlie$. Used as an enema in stran- 
gulated hernia, in ileus and other obstinate de- 
rangements of the bowels. 

MuciLAGiNES. — Mucilages. 

In pharmacy mucilage implies, as welt as a sim- 
ple solution of gum or mucus in water, any solution 
ot a thick and adhesive nature resembling in its 
appearance the solutions of gum. 

Mucilago acacite. London. — Mucilage of 

Take of acacia gum in powder four ounces, 
boiling water half a pint. Rub the gum with 
the water gradually adding the latter until a mu- 
cilage be formed. 

Mucilago acacia araUca. Edinburgh.— Muci- 
lage of gum atabic. 

Take of gum arable in powder one part, 
boiling water two parts. Digest with occasional 
agitation until the gum be dissolved ; then strain 
the mucilage through linen. 

'The stron;; acids act on mucilage as they do 
on gum, but when diluted they do not alter mu- 
cilage. Alcohol converts it into a white curd, 
but proof spirit produces scarcely any alteration; 
no change is produced by spirit of nitric ether, 
but sulphuric ether, and compound spirit of 
ether, precipitate a thick, white, tenacious curd. 
Tincture of muriate of iron, even when diluted, 
converts mucilage into a brownish or oiangc- 
colored insoluble jelly ; and subacetate of lead 
fives a copious, dense, flaky, precipitate, winch 
IS a compound of gum and oxide of lead, while 
no chance is produced by the following metallic 
luhstances : superactrtatc of lead, green sulphate 
of iroo, tuiphata of xinc, oxymnriate of mercury, 

and tartarised antimony ; nor by the alki 
the neutral salts.' 

Medical properties.— DemuUxnt. Dr 
f. 5ft. to jifl. 

Mucilago oitragbli tragaeantka. Ediob 
Mucilage uf tragacanth. 

Take of gum tragacanth to powd 
drachms, boiling water eight ounces. K 
for four-and-twenty hours, and triturate I 
carefully that it may be dissolved; tbei 
the mucilage ttirough linen. 

Medical properties — The same as the i 

Mucilago amyli. London. Edinburgh 
cilage of starch. 

Take of starch three drachms, water 
Hub the starch, gradually adding tiM 
then boil until a mucilage be formed. 

Medical properties. — Demulcent. It is 
mon and good vehicle for giving anod; 

Decocta . — Decoctions. 

Decoctum aloes compositum. Ix)ndon.- 
pound decoction of aloes. 

Take of extract of liquorice half an 
subcarbonate of potassa two scruples; p< 
extract of spiked aloes, powdered myr 
saffron, of each a drachm : water a pint 
down to twelve fluid ounces ; then add roi 
tincture of cardamoms four fluid ounces. 

'This decoction is decomposed by 
strong acids ; corrosive muriate of merci 
duces a pale brown precipitate ; while ta 
antimony, sulphate of zinc, and stiperac 
lead produce white curdy precipitates.' 

Medical properties. — Cathartic and e 
gogue. It is somewhat similar to tl 
known beaome de vie. Dose from f. 50. 

Decoctum althete compositum. Ediob 
Decoction of marsh mallows. 

Take of marsh mallow root dried and 
four ounces, raisins stoned two ounces, w 
ven pounds. Boil down to five pouix 
aside the strained liquor, and when th 
have subsided decant it. 

Medical properties. — Demulcent. I 

Decoctum anthemidis nobilis. Ediub 
Decoction of chamomile. 

Take of chamomile flowers dried ow 
carraway seeds bruised half an ounce, w 
pounds. Boil during a quarter of an b< 

Decoctum cincluma. London. — Deco 
cinchona bark. 

Take of lance-leaved cinchona bark br 
ounce, water a pint. Boil for ten minv 
vessel lightly covered, and strain the liqu 
it is hot. 

Decoctum cinckon<t limcifoiut. Ediol 
Decoction of lance-leaved cinchona bark 

Take uf cinchona bark in powder oni 
water one pound and a half. Boil du 
minutes in a covered vessel, and strain tl 
while it is hot. 

For medical properties, and incompati 
infusion of cincboiia. 

Decoctum cydonite. LoDdoa. — Dcco 
quince seeds. 

.j^ qaiace aceds tvra drachms, water a 
tfarn over a g<ende Are during ten 
caafoialed hj atcohol, acids, and 
■NMMic nltt, which therefore are 
in fonnule wllh it: it inuU be 
n n ia made.' 

Ttitt. — Demulcent: ad libitum. 
mnera. Edinburgh. — ^De- 
_ ■aereon. 
if A* bark of mezrreon root two 
tuol limited half an ounce, 
Bull down tu two pounds 
, and strain. 

fir*. — Altenitire. It lias been 

syphilitic affections, and in 

and ill sevenal forms ot' cu- 

ftium tfUtamane. London. — Decoction of 

r«l Ike ttalki of woody nightshade sliced 
Iff, wairr a pint and a half. Boil down 
1 itmiii. 

rtiet. — Diuretic and narcotic, 
tn some chronic disorders of 
f. ?lj to f. Ji. 
Oto^roi/tc infrniM. Edinburgh— 
Tabbipe-lree bark. 
\ tt cabtiaz«-tree bark in powder one 
•aier two pounds. Boil with a gentle 
nv la one pound, and strain. 
•sch vwA in this country. 

fmaiaci compoiitum. Edinburgh. — 

lion of guaiacum. 

otn wood rasped three ounces; 

sliced sassafras root, bruised 

of each one ounce ; watet ten 

the guaiacum wood and the 

rte water over a gentle lire to five 

' the roots tonards the end of the 

I ftiain. 

rtin. — Alterative and antirheu- 
f. 'i.iv. lof .Vi'j. 
»1*M kirdri. Ixmdon, (distichi, Edin- 
l^— Decoction of barley, 
i «f pearl barley two ounces, water four 
■ia Mlf (fite pounds Edinburgh). First 
If cttnnenas substances away that may 
ftUf tB Ihe barley ; then, having poured 
|fk fiM of water, boil for a few minutes. 
{ itirown awiy, let the remainder 
;i then boit il lo Iwo pints and 

Ifi ronrpuridtm. London. — Com- 
of barley. 
~ ilMXiction of barley two pints, figs 
wo onoccs, lirjuorice root Sliced and 
baif u I ' ' tied two ounce.', 

bIM. II< ind strain. 

tal prtfu iif. — I It liKii' .rit : ad libitum. 
ftam bduMO l.rindon (Islandici, Edin- 
i-Oicaciion of lir<:rwort. 
«f brtfwort one ounce, water a pint and 
Edinburgh). Boil to a pint. 

t. — r>emulcent and tonic. 

BaH i u ii of : 

im. t/}ndoo. — Com- 

of null Ml 

Take of mallows dried an ounce, chamomile- 
flowers dried half an ounce, WAter a pint Bod 
during a quarter of an hour, and strain. 

yiidinil prvjierlirt. — Demulcent. Used for 
fomentations and enemas. 

DecoctuiH papaixrii. London. — Decoction of 

Take of the white poppy capsules bruised four 
ounces, water four piuts. Boil for a quarter of 
an hour, and strain. 

Medical propcrtiet. — Anodyne. I'sed for fo- 

Decoctiiin quercui. London (roboris, Edin- 
burgh). — Decoction of oak baik. 

Take of oak bark one ounce, water two pints 
(two pounds and a half Edinburgh). Boil to a 
pint, and strain. 

' This decoction is precipitated by solutions of 
isinglass, mftlsion of yellow cinchona baik, the 
carbonates of the alkalies, the aromatic spirit of 
ammonia, lime-water, and solutions of sulphate 
of iron, acetate of lead, oxy muriate of mercury, 
and .sulphate of zinc, which are therefore incom- 
piitible in formulip with it.' 

Mcdifui propcrtiet. — Astringent and'tooic. It 
is useful as a gargle in cases of relaxed tonsils 
or uvula, and as a wash in procidentia ani et 

IJccoctam tanapariUa. London. — Decoction 
of sarsapurilla. 

Take of sarsaparilla root sliced four ounces, 
bailing water four pints. Macerate during four 
hours in a vessel lightly covered and placed near 
(lie fire; then take the sarsaparilla out and bruise 
it. Return it to the liquor and macerate in the 
same way for two mnre hours ; then boil it down 
to two pints, and stntin. 

liecnctum tiiiilarit mnapttriUt. Edinburgh. — 
Decoction of sarsaparilla. 

Take of sarsaparilla sliced six ounces, water 
eight pounds. Digest during two hours in a 
temperature of about 19.5° ; then take the root out 
and bruise it ; in this state return it lo the liquor, 
and boil down lo Iwo pounds, over a gentle fire ; 
then express and sirain. 

'Thete bruising* and macerations,' Dr. Thom- 
son tells us, 'are rather worse than superfluous. 
The entire root, merely bruised and macerated in 
water at 160° of Fahrenheit, will yield up all its 
medicinal properties. It affords precipitates 
with lime-water, solution of muriate of barytes 
and of acetate of lead, which are therefore in- 
compatible in formulae with it.' 

Dccortmn lanaparitla compontum. London. — 
Compourtd decoction of sarsaparilla. 

Take of sarsapanlla decoction boiling four 
pints ; sassafras root sliced, guaiacum root rasp- 
ed, liquorice root bruised, of each an ounce; 
bark of tneiereon root three drachms. Boil for 
a quarter of an hour; then strain. 

McUical prcTXT**?*.— Sarsaparilla dectKtion is 
employed as an alterative and an adjunct to 
mercury. The compound decoction is likewise 
used for the tame purpose, as well as for several 
cutaneous disorders and rheumatic affections. 
Dose f .5iv. 

TkciHtMm tenrgir. London. — Decoclum poiy- 
gala vnrfur. Edinburgh. — Decoction of Moelca. 

Take of scncka root an ounce, water two pints 



Boil to a pint, and slrain. Dose f. y{i. to f Jiij. 
Sen MaTcbia Medica, 

Decoctum veralri. London. — Decoction of 
while hellebore. 

Take of uhlle hellebore root bruised one 
ounce, water two pints, rectified spirit two fluid 
ounces. Boil the root with the water down to a 
pint, and strain ; then, when the decoction is 
cold, let the spirit be added, 

MtJ'tcal |«-o;wT/ie».— Principally employed as 
a lotion in cutaneous eruptions. 

E:tTRACTA. — Extracts. 

These are preparations obtained by evaporating 
solutions of vegetable matter to the consistence of 
a firm mass. The London college iinves the 
fbllowini; directions rcspectinj them: — 

*In pre|>anii';j all kinds of extracts evaporate 
the fluid as quickly as possible in a broad shal- 
low dish, placed in a water-bath, until the ex- 
tract acquire a consistence proper for forming 
pills, and towards (he end of the operation stir 
assiduously with a spatula. 

' Sprinkle a small quantity of rectified spirit 
upon all the softer extracts.' 

Ettractum ucniuti. London, — Extract of aco- 
nite or wolfsbane. 

Take of i!ie fresh leaves of aconite a (lound. 
Bruise thrm in a stone mortar, sprinkling over 
Ihcin a liUle water; then express the juice, and 
without any depuration, let the water he eiapu- 
raled so thit a mass is left of prop«;t consistence. 

Suicm ijuftiitiis acuniti naptlli. Edinburgh, — 
Inspissaiej juice of aconite. 

Let the fresh leaves nf aconite be biuiscd, and 
enclosed in a hempen bag ; press tiiem strongly 
until they yield their juice which is to be evapt>- 
raled in flat vessels, heated with Itoiliii,; water, 
saturated with common salt, and immediately re- 
doced to the consistence of thick honey. 

Medical proptrtit*. — See Mati:ria Mluica. 
Duse half a grain gradually increased to grs. iv. 
or grs. V. 

Erlraetum aloa purificatum. London. — Ex- 
tract of aloes. 

Take of extract of sjuked aloes powcierrd a 
pound, boiling water a gallon. .Macerate for 
three days in a gentle heal ; then strain the solu- 
tion and set it aside fur the dregs to subside. 
Pour nS'tbc clear liquor and evaporate to a due 

An nnnecewary preparation. Doie froto ft. 
X- to er. XV, 

Ettroclum natkrmidit. London. — Ejtrarlum 
anthemidu nobitit. Edinburgh, — Kxttacl of clia- 

Take of rhamomlle flowers dried a pound, 
water t .^>il..r. Roil down to four pints ami 
*<rain I .>liile it is hot; then evajwrate 

to a dir ■ ! p. 

The aroma ami volatile oil are distipateil, and 
vrry little more ilian » simple biiier left by tliis 
process. I tout "cJfl. to 9i. 

Kurni-tnm kfttadom*. {.oodon. — ■Sucrau i]>t<H- 
' ' lladtmna. Edinlnitgh, — Extract of 

■■»li If.ives .'■■•' ' 

in a sliinr 

I .. 1,1,1, valCr; thi*Il r\i'[t»' vji*' tun, , ain 


without any Mparation nf tbe ledimeat 
ev,it>orated to a due contisteoce. 

Medical propcrliet. — Antispasmodic 
dative. Dose from gr. i. very gradually 
ed to ers. v. It requires great caulii 
administration. As a remedy for hoopii 
in conjunction with soda Dr. Tbo^ 
highly of It, 

Kslitictum ciiuhont. London. — Ext 
choiia bark. 

Take of lanced-Ieaved cinchona bark 
a pound, water a gallon. Boil to six ^inl« 
strain the liquor while it is warm. 1. 
again in the same manner for four t. 
cession in an equal quantity of wait 
Lastly, mix the solutions together, .n 
the mixture to a due consistence. 

This extract ought to be kept in a 
proper for making pills, and in a hard 
reduction :o powder. Dose from 3(i ti 

Elilractum cinchona retinomm. Londi 
■inous extract of bark. 

Take of lanced-Ieaved cinchona btfki 
a pound, rectified spirits four pints, 
during four days, and strain. Let the 
be distilled in a water-batli until tlic ex 
acquired a proper consistence. 

Kilractum cinchutut lancij'olitc. Edii 
Extract of oflicioal cinchona bark. 

Take of lance-leaved cinchona bark 
der one pound, alcohol four pounds, 
four (lay?, and pour ofl' the tincture. 
re.sidue in five pounds of distilled wa 
teen minules, and sinun the decoction 
hot through a linen cloth. Repeat tbitl 
with an equal quantity of distilled wat 
again, and evaporate the liquor to the 
of thin honey. Uislil the alcohol from 
ture until il be reduced to a similar cc 
Then mix the inspiss.\ted liquors, an<j cvapt 
them to a proper consistence in a bath ofbl 
water, saturated with muriate of soda. 

These are preferable prepai • tht 

lery extracts, as the active pr 
are better taken up by the sepui..,! ..■..,■.•.% ol 
water and spirits tlian by water alone 
from 3lj. to Jfl. 

Eitractum cotocyntkitUi. London. — ClU 

Take of the pulp of colocynth a j 
a gallon. Uoil down to four pints .ii 
liquor while it is hot; then cvaporalr to* 
J>cr consisience. 

.MfJical proprrtitB. — A IBlld purgative 
from 3(t, lo 5ft, 

Fjtrmtum cidiKifnlhiJit (Ottipotitum. I 
— Compound extract of colocynth. 

Take of colocynth pulp sliced ux oui 
tract of the spiked aloe powdered twslvt on 
scammony powdered four ounces, r»rda 
»ee»)s powdered oiw ounce, hatil 
ounces, proof spirit one gallon. I., 
cyuth pulp be macerated in the ^| 
gentle hiut for four days. .Strain tl" 
add the scammony, the aloes, and thrsaa|>i 
•vapiirate it to a due consistence, and 

I of the invpitiatioii rrtix in the c«?dl 

II, ,iu,it p'V'i I f/(i, —Combined with ca! 



I puistlire. Do« from 3ft. to 3ft. 
(»«i. Ijondoii. — Sutcus ipitsatiu 
tAiohunf), — Extract of hem lock . 
\ bemlock a pound. Bruise it in 
, sprinklinc; a little water over it ; 
e yxtct, and without separating 
iporate to a proper consistence. 

^ tHiet. — The same ai the powder. 

I M(oiC4. Dose gr. ii. gradually 

London. — Extract of ela- 

iimbers, express the juice very 

it through a very hne hair sieve 

rl : then put it aside for some 

^•cker part has subsided ; reject 

nl part, and let the thicker 

I gentle heat. 

^res the fscula of the plant, 

elateriam, which, according to 

> uf Dr. Clutierbuck, it only con- 

ortion of six grains to forty of 

the pure elaterium would be 

' than this improperly called 

Ikt- — A most powerful and 
Dose from a quarter of a 

London. — Extract of 

I foot sficed a pound, boiling 

enite during twenty-four 

rn tti four pints; let the li- 

' It is hot, aitd evaporated 

luttt. Edinburgh. — Ex- 

to root any quantity. Having 
it, pour eight times its weii;lvt 
r upon it. Boil down to one-half, 
■ tlioncly, and strain it. Eva- 
lion immediately to the consist- 
ney in a bath of boiline water, 
ommon salt. Dose from 3l\. to Jtl. 
rAisc. London. — Extract of 

ice root sliced a pound, boiling 
Macerate for twenty-four hours ; 
four pints ; let the hot solution 
then evaporate to a due consist- 

ed the refined liquorice of the 
extract of commerce dissolv- 



London. — Estractvm 
Edinburgh. — Extract 

Dfwood rasped a po^nd, boiling wa- 
. Macvnte for twenty-four hours ; 
fear pint*, itraio the hot liquor and 
iM to a proper consistence. Dose 

• 3n. 

■ rWicu heltthoh nigri. Edinburgh, 
f black btllebore root 

ia Iht Boie manner as the extract of 

■ I— a/i. London. — Extract nf hop. 
K« •iriihili < of hop four ounces, water 

a gallon. Boil to four pinla, strain the hot ti' 
quor, and evaporate to a due consistence. Dose 
from 9ft. to 'dy 

Kxtracliirn hyosryami. London. — Succui spii- 
satva kj/oKyami nigri. Edinburgh. — Extract of 

Take of fresh leaves of henbane a pound. 
Druise them in a stone mortar, sprinkling a little 
water on tliem ; then press out the juice, and 
without separaiing the sediment evaporate to a 
due consistence. 

Medit-al profifrtirs. — A substitute for opium 
when It is dpsirahle to avoid co.otiveness. Dose 
from gr. ij. gradually increased to 9j. 

Ktlractumjalapit. London. — Extract of jalap. 

Take of jalap root powdered a pound, rectified 
spirit four pints, water one gallon. Macerate 
the root in the spirit for four days, and decant 
the tincture. Boil the residue in the water to 
two pints. Then strain the tincture and decoc- 
tion separately ; distil the former and evaporate 
the latter until both begin to thicken. Lastly, 
mix the extract with the resin, and evaporate the 
liquor to a due consistence. 

This extract should he preserved in a soft state 
fit for forming pills, and in a hard state so that it 
may be reduced to powder. 

Ritractum conuolvult jalapt. Edinburgh.— 
Extract of jalap. 

This IS ordered to be prepared in the same 
manner as the extract of cinchona. Dose from 
9ft, to 5fl. 

Ettraclutn lacluct. Loodoa. — Extract of let- 

Take of fresh lettuce leaves one pound. Bruise 
them in a stone mortar, sprinkling over them a 
little water; then express llie juice and evaporate 
it un.strained, until it acquire a due consistence. 

Shcciu spisKtlm loiluat uitiva. Edinburgh.— 
Inspis«alRd juice of garden lettuce. 

Sitcnii spissulut lactuca vinna. Edinourgh. — 
Inspist.ited juice uf the wild lettuce. 

To be prepared a> other inspissaled juipes. 

Meilical proiiCTlia. — Substitutes for opium. 
Dose gr. vj. increased. 

ErtrncluiH opii. London. — Extract of opium. 

Take of opium sliced sixteen ounces, water 
one gallon. Pour upon the opium a small quan- 
tity of the water and macerate for twelve hours 
that it may become soft; then, gradually adding 
the remaining water, rub them together until they 
be well mixed, and set the mixture apart for the 
fieciilencies to subside. Lastly, strain the liquor 
and evaporate to a due consistence. This wa- 
tery solution contains less of the rpsinous than 
the gummy part of the drug, and also 'contains 
more of morphia on which depends the remedial 
quality of opium.' 

Its incompatibles are * solutions of astringent 
vegetables, the alkaline carbonates, corrosive 
muriate of mercury, sulphate of copper, sulphate 
of line, acetate of lead, and nitrate of silver.' 

Medical propertift. — It is said to possess the 
virtues without the deranging influence of opiuB. 
Dose from gr. i. to gr. v. 

Kxlrartwn papatxrii. London — Eztrarlttm 
papavtrii tomn^eri. Edinburgh. — Extract of pop 



Take of the capsnUs o.' the poppy, freed from 
the seeds and bniised, a po)ind ; boiliog water a 
gallon. Macerate durinj; twenty-four hours, then 
boil to (bar pints; strain the liquor while hot, 
and let it be evaporated to a proper consistence. 

Medical properliet. — I«ss liable to affect the 
head or act deleteriousty than opium is. Dose 
grs. iij. to grs. xij. 

Extnctum rktL London. — Extract of rhu- 

Take of powdered rhubarb root a pound, 
proof spirit a pint, water seven pints. Mace- 
rate in a gentle heat during four days ; then 
strain the solution, and set it apart for the sub- 
siding of the fieculencies. Pour off the clear 
liquor, and evaporate it to a due consistence. 
An objectionable preparation. Dose grs. x. to 

Extrartum rule graveolentu. Edinburgh. — 
Extract of rue. 

To be piepared to the same manner as the 
gentian extract. 

Medical propertiet. — Very little more than a 
mere bitter. Dose from grs. xv. to 3ft. 

Saccus tpiaatui tambuei mgrtt. Edinburgh. — 
The inspissated juice of the black elder. 

Take of the ripe berries of the black elder 
fire parts; purified sugar one part. Boil with 
a gentle heat to the consistence of thick honey. 
An apparently useless preparation. 

Extraetum urtaparuUe. London. — ^Extract of 

Take of sliced sarsaparilla root a pound ; 
boiling water a gallon. Macerate during twenty- 
four hours ; then boil down to four pints ; strain 
(he solution while hot, and evaporate it to a due 

■ It appears trotnJMr. Pope's experiments that 
by submitting the root, cut transversely, to the 
action of steam or distilled water, at a tempera- 
ture somewhat below boiling, an elegant soluble 
extract may be obtained, containing all the vir- 
tues of the plant, not liable to decomposition, 
and applicable to the various purposes of extem- 
poraneous prescription ; whilst by the method 
ordered in the above formula of the college an 
insoluble inefficacious extract only is obtained ' 
— Thomson. Dose from 3ft. to 3j. 

Eilrachan stramonii. London. — Extract of 

Take of the seeds of thorn apple one pound, 
boiling water one gallon. Macerate during 
four hours in a covered vessel near the fire, then 
take out the seeds, bruise them in a stone mor- 
tar, and put them again into the liquor. Lastly, 
evaporate until the mass become of a due con- 

Medical properliet. — Narcotic, and antispas- 
modic. Dose from gr. ft. to grs. ij. Particu- 
larly applicable to spasmodic a.stbma. 

Extraetum taraiaci. London. — Extract of 

Take of fresh dandelion root bruised a 
pound, boiling water a gallon. Macerate during 
twenty-four hours ; then boil down to four 
pints, strain the liquor while hot, and evaporate 
It to • doe consistence. 

Medical prapcrfies.— Deobstruent Useful in 
chronic obetiuctions of the liver. Dose from 9ft. 
to Si. 

MiSTURC — Mixtures. 

These, iu the London college,) im 
used to be called emulsions. They 
formed extemporaneously. 

Mittwaammoniaci. London. — Mix' 

Take of ammoniacum two drach 
half a pint. Tnturate the ammonia 
adding the water until a union be 

This preparation ' is coagulated b 
vinegar, the oxymels, ether, spirit of n 
supertaitrate of potassa, and oxymuri: 
cury; which are, therefore, incom| 
prescription with mixture of ammoiii: 
Medical properties. — Expeclorar 
from f. 3ft. to f. 5j. 

Mislura amygdidarum. London, 

Take of almond confection two oi 
tilled water a pint. Add the water 
to the almond confection during tritui 
then strain. 

Emuluo amygdahe communis. Edi 
Almond emulsion. 

Take of sweet almonds an ounc< 
suttar half an ounce ; water two poii 
half. Let the blanched almonds be b 
gently in a stone mortar, and the wa 
gradually ; then strain. 

Emultio acacia arabica. Edinburgi 
sion of gum atabic. 

Take of mucilage of gura araliic t> 
almonds one ounce, refined su;;ar '^alf 
water two pr.unds atid a half. ISIan 
monds, and then let them be beaten i 
morlar with the sugar and the mucila 
ally adding the water. Then strain thru 

' These emulsions are decomposeo 
oxymel and syrupof squills, spirits am 
(unless these be in small quatiliiie: 
and superlartrate of potaasa, supersulp 
tassa, nitrate of potassa, oxymuriate o 
acetate of lead, and spirit of ni'.ric eti 
are tlierefore incompatible in presciip 
almond emulsions.' 

Medical properties. — Demulcent an 
Dose f. Jij. 

Mislura astttfittida.. -Mixture of as 

Take of assafetida two drachms, wg 
pint. Triturate the assafictlda, adding 
the water to it until a thorough union I 

Medical properties. — Antispasmodi 
principally in enemas. Dose when I 
the stoiT.ach from f. Jft. to f. ^ift. 

Mislura cumphora. London. — M 

Take of camphor half a drachm 
spirits ten minims ; water a pint, 
camphor with the spirit first, then pv- 
the water ; strain. Dose from f. Jft. 
Eimilsio camphor^. I'Ainhur^h.— 

Take of camphor a scruple ; »weel 
blanched, refined sugar, of e<tch half ; 
water a pint and a half. To be ma 
same manner as the common almond < 

A more powerful, and therefore b 
paration than that of the London colle 
from f. 3ft. to f. 3ij. 

.butshom two ounces ; acacia 
ounce: water three pinw. 
cnntinuall)r slimng, and 

. — Mixture of chalk. 
chaU hiiK an ounce ; re- 
|}uT<! drachm* ; acacia gum, in 
uuiice ; water a pint. Mix by 

'U talcif. Edinburgh. — Chalk 

eariionate of lime (chalk) 
d su^r half an ounce, muci- 
arjhir iwo ounces. Kub liiem lo- 
i^ of water two pounds 
I >.imon two ounces. Mix. 
(If*. — Antacid, and astringent. 

fa. London. — Compound 

powdered, a drachm; sub- 

Iwenly-fire grains ; rose- 

iid ounces ami a half; sulphate 

"«», a scruple; spirit of nulineg 

t; refined siigTir a drachm. Rub 

arboiiale of potassa, and the 

i, during triluralion, add first 

and the spirit of nutmec and 

fa(phate of iron. Put (he mixture 

' Mt» • proper glas* vessel, and keep 


M prrparation a tulpbate of pota.4«a is 
* su^rartionate of iron, the last of 
I dtw^ved, btit merely diffused and 

Oct. — Tonic and deobstnient. 

to f. 3ij. 

L Loodoo. — Mixture of giiai- 

^Hwutjar""- ' ■•"•■'im and a half, refined 
Moncbn^ of j^um acacii two 

water eight fluid 
lh« guajacum with the sugar, then 
aftf , and while Irituratinir gradual- 
kitiBBUnon water. Dose from 3(1 tof.3ij. 
■•■MrU, London. — Mixture of musk. 
4f Boak, acacia gum in powder, refined 
t nch a drachm ; rose water six fluid 
Eab tbe mask first with the sugar, then 
l|nm, Md icradoally add the rose water. 
In/ ^ruftrriM.— Antispasmodic, and sti- 
D«H {rem t 5(1. to f. ^ij. 

--'KiTvs. — Spirit*. 

^^ _on. See CumrsTiY. 

Londoo. — Spirit of am- 

(f NElifled tpirit three pints, muriate of 
I bar e«ne««, tubcarbonaie uf polnsia 
a. Mil ihrm, and distil with a gentle 
Inl and a half of spirit of ammonia into 
IT wliKb n kept cold. 
tt ^imtmMtutu. Edinburgh. — Ammoni- 

tt lieeliot tlilr1>-two ounces, lime re- 
twolvt ounces, muriate of ammonia 
.vaMT lis ounces. From these am- 

moniuted alcohol is to be prepared prpci!>«ly in 
the same manner as water of aiomonia. 

The decompositions in the .ibove processes are 
sufficiently obvious. 

Spirilut ammoTiia arcmnticus. I^ndon. — Aro- 
matic spirit of ammonia. 

Take of bark of cinnamon bruised, cloves 
bruised, of ench two drachms, lemon peel four 
ounces, snhcarbonnle of potassa half n pound, 
muriate of aminoniH five ounces, rectified spirit 
four pini;, walt-r a gallon. Mix them, and distil 
over SIX pints. 

AUoliol ummonidlum (iromal'cuai. Edinburgh. 
— Aromatic amniomaied tincture. 

Take of ammonialcd alcohol eight ounces, 
volatile oil of rosemnry a drachm and a fialf, 
volatile oil of lemons a drachm. Mix them *u 
as that the oils shall be dis.'tolved. 

Medical properlici. — Stimulant, and aromatic. 
Dose from f. ofl to f. St- 

Spiritut ammonia J'tttidia. London. — Fetid 
spirit of ammonia. 

Take of spirit of ammonia two pints, aiisafiEtida 
two ounces. Macerate during twelve hours; 
then by a gentle fire distil over one pint and • 
half into a cold receiver. 

Tinctiira attafirliilit nmmnniata. Edinburgh. — 
Ammoniated tinctun- of assafcitida. 

Take of ainmoniated alcohol eight ounces, 
assafntida half an ounce. Digest in a close 
vessel during twelve hours, then distil over eiglit 
ounces by the heat of boiling water. 

Medical properties, and dose, the same as the 

Spirilus ammonia iiiccinntiit. London. Suc- 
cinaled spi rit of ammonia. 

Take of masticli three drachms, alcohol nine 
fluid ounces, oil of lavender fourteen miuims, 
oil of amber four minims, solution of ammonia 
ten fluid ounces. Macerate the mastich in the 
alcohol so as to dissolve it, and pour ofi° the 
clear tincture; then add the other ingredients, 
and mix them by aplation. 

Medical proiKTtia. — Stimulant and antispas- 
modic. Dose from Mix- to f. 3fl. It has been 
successfully used as an antidote to the bite of the 
rattle snake. 

Spiritut aniji. Ix)ndon. — Spirit of aniseed. 

Take of bruised aniseeds half a pound, proof 
spirit a gallon, wntcr sufficient to prevent einpy- 
reuma. Distil one gullon. 

Medical jiropcrtiet. — Carminative. Dose from 
f. 5j. to f. id. 

Spiritut armoracia compMitut. London. — Com- 
pound spirit of horse radish. 

Take of fresh hotse radish sliced, orant,e peel 
dried, of each a jraund ; nutmegs bruised half 
an ounce ; proof spirit a gallon ; water sufficient 
to prevent empyreuma. Macerate during 
twenty-four hours, and distil over a gallon by a 
gentle heat. 

Medical pniperlin. — Principally employed in 
drojisies. Dose f. 3j. to f 'fl. 

!>piritui camphorg. London. — Spirit of cam- 

Take of camphor four ounces, rectified spirit 
two pints. Mix so as to dissolve the camphor. 

Tineturit camphort. Kdioburgh. — ^Tinctur* of 


P H A R iM A C Y. 

Take of camphor one ounce, alcohol a pound. 
Mix so as to dissolve the camphor. It may be 
Fnade with double or treble the quantity of cam- 

Medical properlie$. —On\y fit for external use. 
Spiritus carui, London. — Spirit of carraway. 
Take of carraway seeds bruised a pound and a 
half, proof spirit a gallon, water sufficient to pre- 
vent empyreuina. Macerate dunng twenty- 
four hours; then distil over a gallon by a gentle 

Spiritui cart carui. Edinburgh. — Spirit of car- 

TaJce of carraway seeds bruised half a pound, 

proof spirit nine pounds. Macerate in a close 

I Teasel during two days; then add water sufficient 

[to prevent empyreuma, and distil over nine 

■ pounds. 

I Medical proptrtiet. — Carminative. Dose from 
^f. 3j. to f. 3ij. 

Spiritui einnapmmi. London. — Spirit of ciona- 

Take of oil of cinnamon by weight five scni- 

I pies, rectilied spirit four pints and a half. Add 

' the spirit to the oil with the addition of so much 

waleraswill be sufficient to prevent empyreuma; 

then dislil a gallon over by a slow fire. 

Spiritus zawi cmnaniomi. Edinburgh. — Spirit 
of cinnamon. 

To be prepared in the same manner as the 
spirit of carraway : using a pound of cinuamou 

MedKol propertiet. — Cardiac. Dose f. 3j. to 

Spi-itai colckici ammoniatta. London. — Am- 
moniated spirit of colchicum. 
Take of colchicnm seeds bruised two ounce?, 
Earomalic spirit of ammonia a pint. Macerate 
or fourteen days, and strain. 

Medical propertiet. — Dr. Williams of Ipswich 

ugcesied the use of the seeds of colchicum as 

onUining the virtues without the deleleiious 

Biialities of the plant. Uther? have questioned 

heir power. Dose of this preparation f. 3j. 

Spiritus juniperi compotitut. London. Edin- 
burgh. — Compound spirit nf juniper. 

Take of juniper beiries bruiieo a pound, car- 
raway seeds bruised, fennel seeds bruised, of 
each an ounce und a half, proof spirit a gallon, 
water a sufficient quantity to pievent empyrenma. 
Macerate during iwenly-four hours ; then distil 
, over a gallon by a gonile heat. propeitiit. — Diuretic. Dose f. 3j. 

f- Sii- 

Spiritui latanduLc. London. — Spirit of laven- 

Take of fresh lavender flowfn two pounds, 
ytciiAed spirit a gallon, water sufficient tu pre- 
sent empyreuma Macerate dunng iwenty-laut 
ours; then distil over a gallon by a g«ntle heat. 
Spiritut lavanduU Mpict. Edinburgh. — Spirit 
^•f Uvttiidcr. 

Take of fresh flowers of laveiidor two pnunds, 
alcohol eight pounds. Distil over seven jiounds 
'ith the hr»t of a water-bath, 
rnncipally einpluved t» * perfume. 
SpHtuih - ' ' nfHttitia. London. — Com 

KHllld Spll: . r. 

Take of 

iMieodrr thrte piat«, spirit 

of losemary a pint, cinnamon bark b 
megs bruised, of each half an ounce, 
ders wood chipped one ounce, Macei 
fourteen days, and strain. 

Edinburgh. — Take of spirit of lavet 
pounds, spirit of rosemary one pound, 
bark bruised or.e ounce, nutmegs bi 
drachms, red saunders wood rasp 
drachms. Macerate during seven i 

Medical propert'ia. — Stimulant and 
Dose from f. 3ft. to f. 3ij. 

Spirituimenthir piperita. London. E( 
Spirit of peppermint. 

Take of dried peppermint a pound 
proof spirit a gallon, water a sufficient 
to prevent empyreuma. Macerate dun 
ly-four hours; then distil over a gal 
gentle heat. 

Medical propertiet. — Carminative. D 
to f. 3ij. 

Spiritui mentha viridii. London.^ 

Take of spearmint dried a pound 
proof spirit a gallon, water sufficient tc 
empyreuma. Macerate during t' 
hours ; then by a gentle heat distil over 

AJcdical propertiet.— hiVe the last. 

Spinim myitlicit. London. — Spirifiuj 
motchala. Edinburgh. — Spint of nutmf 

Take of nutmegs biuised two oone 
spirit a gallon, water sufficient to pre 
reuma. Macerate during twenty-four lio 
distil a gallon by a gentle heat. 

Spiritut pimcnt a. London. — Spirit of 

Take of pimento bernes bruised f 
proof spirit a gallon, water a sufficient 
to prevent empyreuma. Maceraia 
twenty-four hours ; then by a gentle h 
over a gallon. 

Spiritut uiyrti pimentit. Edinburgh, 

To be prepared with hilf a pound ( 
pimento berries in the same manner as 
way spint. 

Medical propertiet. — Carminative. D 

Spiritut pule^ii. London. — Spint 

Take of pennyroyal dried a pound 
proof spirit a itallon, water sufficient li 
empyreuma. Macerate during twenly-fC 
then, by a gentle fite, distil over a g«lk| 

Medical propertiet. — Like >[iearmint 

Spiritut roirnarin%. London, — Spirit 
loary . 

Take of fresh rosemary tops iw& 
proof spinl a gallon, water sufficient 
empyreuma. Macerate dunng I 
hours ; then distil a ^'allon with a gentk 

Spmtui rorumarmt iiffictnal^. Edil 
Spirit of rosemary. 

Take of Irrsh rosemary tops two pool 
hoi eight )>oii>iil«' Draw on by duUtI 
waiei-baih seven pounds. 

Ti HCTva*.— Tinctvirsj. 

Tiiutura alofi. Iwondon. — Tinctura 

Take of extract of spiked aloes 

half an ounce, esUact of liquorice to 


mater » piot, rectified spirit four fluid 
M i wmtr in • sand-baih until the ex- 
ttimohti ; then strain. 
Mm altM nratonnc. Edinburgh. — Tinc- 
jaaolanne aloes. 
lif iocotohne aloes iu powder half an 

fat Uqaonce one ounce and n half, 
oamces, water a pound. Digest 
4ays with a e^ntle heat in a close 
n to be shaken frequently (a cir- 
eito be attended to in the preparation of 
> B MUt llyi; then pour off the clear 
I OOM from f. 5ft. to f. ^ifj. 

ttJtena. Edinburgh. — Etlierial 

Tine aloes, mynh, of each pow- 
and a half, English saffron cut 
' Mtpfcuric ether with alcohol one 
I Ihe myrrh for four days with the 
a cioaed bottle ; then add the saffron, 
ikas. Again dii;cst for four days ; and, 
1 4icg* Imtc subsided, let the tincture be 

wtf nf t tl iet. — Stimulant and stomachic. 

^. lo I. 3uj. 

r» afao r— ipuiifa. London. — Compound 


if tnmel of spiked aloes, powdered saf- 

■Mb three ounces, tincture of myrrh 

K MaBCtMe during fourteen days, and 

■« tiaa tt myrrhs. Edinburgh. — ^Tinc- 
■KS ud myrrh. 

tf Bynii in powder two ounces, alco- 
wd Kid a h«lf, water half a pound. Mix 
M with the water ; then add the myrrh, 
hnag (mr days ; and lastly add ofsoco- 
powder one ounce and a half, 
I cot in pieces one ounce. Digest 
^ibrce days, and pour off the clear 
! from f. 3j. to f 5iij. 
ufetuU. London. — Tincture of 

■ four ounces, rectified spirit 
imjpints, water eight fluid ounces. Add 

Hamfalida previously triturated 
^digest during seren days, and 
wii<U. Edmburgh.— Tincture of 
(bur ounces, alcohol two 

I a iaH. Digest during seven days, 
kiaagh paper. Done from f. 3j. (« 

*« MTSKfit. Ijoudon. — Tincture of 

$t Crok etaage peel three ounces, proof 
• pl i m. Manrale during fourteen days, 
t DoM from f. 3j. to f. 3ij. 
■■ IsatOMi anapon/d. London.^ — Com- 

>C IW >a of MBBOtD. 

tt hmmmm diiee ounces, storax balsam 
, (olu balsam one ounce, ex- 
balf an ounce, rectified 
■ during fourteen days, 

tompoiita. Edinburgh. — 
I of benzoin, 
if taaoto in powder three ounces. 

balsam of Peru two ounces, hepaticaloespowdei- 
ed half an ounce, alcohol two pounds. Digest 
during seren days, and filter through paper. 

Mcdual propertitt. — Expectorant. Dose fron. 
(. 3j. to {. 3ij. 

Tirtclura bonplandia Irifoliata. Edinburgh 

Tincture of bonplandia, or augustina. 

Take of the bark of trifoliate bonplandia bruis- 
ed two ounces, proof spirit two pounds and a 
half Digest during seven days, ana filler tlirougb 
pappr. Dose f 3j. to f. 3ij. 

Tincluru calumbg. London. — Tincture of ca- 

Take of sliced calumba root two ounces and 
a half, proof spirit two pints. Macerate during 
fourteeu days, and filter. 

'Ilnclura colombe. Edinburgh.— Tincture of 

Take of columba root in powder two ounces, 
proof spirit two pounds. Digest during seven 
days, and filter through paper. Dose f. 3i. 

10 f 3ft. 

Tinctura camphortc cmnputUa. London. — Com- 
pound tincture of camphor. 

Take of camphor two scruples ; hard opium 
powdered, acid of benioin, of each one drachm ; 
proof spirit two pints. Macerate during fourteen 
days, and filter. 

Tinctura opii campliorata five eliiir parrgori- 
cum Anglorum. Edinburgh. — Camphorated tinc- 
ture of opium or paregoric elixir. 

Take of camphor two scruples; hard purified 
opium powdered, benzoic acid, of each a drachm; 
proof spirit two pints. Digest during seven 
days, and filter. 

Mediial properties. — Anodyne and expecto- 
rant, after inflammatory symptoms have some- 
what subsided. Dose from f. 3ft. to f 3ij. 

Tinctura cantliaridii. London. — Tincture of 
blistering fly. 

Take of blistering flies bruised three drachms, 
proof spirit two pints. Macerate during fourteen 
days, and filler. 

Tinctura cantharidii veticatoriic. Edinburgh. — 
Tincture of blistenng-Hy 

Take of blistenng-flies bruised a drachm, 
proof spirit a pound. Digest for seven days, and 
filler through paper. 

Mrdifat pmpertict. — Stimulant: useful in gleets 
and leucorrbtpa. Dose from inx. to f.3j. 

Tinctura capiici. London. — Tincture of capsi- 

Take of capsicum berries one ounce, proof 
spirit two pints. Macerate during fourteen days, 
and filter. 

Medical propertiet. — Stimulant. Dose from f. 3ft : f.3ij.loapintofwater for a gargle. 

Tinctura cardamomi. London. — Tincture of 

Take of cardamom seeds husked and bruised 
three ounc«s, proof spirit two pints. Macerate 
during fourteen days, and filter. 

Tinctura amomi rcpentii. Edinburgh. — Tinc- 
ture of cardamoms. 

Take of lesser cardamom seed; bruised four 
ounces, proof spirit two pounds and a half. 
Digest during seven days, and filter through paper. 

Tinctura cardamomi compoata. LoodoD'— 
Compound tincture of cardamoms. 


r 11 x\ R M A C Y. 

Take of cardamom Med-i, cnrriway seeds, co- 

Ithineal, of each powdered two dracliras, cinna- 

[Inon bark bruised half an ounce, raijini stoned 

bur ounce?, proof spirit two pmls. Macvrate 

r^urins fourteen days, and filter. 

ilcdicul pritprrlies. — Cordial. Dose f. 3ij. 
Tinclura fuicarillit. London. — Tincture of 

Take of cucarilla bark powdered four ounces, 
broof spirit two pints. Macerate during fourteen 
days, and filter. 

Tinclura crotonu eUutheriir. Kdinburgli. — 
Tincture of crotoii elcutlieria or casearilla. 

Take of crolon elculliena bruised four ounces, 
proof spirit two pounds and a half. Digest dur- 
ing seven days, and filler through paper. Scarce- 
ly at all used. 

Tinclura eastorei. London. — Tincture of cas- 

Take of castor powdered two ounces, rectified 
.spirit two pints. Macerate during seven days, 
land filter. 

Edinburgh. — Take of castor powdered an 
ounce and a half, alcohol a pound. Macerate 
during seven days, and filter through paper. 

Tineturo custorti compostla. Edinburgh. — 
[Compound tincture of castor. 

Take of Russian castor in powder one ounce, 
ssafofiida half an ounce, ammoniated nicoliol 
kone pound. Digest duringseven days, and filter 
tthruugh paper. 

Medical properl its. — These tinctures are ([iven 
lili drachm and two drachm doses, in hysteria 
nd spasmodic tiatuleiicies. 
Tinclura catechu London. — ^Tincture of ca- 

Take of extract of catechu thrve ounces, cin- 
iDamon bark bruised two ounces, proof spirit 
Iwo pints. Macerate durin; fourteen days, and 
' filter. 

Tinclura catechu acorur. Edinburijh. — ^Tinc- 
ture uf cittechu. 

Take of extract of catechu powdered three 

ounces, cinnamon bark bruised two ounces, proof 

I spirit two pounds and a half. Digest ilurinu: 

l<4even days, and filter through pap«r. Dose f. 3j. 

' if.Sitj. 

Tinclura cinchona. I/}ndoa. — Tincture of cin- 

Take of lance-leaved cinchona bark powdi^red 
seven ounces, proof spirit two pints. Macerati; 
1 for fourteen ihiy^, and fillfr. 

Ttacturu (im-huna. KdinburgK. — Tincture of 

Take of ciniliona b.%ik powderetl four onnceii, 
^Btoof spirit two pounds .tnd » lialf. Dijcvsl diii- 
l-llig seven dnys, .iml Altec lUrough paper. Dvsv 
f from f. 3iJ- to f. »rt. 

TtnctuTU cmchimtt nmmiiniata. London. — \m- 
ir.otiiatcil ii' ■":>■ ', 

Take u( bona bark in pow- 

f der four fiiin< • '■, :it"tii.iiit spirit of amcnoiiu iwc 
■pints. M4<;rr.«i<t during two days, and hlicr. 
' iJosi" f Jij. to I' .-111 

7*ini'ttir<t lint tminr k'i*tnfHnita. London. — Coin- 
^ pound lilnMiir,' (if tiMna. 

Take oi ■ iichona bark in pow- 

^derlwooii" ' je peel oac ounce and 

• half, vtrginmn snake rvul b rntud thMsdractiint, 

rafTron a drachm, cochineal povidered 
pies, proof spirit twenty fluid ounces. 
during fourteen days, and tiller. 

Hoxham's tincture. Dose from f. 3j. 

Tinclura cinnamonii. London. — Tmt 
cinnamonii. Edinburgh. — Tincture of 

Take of cinnamon bark biiii<ied ttiref 
proof spirit two pints. Macerate durio) 
days, and filtei. Dof<e from f. 3j. to I. 

Titictura einnumomi coinpiuUa. J 
Compound tincture uf cinnamon. 

Take of cinnamon bark bruised six 
cardimon' seeds bruised three dract 
pepper powdered, ginger root sliced, ol 
drachms, proof spirit two pints. M 
ing fourteen days, and filler. 

Tinclura cinnamomi compoiiln. Edii 
Compound tincture of cinnamon. 

Take of cinnamon bark bruised, I' 
room seeds bruised, of each one ounce ; 
per in powder two drachms ; proof 
pounds and a half. Digest dunng i 
and filter through paper. Dose f. 3j. 

Tinclura conii maculati. Edinburg 
turc of hemlock. 

Take of dried leaves of hemlock tw 
cardamom seeds bruised half an oui 
spirit sixteen ounces, Digest dunng I 
and filter through paper. Dose f. 3&. 

Tinclura croci talivi, Etlinburgh. — T 

Take of English safTrt^n cut io 
ounce, proof spirit fifteen ounces, 
seven days, and 6ller through pipct 
inert. Lsed for its color. 

Tinclura digUatit. London. — TiscU 

Take of foxglove leave* dried tot 
proof spirit two pints. Macerate dv 
teen days, and filter. 

'Tinclura digtlalis purpurtt. EdU 
Tincture of foxglove. 

Take of foxglove leaves dried 
proof spirit eight ounces. Digest dull 
iluys, mid filter through paper. Dose 
dually, liiit carefully, increased to a f. 

Ttnctuia gallnrum. Edinbiityh-'^ll 

Take of galls powdered two ouiM 
spirit sixteen ounces. Maceniie dm 
days, then filler itirougli paper. Dm 
f. 3iij. 

Ti'ictura gtntiana compotila. \ mrfii 
pound tincture of gentian. 

Take of guiitian rout cut two nunol 
iicel dried one ounce, c.iid.iinoin tM^ 
half an ounce, piouf spint lw,^ piols. 
during fourteen days, and Alter. 

Tinclura gtntianti compotilm. TAit 
Comuound tinctuie of gentian. 

Take of yellow gentian mot sliced 
two ounces, oranee peel dried and btl 
uiince, canella albit bruio^d half an 
noal in powder half a drachm, proof 1 
pints and a half. l)ig«l during teten 
hller thtough paper. Dose f. 5ij. to j 

'iW-/ura guatiici. Ixiudoii. — ^Tmcm 

Take of fuaiacnm powdaitd' 


fait two fnnts. Maceraie during foitr- 
«Md tttet. 

ri offtcinalis. Edinburgh. — 
141 i|vaiicinD. 

d (aaiacuin in powder six ouncei, %1- 
m poomlt and a half. Ui;e<t during 
fi, aad &llet through paper. Duse 1 3j. 

n gtoMci tmmaniota. London. Edin- 
AoinoaiaiM tincture o' guaiacum. 
4f gvaMcuni in powde. Tour ounces, 
tpoA of ammonia one pint and a half. 
( dann^ fourt»vn fsevcn days Fdin- 
tnii filler. A good preparution. Dose 

Siri mgri. London. — Tincture 

t ihc root of black hellebore iliced lour 
IR)r ' 1 pints. Macerate during 

V if bUck he'.lebore root 

r bineal in powder fiftfen 

i<»;>iri; nncen ounces. Digestduring 

ft; IMa filter through paper. 

it /nptrlut. — Emmenagogue. Dose 

A- to 5). 

wmkmmli. London. Edinburgh. — Tine- 

IM|w fire onnces, proof spirit two 
during fourteen days, .iiid strain 
^ Let tike tincture be expressed, and 
■eeofh paper. 
iaf|M)p(r«io.— Efficacy doubtful. Dose 


hn kfeieyami. London. — Tincture of 


<f die dried leaves of hpnbane four 
ifnof spirit two pints. Macerate during 

• %«,■»] filter. 

!•• k^oteyami nigri Edinburgh. — Tinc- 

Iff iK# .in. ,f l;>3res of black henbane an 
fKt ' (ounces. Digestduring 

■I*, • "irougli paper, ^(ubstitute 

IB. On** n|*v. to f. 3j. 
"^ ■' London, — Tincture of jalap, 
ilip root powdered eiitht ounces, 
two pints. Digest during fourteen 

ttweolruti juli>p<r. Edinburgh. — 

• rf talap root in powder three ounces, 
HtiA*en ounces. Digest during seven 
^Htn through paper. Dose f. 3j. to 


I^mdon. — Tincl'ire of kino. 
in powder three ounces, proof 

Mpbw. Macenue during fourteen days 

ftt. DoM from f. 3j. to (. 3i|. 

|Im m y r ht . London. — Tincture of 


t<f Wy iil i broiled four ounces, rectified 

ribv jidU. Macente during fourtei-n 

*ha|k, TUte of myrrh in powder three 
It ftetM twenty ounces, water imi ounces. 
. 4annf srren davs, and Alter through 
I'RKipally empioycd a a n-j^h to the 
■«■* it ipongy gums. 

Tinctura opii. London. — Tincture of opium. 

Take of hard opium powdered two uunces and 
a half, proof »pint two pints. Macerate during 
fourteen days, and strain. 

TiiKtura opii. Edinburgh. — Tincture of opium, 
commonly called liquid laudanum. 

Take of opium two ounces, proof spirit \wo 
pounds. Macerate during twelve days, and 
filter through pr.per. rkne from nivj. to f. Jj. 
or more. 

Tincttira opii ammimiu(a. Edinburgh. — Olim 
Elixir paregoricum. Anirmmiated tincture of 

Take of opium two drachms, Benzoic acid, 
saffron cut in shreds, of each three drachms; 
volatile oil of aniseed h:ilf a drachiu ; aramo- 
niated alcohol sixteen ounces. Digest durinf 
seven days, and filter ihrougn paper. Dose from 
f. 5ft. to 3j. 

'ZVnr/uru quattia ezcelia. Edinburgh .-'Tinc- 
ture of quassia. 

Take of quassia wood rasped one ounce, 
proof spirit two pounds and a half. Digest 
during seven days, and (liter llirough paper. 
Dose f. 3ij. 

Tinclura rhti. London. — ^Tincture of rhu- 

Take of rhubarb root sliced two ounces, car- 
damom seeds bruised one ounce and a half, 
saffron two drachms, proof spirit two pints. 
Macerate during fourteen days in a gentle heat, 
and filter. 

Tinelura rhai. Edinburgh. — Tincture of rliu- 

Take of rhubarb sliced three otioees, lesser 
cnrdimom seeds bruised half an ounce, proof 
spirit two pounds and a half. Digest during 
seven days, and filter through paper. 

Tinclvrn rhtri composita. London. — Com- 
pound tincture of rhubarb. 

Take of rhubarb root sliced two ounces, 
li<|iiurice root bruised half an ounce, ginger root 
sliced, saffron, of each two drachms, proof spirit 
a pint, water twelve fluid ounces. Macerate 
with a gentle heat during fourteen days, and 

Tinctura rhai tt aloet. Edinburgh. — Tincture 
of rhubarb and aloes. Formerly sacred elixir. 

Take of rhubarb root sliced ten drachms, so- 
cotorine aloes powdered six drachms, lesser car- 
damom seeds bruised half an ounce, proof spirit 
two pounds and a half. Digest during seven 
days, and filter through paper. 

Tinclura rhai et f en/ia/w Edinburgh. — ^Tinc- 
ture of rhubarb and gentian. 

Take of rhubarb root sliced two ounces, gen- 
tian root sliced half an ounce, proof spirit two 
pounds and a half. Digest during seven days, and 
filter through paper. Dose of the above tinc- 
tures, as a purgative, from f. Jfi. to Jj. ; for a sto- 
machic, f. 3j. to f. 3iij. 

Tinctura tcitlie. London. Edinburgh.— Tinc- 
ture of squills. 

Take of recent squill root four ounces (two 
ounces Eilinhurgh), proof spirit two pints (six- 
teen ounces Kdiiiliurgh). ^lacerale during four- 
teen days, and filter. Dose from t^xv. to f. 

Ttnrttira tcnmt. I.Andon. — Tincture of senna. 



Take of senna leaves three ounces, camway 
seeds bruited tlire« drachms, cardamom seeds 
bruised a drachtn, stoned raisins four ounces, 
proof spirit two pints. Macerate Kith a gentle 
neat during fourteen days, and filter. 

Tinctura scniid compouta. Edinburgh — Com- 
pound tincture of senna. 

Take of the leaves of senna two ounces, jalap 
hruued one ounce, coriander seeds bruised half 
an ounce, proof spirit three pounds and a half. 
Digest dunng seven days, and add four ounces 
of refined su^^r to the tincture when filteied. 
Dose from f. 3ij. to f. 5vj. 

Tinctura urpcntaria. J.j}ndon. — Tincture of 
make root. 

Take of snake root three ounces, proof spirit two 
pints. Macerate during fourteen days, and filter. 

Tinctura arislolochia urpentaria. Edinburgh. 
Tincture of snake root. 

Take of snake root bruised two ounces, 
cochineal in powder a drachm, proof spirit two 
pounds and a half. Digest during seven days, 
and filter through paper. Dose from f. 311' to 
f. 3ii. 

Tinctura toluij'erit baUami. Edinburgh. — ^Tinc- 
ture of tolu. 

Take of balsam of tolu one ounce and a half, 
alcohol a pound. Digest until the balsam be 
dissolved, and filter through paper. Very little 

Tincttira vaUriane. London — Tincture of va- 

Take of valerian root in powder four ounces, 
proof spirit two pints. Macerate during four- 
teen days, and filler. Dose f. 3j. to f. 3ij. 

Tinctura vateriamr ammoniata. London. — 
Ammoniated tincture of valenan. 

Take of valerian root four ounces, aromatic 
spirit of ammonia two pints. Macerate during 
fourteen days, and filter. Dose f. 3J. 

Tinctura veratri albL Edinburgh. — Tincture 
of while hellebore. 

Take of white hellebore rnot bruised eight 
ounces, proof spirit one pound and a half. Di- 

fest during seven days, and filter through paper, 
lut little used. Dose ni» 'o ni"- 
Tinctura tingiberit. London. Tinctura amo- 
tni tingibcrit. Edinburgh. — Tincture of ginger. 
Take of ginger root sliced two ounces, recti- 
fied spirit two pints. Macerate during fourteen 
days (seven days Edinburgh}, and filter. Dose 
f. 3j. to Sy. 

iETBCiiiLA. — Preparations of ether. 

Xihtr lulphuricui Sulphuric ether. 

For the modes of preparing sulphuric ether. 
Mid (he theory of its composition, see Cbe- 


Spirilut tthtrit oromaticvi. London. — Aro- 
niiic spirit uf ether 

Take of cinnamon bark bruised three drachms, 
cardamom seeds powdered u drachm and ■ half, 
long pepper (xiwdered, ginger root slued, of 
tach • drachm, spirit of sulphuric ether a pint. 
Mac«rat« dunng fourteen days lu a stopped glass 
bottle, and strain. 

£lher ttdpha-iaa cum aUokoli arvmaticui. 
Fxlinburgh.—ATomatic sulphuric ether with »l- 

Take of cinoamon bark bruised, 
seeds bruised, each an ounce: long pep 
twodiachms; sulphuric ether with 
pounds iiiid a half. Digest during 
and filter through paper. 

Spa-ilus alhcris nitrici. London.* 
nitric ether. 

Take of rectified spirit two pints, 
(by weight) three ounces. Ado the 
ally to the spirit, and mix them, ( 
that the temperature during the mi 
not exceed 120°; then distil over li 
heat twenty-four fluid ounces 

Spirilut alherit nilrosi. Edinburgti. 
nitrous ether. 

Take of alcohol three pounds, i 
one pound. Pour the alcohol into a. 
placed in a vessel filled with cold 
gradually add the acid with frequent 
Let the phial be slightly corked, and 
cool place during seven days ; tbel 
liquor by the heat of boiling water, 
ceiver kept cool with snow or water, 
any spint comes over. ^ 

Medical proprrtiet. — Refrigerant, di 
anlispasniudic. Dose from f. 3ft. to ( 

Spirilut gthcrii tulphurici. London^ 
sulphuric ellier. 

Take of sulphnric ether half a pii 
spirit a pint. Mix them. 

Mthtr tulphuricu$ cum olcohoU. £d| 
Sulphuric ether with alcohol. 

Take of sulphuric ether one part, I 
parts. Mix them. 

Medical proprrtia. — Stimulant, 
die, and narcotic. Dose of the 
from f: 3ft. to f. 3ij.i of the spirit fra 
f. 3iij. 

Spiritut alhrrit tulphurici compoiili 
— Compound spirit of ether. 

Take of spirit of sulphuric elh( 
ethereal oil two fluid drachms. Mi 
stitute for HofTman's anodyne. Dose 1 
to f. 3>j. 

Vim*. — Wines. 

Vinum aloci. London. — Wme of s 

Fake of extract of spiked aloes ei 
canelta b.ark two ounces, proof spir 
water, of each four pints. Rub the 
powder with while sand previously 
impurities; ruh also the canella bark 
der, arid on these mixed together let 
and spirits be pouted; then digest «il 
agitation, during fuurlet-n days, and si 

I'lnuffi aU>fi uvotm ina. ICdinbui] 
of socolorine aloes. 

Take of socotoriiic aloes in ponder 
lessi.'r cardamom seeds bruised, gi 
bruised, of each a drachm, Spanish 
two pounds. Digest for »*Ten dtjt 
the ini>ture frequently and itnin. 
mula of the Loudon college is sostti 
a wine. 

Htdicttl properties. — Slo" ij 

tive. Dose from f. Jj. to ' ri 

intention, from f. Jft. to f.5:li lur Wv 

Vtnum (uUhici. London. — S\ lue ofi 

Take of the fresh loot of col 



fRof spirit twelve fluid ounces, 
I witK tscnljr Buid ounces. Macerate 
| ut »»i i Jan,tud filter. Sherry wine is 
taolteni tot the colcbicum than spirit. 

tJ wnffrtiet. — Sedative, purgative, and 
"^" D(»e from n{,xy. to f. 3j.: in in- 
: lU effects should be carefully 

(ompositum. Edinburgh. — 

I of gentian. 

rffntiui root half an ounce, cinchona 

e, orange [>cel dried two dr^hnis, 

kdrarhm, proof spirit four ounces, 

wine two pounds and a half. 

t proof spirit on the root and the 

1 bruised, ind at the end of Iwen- 

tadcl the wine; then macerate dur- 

I liajs. and strain. Dose f. 311. 

iifauamlu. London. — Wine ofipeca- 

f ^aoMSoanha root bruised two ounces, 
Ml twelve fluid ounces, distilled water 
■iooBcet. Macerate during fourteen 

K^u — Take of the root of ipecacuanha 
M* amice*, Spanish white wine two 
KgpM faring seven days, then filter. 
Ml emetic from f. 3ij. to f. Jj- for an 
is an expectorant, &c., mxij. to f. 3l1. 
■icatasM talari. Edinburgh- — Wine 

ejiaoBO leaves one part, Spanish while 
pMi. Macerate during seven days, 
^-faM^ paper. 

rf /nmerliet. — Diuretic and antispas- 
Dm from n^x. to f. 3tl. 
itfi. London. Edinburgh. — Wine of 

if ixtrsct of opium an ounce, cinnamon 
iad, clove bruised, of each a drachm. 
Id lix fluid ounces, distilled water ten 
Ml. Macerate dunng eight days (seven 
|k)b ind filler. 
dpvptrtut. — Ustfiil where opium in 

I«Te tinctore is objectionable. Dose 
Edinburgh. — Wine of rhubarb, 
id rhubarb roottwoounces, canella 
drachm, proof spirit two ounces, 
wine fifteen ounces. Macerate 
dav^, iird filter through paper. 

rf wfail* balleborc root bruised eight 
aDof spirit a pint, distilled water a pint 
%• Macsrtte dunnK fourteen days, and 
iMMi tnployed. Dote nts. lo f.3ii. 

Tlt*.<-Prtpantion< with vinegar. 

■ «i<iaaa iromaticvm. Edinburgh. — 

(f ranMiy lops dried, sage leavps 

toancc; lavender flowers dried 

tkraiaed half a drachm; dis- 

mdi. Macerate during 

r'dw ex pressed liquor ihroiigh 

I— Wineofwhitehelle 

Mrdieal ;iroy)er<ict— Chiefly employed ta 
correct tiie odor of sick rooms. Dose iiucniall} 
as a stimulant from f. 3lV tu f. 3j. 

Acidum dcrlicum catnphoratum, Edinburgh.^ 
Camphorated acetic acid. 

Take of acetic acid six ounces, camphor half 
an ounce. Hub the camphor to powder by the 
assistance ofa small quantity of alcohol ; then dis- 
solve it in the acid. 

Mrdieal properties. — Snuffed up the nostrils 
in fainlings and languors. 

Acctumcoichici. London. — V'inegarof meadow 
saffron (colchicum). 

Take of fresh meadow saffron root sliced ao 
ounce, distilled vinegar a pint, proof spirit a 
fluid ounce. Macerate the meadow ^nfl'ron root 
with the vinegar in a covered glass vessel during 
twenly-four hours ; then express, and set the li- 
quor aside for the subsidence of the fxculencies. 
Lastly, add the spirit lo the clear liquor. 

Meilical properties. — Diuretic, sedative, aud 
antiarthrilic. Dose from f. 311. lo f. 3j. 

Acetum seilltc. London. — Vinegar of squill. 

Take of fresh squill root dried a pound, dis- 
tilled vinegar six pints, proof spirit naif a piut. 
Macerate the squill r(x>t in the vinegar with a 
gentle heat and in a covered vessel duringtwen- 
ty-four hours ; then express the liquor, and set it 
aside for the subsidence of the fcculencies. Lastly 
add the spirit to the clear liquor. 

Acidum acelicum scUUticum. Edinburgh. — Vi- 
negar of squill. 

Take of squill root dried one ounce, distilled 
vinegar fifteen ounces, alcohol one ounce and a 
half. Macerate the squill with the acid during 
seven days ; then express the liquor, and add the 
alcohol to It. When the fieculencies have subsided 
pour off the clear l.quor. Dose from f. 3tl. to 
f. 3ij. 

Mellita. — Preparations with honey. 

Mel disputnatum. Ijondon. — Clarified honey. 

Melt the honey in a water-bath; then separate 
the scum. 

Mel bnraeis. London. — Honey of borax. 

Take of subborate of soda powdered a drachm, 
clarified honey one ounce. Mix them. 

Medieal properties. — Useful in apthous affec- 
tions of the fauces as a local detergent. 

Mel ro$t. London. — Rose honey. 

Take of the petals of the red rose dried fonr 
ounces, boiling water three pints, clarified honey 
five pounds. Macerate the petals in the water 
during six hours, and boil it down by means of 
a water-bath to a proper consistence. This ii 
chiefly employed as an adjunct to gargles. 

Osymel simplex. London. — Simple oxymel. 

Take of clanfied honey two pounds, distilled 
vinegar one pound. Boil them in a glass vessel 
by a gentle heat to due consistence. A cooling 
beverage in fevers. Dose f. 3j. or f. 3ij. dissolv- 
ed in water or barley water. 

Ori/ml teiJIe-. London.— Oxymel of squill. 

Takf of clarified honey three pounds, vinegar 
of squill two pints. lioil in a glass vessel over 
a eeiitle fire to a due consistence. 

Medical pro/iKTliu. — Expcclonnt. Dose f.?ft 
lo fjij. 




Syropi. — Syrups. 

These wth a very few exceptions might be 
banished from the pharmacopoeias and disused 
in exteiiipotaneous prescription. 

&/rupui iintpUx. Loadon. — Syrup. 

Take of refined sugar two pounds and a half, 
water a pint. Dissolve the sugar in the water 
by means of a water-liath ; then set it aside for 
twenty-four hours ; separate the scum, and if there 
be any feces, pour off the clear part from them. 

Syn^mi $implex. Edinburgh. — Simple syrup. 

l^e of purified sugar fifteen parts, water 
eight parts. Dissolve the sugar in the water by 
a gentle heat, aud boil it a little so as to form 

Svnqna aceti. Edinburgh. — Syrup of vinegar. 

I^e of vinegar five parts, refined sugar sevea 
parts. Boil so as tn form syrup. Useful in 
mixing with barley water in febrile and inflam- 
matory disorders. 

Syn^nu dtkae. London.— Syrap of marsh 

Take of fresh marsh mallow root bruised half 
a pound, refined sugar two pounds, water four 
pints. Boil the water with the root down to 
one half, and express the liquor when it is cold ; 
set it aside for twenty-four hours for the subsi- 
dence of the feces, tlien decant off the clear li- 
quor, and, having added the sugar to it, boil down 
to a due consistence. 

Syruput ttlthae offieinalu. Edinburgh. — Syrup 
of marsh mallows. 

Take of <^h root of marsh mallows sliced 
one part, water ten parts, refined sugar four 
parts. Boil the water with the root down to one 
naif, and strain by strong expression. Put aside 
the strained liquor, and when the fieces have sub- 
sided add the sugar to it ; then boil so as to form 
a syrup. A useless preparation, only slightly 

Sj/rtqna ■aunmlionim. London. — Syrup of 

. Take of fresh orange peel two ounces, boiling 
water a pint, refined sugar three pounds. 
Macerate tne peel in the water during twelve 
houn in a covered vessel; then pour the li- 
quor off, and add the sugar to it. 

<%nipt(i ctfrt aurantii. Edinburgh. — Syrup of 

Take of the fresh peel of Seville oranges three 
ounces, boiling water one pound and a half, re- 
fined sugar three pounds. Macerate the peel 
with the water in a covered vessel durine twelve 
bouts ; then add the sugar to the strained liquor, 
and subject it to a gentle heat so as to form a 

Syruput eolchiei autMfnnalit. Edinburgh.— .Sy- 
rap of meadow saflron. 

Take of fresh meadow saffron root cut into 
thin slices one ounce, distilled vinegar sixteen 
ounces, refined sugar twenly-six ounces. Mace- 
rate the root in the acid during two days, occa- 
sionally shaking the vessel; then cxpressini; 
gently, strain the liquor, and add the sugar to it. 
Lastly, boil a little so as to form syrup. Dose 
f. 3(1. to f. 3vj. gradually increased. 

Si/niptucroci. Ixindon.— Syrup of sallron. 

Take of saffron one ounce, boiling water one 
pint, refined sugar two pounds and a half. Mace- 

rate the saffron iii the water during twi 
in a slightly covered vessel ; then filter I 
and add to it the sugar. 

Syniput diantlu caryopkyUi. Edinbu rgl 
of the clove July flower. 

Take of recent petals of the clove J 
fieed from their claws one part, boil 
four parts, refined sugar seven parts, 
the petals in the water during tnel 
then, to the liquor being strained add 
and dissolve it with a gentle heat 

Svrupus lemonam. London. — Syrup 

I'ake of strained lemon juice a pin 
sugar two pounds. Dissolve the su; 
juice in the manner ordered for syrup. 

Syruput citri medktt. Edinburgh.— 

Take of lemon juice strained, after 
have subsided, three parts ; refined { 
parts. Dissolve the sugar. An agreu 
for acidulating drinks. 

^nipm mori. London. — Syrup of n 

I'ake of strained mulberry juice a pit 
sugar two pounds. Let the sugar be 
in the juice in the manner directed for 

^rupta paptmtrit. London. — Syrup i 

"faVs of the dried capsules of the po|: 
ed and freed from seeds fourteen ounce:!, 
sugar two pounds, boiling water two ga 
a half. Macerate the capsules in the v 
ing twelve hours ; then boil the whole ii 
bath down to one gallon, and strongi; 
Boil the liquor again down to two poi 
strain it while it- is hot. Set it asid 
hours for the subsidence of the feces ; 
the clear liquor down to one pint, an< 
sugar in the manner directed for makit 

Syruput papaverit somniferi. Edinbu: 
run of white poppy. 

Take of the capsules of the white po 
and freed from the seeds one part, boil 
fifteen parts, refined sugar two parts, 
the sliced capsules in the water durii 
hours; then boil until a third part only 
quor remains, and strain the decoction 
expression. Boil the strained liquor 
one-half, and strain it again. Lastly, ha' 
ed the sugar boil for a short time so a 
syrup. A useful anodyne. Dose fi 

Syruput rhteadot. Londnn. — Syrup o 

Take of the recent petals of the red 
pound, boiling water a pint and two flui 
refined sugar a pound and a half. To 
heated in a water-bath gradually add ' 
of the red poppy, stirring them occs 
then, having removed the vessel, macera 
twelve hours, press out the liquor, and s 
for the subsidence of the impurities, li 
the sugar in the manner oraered for m 
rop. A mere coloring syrup. 

Syruput rhamni. London. — Syrup 

Take of the fresh juice of buckdioi 
four pintH, pinser root sliced, [limvni 
bniised, of each an ounce, refintti »u 
pounds and a half. Set apart the ju 
days for the subsidence of the feces ; tli 



I juice udd the gine^er root 
n bcTTics ; then mac«rale with u gentle 

Kn, and strain. Boil the re- 
down to a pint and a half; 
add the tugar in the manner 
torlici. Edinourgh. — Symp 
t clarified jttice of ripe buckthorn 
refined sugar one part. Boil 
lip. The London formula the 
tic. Doje from f. jij. to f. Jj. : 
pting in veterinary practice. 
London. — Syrup of the rose, 
als of the hunured-leavpd rose 
refined sugar six pounds, 
r pints. Macerate the rose pe- 
ibr twelve hours, and strain. 
lliained liquor in a water-bath 
and a half; then add the su- 

ctntij'otif. Edinburgh. — Syrup 

Ibe 6«9h petals of the damask rose 

fliw water four parts, refined sugar 

Macerate the peuls in the water 

It hoon ; then add the sugar to the 

(or, uhI boil so as to fi>rm syrup. 

Duse from f. 3ij. to f. ^i'fl. 

gaUict. Edinburgh. Syrup of 

I of the red rose dried one 
nine parti, refined sugar ten 
the petals in tlie water duiing 
I; Atn boil a little and strain. Add 
tibe strained liquor, and again boil a 
Ki ferm a syrup. A wrak astringent. 
■napariUf. London. Syrup of sar- 

lU root one pound, boiling 

refined sugar one pound. 

in the water during twenty-four 

Idown to four pints, and strain the 

, add the su^r and eva- 

ice. A nselejs preparation. 

'. Edinburgh. Syrup 

of squill four parts, refined 

^' \ parti. Dissolve the sugar 

I to form s)'rap, Dose from 

K. LoimIod. — Syrup of senna. 
Haaa leaves two ounces, fennel seeds 
fonce, maona three ounces, refined 
■if boiliiig water a pint. Macerate 
hntl aiM the fennel seeds in the 
fntfe beat during twelve hours; 
(|ur; mix with it tht; manaa and 
1 down to a due consistence. 

WM*. Edinburgh. — Syrup of 

lores two ounces, boiling 

I. aad a half, burnt synip eight 

" leaves in the water iu a 

libur hours and strain ; then 

•■tie heat until the 

tlie burnt syrop. 

I (.iimiivii. Dose from 3ij. 

Si/rupus toliiluHui. I>oniloa. — Syrup of tolu. 

Take of b.ilsam of tolu an ounce, boiling 
water a pint, refined sugar two pounds. Roil 
the balsam in the water during half an hour in a 
close vessel, frequently stirring it, and strain 
the liquor when cold ; th:n add the sugar so as 
<o form syrup. 

Syruput lotwiftre halsomi. Edinburgh. — Syrup 
of tolu. 

Take of simple syrup two pounds, tincture of 
balsam of tolu one ounce. To the sjrrup, im- 
mediately upon its being made and before it is 
quite cold, add gradually the tincture, frequently 

Sympus viola odaratt. Edinburgh. — Syrup of 

Take of the flowers of the odorous violet two 
parts, boiling water eight partj, refined sugar 
hfleen parts. Macerate the flowers in tlie water 
during twenty-four hours in a covered glass or 
glazed earthen ware vessel : then strain without 
expression, and add a sufficient quantity of 
sugar to make syrup. This synip is principally 
employed as a test of acids and alkalies; but it 
is an agreeable laxative for young children. 

Si/nipui zingiherU. London. — Syrup of ginger. 

Take of ginger roots sliced two ounces, boil- 
ing water a pint, refined sugar two pounds. 
Macerate the ginger root in the water during 
four hours and strain ; then add the sugar so ai 
to form syrup. 

Syruput amomi iingiber'a. Edinburgh. — Syrup 
of ginger. 

Take of ginger root powdered six drachmi:, 
boiling water one pound, refined sugar tvf t^nty- 
two ounces. Macerate the root in the uatei. 
the vessel being covered, for twenty-four hours; 
then add the sugar to the strained infusion and 
dissolve by a gentle heat. Carminative, Dose f.^ij. 

CowFECTioiiES. — Confections. 

Conserves and electuaries are included under 
this head in the last edition of the London 

Confcctio amygdalanoH, London. — Confec- 
tion of almouds. 

Take of sweet almonds an ounce, acacia gum 
in powder n drachm, refined sugar half an ounce. 
Macerate the almonds in water to separate the 
cuticle ; then beat all the ingredients together, 
until they be completely incorporated. Useil 
for forming the almond mixture. 

Ccnffctio aramatica. London. — Aromatic con- 

Take of cinnamon bark, nutmegs, of each 
two ounces ; cloves one ounce; cardamom seeds 
half an ounce ; saffron dried two ounce? ; pre- 
pared shells sixteen ouncca; refined supar in 
powder two pounds ; water a pint. Hub tlie 
dry substances mixed together into a very fine 
powder; then grailiially add the water, and mix 
until the whole bo thorouehly incorporated. 

Ucctuarium uramatUum. FJinhurgh. — Aro- 
matic electuary. 

Take of the aromatic powder one part, syrup 
of orange two parts. Mix, and beat them well 
together so as to make an electuary. An excel- 
lent form of giving cordials and aromalics. 
Dose from Dft to 3fl or more. 

M 2 



Vonfectio Mtrnntimum. London. — Ctinfeclion 
of oranges. 

Take of ihe outer rind of the fresh orange 
separated by rB^pint; a pound, refined 8ug;ar 
three jKXinds. Beat the nod io a stone mortar 
with a nooden pestle ; then add the sugar and 
continue the beating untjl they be completely 

Cimterva citri aurantii. EUlinburgb. — Con- 
serre of oranecs. 

Grate ofl' ihc outer rind of Seville oranges, 
beat it into a pulp, and while bi-aling it add 
cradually three limes its weight of refined sugar. 
Stomachic. Dose3j. to^ll 

ConJ'eclio catnia. London. — Confection of cas- 

Take of fresh cassia pulp half a pound, mnn- 
na two onnces, tamarind pulp one ounce, syrup 
of roses half a pound. Bruise the in;inna ; then 
dissolve it in the syrup by the heat of a water- 
bath, and, having mixed in the pulp, evaporate 
to a due consistence. 

ElcctuariumcasiucJUtuU. Edinburgh. — Elec- 
tuary of cassia. 

Tnlce of cassia puip four parts, tamarind pulp, 
manua, of each one part, syrup of damask roses 
our parts. Bruise the manna in a mortar, and 
dissolve it in the syrup by means of a gentle 
heat; then add the pulps, and by a continued 
heat reduce the mixture to a due consistence. 
Gently laxative. Dose 3j. to jvj. 

Canfectioopii. Ix>ndon. — Confection ofopium. 

Take of hard opium in powder six drachms, 
long pepper an ounce, ginger root two ounces, 
carranay seeds three ounces, syrup a pint. Hub 
the opium with the syrup made not ; then add 
the remaining articles reduced to powder and 
mix tliem. 

EUctuarium opialum. Edinburgh. — Olim eltc- 
tuaruim llirkaicum. — Opiate electuary, formerly 
thebaic electuary. 

Take of aromatic powder six ounces, Virgi- 
nian snake root in fine powder three ounces, 
opium ditfused in a sufficient quaotity of Spa- 
nish white wine half an ounce, syrup of ginger 
a pound. Mix so as to form an electuary. 

Mtdtcal proprrtiet. — Excellent forms of giving 
opium in chronic affections of the Iniwels, (cc. 
Dose from gr. vj. to 3ij. 

Confeclio piperii nigri. London. — Confection 
of black pepper. 

Take of black pepper, elecampane root, of each 
one pound ; fennel seeds three pounds ; honey, 
lefiiied sugar, of each three pounds. Rub the 
iry inBreoients together into a fine powder; 
then add tlie honey and beat the whole into a 
mass. A substitute for Ward's paste. Dose 
Sj. to 3ij. 

Hictvarium ealerhu cotnpoutvm. Edinburgh. 
— Compound electuary of catectiu. 

Take of extract of catechu four ounces, kino 
thr«e ounces, cinnnmnn Uirk, mitmcss, of each 
one ounce, opium diffusnl in a «iitYiciciii qiiati- 
tity of Sjianith while wine a dnichm anrt a half, 
•jrrup of rvd rosei 1x>iled to the thuknesi of 
Itoncy, two pounds and a quarter, flnlnoe the 
•olid ingrcdientt to powder : then mix tli"m with 
lb* opium and hon*y ui as lu itiitke mi t'lcvlu-'iry. 
DiMC so to 3ij. 

Canfrctio naa ran'mt, 
of the dog-rose. 

Take of Ihe pulp of the da 
refined sugar in powder twenty < 
together so as completely to inc 

Confrctio rout gallics, London.—' 
of the red rose. i 

Take of the unblown petals of ill 
freed from the claws a pound, rc^ 
three pounds. Beat the petals in a' 
tar ; then add the sugar, and beat agd 
whole be completely incorporated, j 

Edinburgh. — Beat the unblowo n 
red rose to a pulp, and add, during I 
three times their weight of refined fuj 

Confcclio nittt. London. — Coofecj 

Take of rue leaves dried, carra^ 
laurel berries, of each an ounce and a] 
penum half an ounce; black pepper tWi 
clarified honey sixteen ounces. L^ 
articles be rubbed together into a veij 
der; then add the honey, and mis' 
together. Used principally rubbed i| 
gruel in enemetaforchildrens'conroli 
or two scruples being employed as aj 

Confeclio tcammonia. London.. ~ 

Take of scammony in powder i 
a half; bruised cloves, powdered | 
each six drachms ; oil of carraway I 
syrup of roses a sufScient quantitT.i 
dry substances into a very finepowdeli 
dually add the syrup, and rub thera aW 
after adding the oil of carraway, mix 

ConJ'eclio teruue. London. — Cod 
senna. ] 

Take of senna leaves eight onnd 
pound ; tamarind pulp, cassia pulp, j 
prunes, of each half a pound ; corn 
four ounces ; liquorice root three oiuMJ 
sugar two pounds and a half, 
senna leaves with the coriander se< 
rate ten ounces of the mixed powde 
Boil the residue with the figs and "' 
in four pints of water until it be 
half; then press out and strain the \i<[ 
porate the strained liquor m a walel 
of the whole only a pint and a hi 
then the sugar being added make atr 
ly mix the pulps gradually with the ^ 
iiaving added tlie sifled powder let Itl 
mixed together. ' 

EUeluarium (mnf compoiilum. Ed 
Compound electuary of senna. 

Take of senna leaves eight ounoc^ 
seeds four ounces, liquonce root 111 
ounces, fig«, pulp of prum ■ ■■' -"'*! 
pulp of tamarinds half n 
two pounds and a half, wai , 

the senna with the conai ■ 

ounces of the mixed pow^ _ I 

the residue with the figs and liquonca 
water dfiwn to one ball; then c»prflj 
Evaporate the strained liquor to ab| 
and a half; add the sugar, 
pulps ; and lastly nut in the i 

AttJunl proptrtirt. — Mild 

furxxlivrs, similar to the oU 
)o»« 5ij. in .;(V 


Its — Powders. 
tthaeemfoiitia. Londcm.— Compoand 

i extract of spiked aloes an ouoce and 
IJKBm gura min an ounce, compound 
if doDanon half an ounce. Let ihe 
riioes and the gnaiacom be powdered 
L dm mix them with the compound 

1. — Wann cathartics. Dose 

ecmpetUiu. Ediobuigh. — Com- 
\ of asanbocca. 
I leaves of asarabacca three parts, 

yoram, and flowers of lavender, 
Let them be rubbed together 

I io tooth ache, snuffed up the 

aionrpontus. London. — Com- 

f of cinnamon. 

-„ on bark two ounces, catda- 

(Mince and a half, ginger ro<A 

.-{ P^ps' half an ounce. Hub 

> iai0 ^ ^fry fine powder. 

iitia. Edinburgh. — Aromatic 

DO bark, cardamom seeds, 
^ each equal parts. Rub them to 
, which must be preserved in 
IpbiaL • 

! f wu f iM.^-Aromatic and carmina- 

compoalui. Loodoo. — 

jrerra rvxit in powder five 
>elb a pound and a half. Let 

*. — Sudorific and stimulant, 
lafbrmerly. Dose 3A to 3(1. 
rfj 0011 opio. London. — Powder 
I with opium. 

opmm ui powder a drachm, 

ax>d prepared an ounce, cochi- 

i drachm. Let them be mixed. 

Edlobnrgh. — Opiate powder. 

I one part, prepared carbonate 

Let them oe rubbed toge- 

dcr. Dose of these powders 

*. London. — Compound 




I chalk half a pound, cinna- 
xs, tormentil root and acacia 

nil tftfM ounces, long pepper half an 

•I tften Mparatcly be rubbed mio fine 

■4 Am the whole mixed. 

mhmmtii cakis anmoiUus. Edinburgh. 

m4 poviieT of carbonate of lime. 

4 pnpmi carbonate of lime four 

rk a drachm and a half, 

Rob them together into 

I.— Astringent and antacid ; 
Pywyaialion the most efEcacious. 

ntc umfmUat am opio. London. — 
>t P>*d«r of c}»tk with opium. 
(OHWaad powder of clialk six ounces 

and a half; hard opium four scruples, 
them be mixed. 

Mcdkal propertUs. — Anodyne as well as asw 
tringent. Dose from (jr. xv. to 9ij. 

Fulvit jalapiT. cinn^miUus. Edinburgh. — Com- 
pound powder of jalap. 

Take of powder of jalap root one part, super- 
tartrate of potassa two parts. Let them be 
rubbed together mio a fine powder. 

Medical properliei. — Deobktruent, and purga- 
tive. Dose 3j. (o 9ij. 

Pulvit ipfcncuanha compotilus. London,— 
Compound powder of ipecacuanha. 

Taike of ipecacuanha root powdered, hard 
opium in powder, of each a drachm; sulphate of 
potassa powdered one ounce. Mix them. 

Pulvis ipccacuanhtt ct opii. Edinburgh, — Pow- 
der of ipecacuanha and opium. 

Take of ipecacuanha root powdered, opium, 
of each one part ; sulphate of potassa eight parts. 
Hub them together into a fine powder 

Attdical properties. — Sudorific. A substitute 
for the old Dover's powder. Dose grs. v. to 9j. 

Pultis kino compvtitut. London. — Compound 
powder of kino 

Take of kino fifteen drachms, cinnamon bark 
hair an ounce, hard opium a drachm. Hub Ihem 
separately into a very fine powder, and mix tliem. 

Medical properttct. — Astringent. Dose 9ft. 

Pulvis latinui compotitut. Edinburgh. — Com- 
pound saline powder. 

Take of pure muriate of soda, sulphate of mag- 
nesia, of each four parts ; sulphate of potassa 
three parli. Dry the salts with a gentle heat ; 
then ))0wder them separately, and afterwards 
rub them together. Let the powder be preserved 
in a well stopped vial. 

Medical propcrtia. — Purgative. Dose from 


Pulvis scammonit composilus . London. — Com- 
pound powder of scammony. 

Take of scammony, hard extract of jalap, of 
each two ounces ; ginger root half an ounce. Hub 
them separately into a very fine powder, and 
mix them. 

Pulvis scammonia compositus. Edinburgh. — 
Compound powder of scammony. 

Take of scammony, supettartrate of potassa, 
of each equal parts. Let tliein be rubbed toge- 
ther to a very fine powder. 

Medical properties. — Cathartic, and vermifuge. 
Dose of the first from grs. x. to 9j., of the second 
from Bil. to 30, 

Pulvis setma compotitut. London. — Com- 
pound powder of senna. 

Take of senna leaves, supertartrate of potassa, 
of each two ounces ; scammony half an ounce ; 
ginger root two drachms. Keduce the scammony 
to a very fine powder by itself, and the other in- 
gredients together ; then mix the whole. 

Pulvis aluminis compviitus. Edinburgh.— 
Compound powder of alum. 

Take of sulphate of alum four parts, kino one 
part. Let them be rubbed together to a fine 

Medical properties,— AitrinfeoL Dose 3fl. 
to be taken dr)-. 

Pulvis trogncanttit compoiitus. London. — 
Cunipoiind puudcruf Iragacanth. 



T:ike of tragacanth powder, acacia gum pow- 
dered, starch, of each one ounce and a half; rr- 
•'mcd sugar three ounces. Let the starch and 
ilie sugar be rubbed together to a powder ; then 
itdd the tragacaiuh and the acacia gum ; and mix 
the whole together. 

Medical pnipertiet. — Demulcent Do»e 3ij. 
to 5ifl. 

PlLCL£. — Pills. 

PiluU olort compotitt. London. — Compound 
aloetic pills. 

Take of extract of spiked aloes powdered an 
ounce, extract of gentian half an oiince, oil of 
carraway forty minims, syrxip a sufticient quan- 
tity. Ikat tliem together until they combii>e 
mil) a uniform mass. 

I'iluU ulutlict. Edinburgh. — Aloetic pills. 

Take of » icotorme aloes m powder, soap, of 
CAch equal |>arls. Ueat them with simple syrup 
so as to form a mass proper for mwing into 

Mniirat properlits. — Purgative and itomachic. 
Dose HA. to 3j. 

Pitula alott el aitafdtiiU. Edinburgh. — Pills 
of aloes and assafaitida. 

Take of socotoiine aloes in powder, assafxtida 
loap, of each et^ual parts. Let them be beat 
into a mass with mucilase of gum arabic. 

Medical properties. — Stomachic and aperient. 

Pilulit ttlntt nan myrrha. London.— Pilb. of 
aloe* with myrrh. 

Take of extract of spiked aloes two ounces, 
saffron, myrrh, of each one ounce, syrup a suffi- 
cient quantity. Rub the aloes and myrrh sepa- 
rately to powder ; and beat the whole into a 

PiluU aUiet et myrrhe. Edinburgh. — Pill* of 
aloes and m}rrrh. 

Tike of aocotorine aloes four parts, myrrh two 
puts, saffron one part. Beat them into a mass 
with simple syrup. Deobstruent, and cathartic. 
Dose 9fl. to 3j. 

PUuUe ammoniartti cupri. Edinburgh. — Pills 
of ammoaiaret of copper. 

Take of ammoniaret of copper rubbed to fine 
powder sixteen grains, crumb of bread four scni- 
pt««, water of carbonate of ammonia a sufficient 
auaality. Let them be beaten into a mass and 
formed into thirty-two equal pills. 

Medical properties. — Anlicpiteptic. Dow one 
f>ill twice a day, gradually increstsed. 

Pilvia tmnhopt cmnpo%it,t. London. Edin- 
btufh. — Compound pills of gamboge. 

Take of gamboge in powder a drachm, extract 
of spiked aloes a drachm and a half, ginger in 
powder half a drachm, soap two drachms. Mix 
the powden together ; then add the soap, and 
beM the whole into a mast. 

Pibiir cnliKyntkidii comfimtM. Ediobargti. — 
CompoaDd oofocyiith pills. 

Take «f locolurine aloes, tcamoMny, of each 
«igtit puts, colocynlh pulp four parts, sulphate 
of po tiw a. oil of clores , ol^ each one part. Beat 
logMber the extract, gum resin, and sulphate, 
mio powdrr, then with the colocynlh pulp rubb«l 
to fine powder. Mix them with the oil, and 
finally b«al Um taMe Into a moss with mucilage 
of gum. 

PtluUferri tompmilit. London.— Pj 
Willi myrrh. , 

Take of mytrli in powder two Atai 
carbonate of soda, sulphate of iron.] 
each a drachm. Hub the myrrh with tl 
bonate of soda, then having added tta 
of iron rub again, and lastly beat tbf i 

one mass. 


Pilultt galliani composila. 

pound pills of galbanum. j 

Take of ealt^num an ounce, inynl 

num, of each an ounce and a half, j 

half an ounce, syrup a sufficient quaira 

them together into a mass. { 

PUuLc assaftttida compoiita. Edi 

Compound assafcctida pills. i 

Take of asufoeUda, galbanum, myq 

eight parts, purified oil of amber one j 

them with simple syrup into a mass, j 

Medical projierlict. — Emmenagogid 

tispasmodic. Dose 3ft. to ^}. , 

Pilula hydrargyri. London. 

Take of purified mercury two drad 

fection of red roses three drachms^ 

root in powder a drachm. Hub tM 

with the confection until globules no ] 

seen ; then add the liquorice rxiot, aa| 

whole into one mass. < 

Edinburgh. — Take of purified meii 

serve of the red rose, of each one <M 

two ounces. Rub the mercury with tld 

iu a glass mortar until the globule* f| 

appear, adding if necessary a little i^ 

gum atabic ; then add the starch, »^ 

whole into a mass with a little water, ^ 

be immediately divided into 480 e} 

pills. It is undetermined whether, ill 

parations, the mercury is merely df 

chaoically or whether it undergoes Old 

Medical properties. — Alterative, aot 

and stimulant, Dose from gn. f>, 

more, accordingly as it may be desin 

to produce the specific action of the ^ 

PHuU liydrargyri tubmyrialis comft 

don. Edinburgh. — Pills of submuriatc^ 

Take of submuriate of meicury, (j 

sulphuret of antimony, of each tw4 

guaiacum gum resin rubbed down, hal 

rectified spirit half a dracbro. Rub I 

nate with the precipitated sulpburet ol 

then with the guaiacum, and add | 

quantity of spirit (mucilage Edin.) 1^ 

a proper consistence. J 

Medical properties.— A useful all^ 

deobstruent. Dose gr». *. to 3c j 

Plummer's pill of the old phanQ>cii| 

PiluU rhai eompmitit. Ediufanl 

pound rhubarb pillv 

Take of rhubarb toot in powder ( 
socotorine aloes six drachms, m^ 
ounce, volatile oil of peppermint hu 
Beat them into a mass with tjnip 

Medical propertiet.—StotDKhic at 

tire. DaaedO to 3j. ] 

PiluU nponii run opio. Ltiwto^ 

soap and opium. 

Tak c of nard opium powdered J 
hatil »oip two onncts " " 

th<y become a mau. 



Ohm pUuU ththnkiC. Edin- 

t^iat* pitK formerly thebaic pill;. 
^Dium one pan, extnct of liquorice 
^Eptmento berries two partj. Mix 
^P upiuin anJ the extract, softened 
Flloohol, and beat ibetn into a pulp; 
M Jamaica pepper rubbed to powder, 
I wbole be beaten into a roau. Dose 
doa fiamniia gn. t. ; of the Edinburgh 

London. — Compound 


^Hi «quill root dried and powdered 
|Ffinger root powdered and hard 
a Dktee drachms, ammoniacum pow- 
luns. Mix the powders together ; 

I with the soap, adding so much 
>te » proper consistence. 

£. Llinburgb. — Squill pills. 

II toot dned and rubbed to a fine 
Mlcniple, ammoniacum, cardamom 

iHcd, extract of liquorice, one drachm. 
ino a tna» with syrup. 

trtm. — Expectorant, aoil diure- 


i(u $<dU. Edinbiiigh. — Pills 
at«<l lubcarbon.ite of soda four 
I three pim>. I3eat into a mass 

_ -Litbontriptic and diuretic. 

»o 3j. 

a/^Aatu <rrri compotUa. E<liobui|;li, — 
1 pills of sulphate of iron, 
salphate of iron reduced to powder 
, extract of chamomile flowers one 
• iMli^ oil of peppermint a draclim. 

nple syrup, into a mass. Dose 

CBitcJ.— Troche*. 

and the Dublin colleges have 
4» coicw. Edinburgh. — Tro- 
> of lime, 
prepared carbonate of lime four 
mat g:um one ounce, nutmegs one 
near six ounces. Kub them 
l4}»m them into a mass fit for 
£.■'**'" of water. 

-Antacid: but theireflects 
are counteracted by the sugar. 
iit magnaU. Edinburgh. — 
^ of magnesia. 
^fbomle of magnesia six ounces, 
H(hr«e oancei, nutmegs a scruple. 
H^ ■ powder, and make them up into 
■ felgicanth mucilage. 
fHftrtiet. — Anucid and aperient. 
I giifijrrhiis glabrt. Edinburgh. — 

axliact of liquorice, gum arabic, of 
mix, itftoed sugar two parti, boiling 
aatity. Dissolve and strain ; 
olution by a gentle heat to a 
' makin'^ troches. 

• cum npio. Edinburgh. — 

t with opium. 

Take of opium two drachms, tincture of balsam 
of Tola half an ounce, simple syrup eight 
ounces, extract of liquorice softened ny hot 
water, ijum arabic in powder, of each five ounce*. 
First rub well the opium with the tincture; then 
gradually add the syrup and tlie extract; after- 
wards sprinkle in the powder of gum ambic; 
Lastly, the mass is lu be dried and formed into 
troches of ten grains weight. 

Medical properties. — Tlie same as the last. 

Trochisci giunmiiii. Kdinbur;;li. — Gum tro- 

Take of giim arabic four parts, starch one 
part, refin<:d sugar twelve parts. Uub tlie whole 
into powder, and with rose make it up into a 
mus proper for forming troches. 

Trochisci nilralis potaua. Edinburgh, — ^Tro- 
ches of nitrate of potassa. 

Take of nitrate of potassa one part, refined 
sugar three parts. IJcal tlicm into powder, and 
form a mass fit for making troches, ny means of ' 
tragacanth mucilaKC. 

medical prnpcrtiu. — llefrigeraiit. Dose two 
or three troches. 

Preparata ex Ammalibi-s. — PrepanUoua 
from animals. 

Adqjs pritparata. London. — Prepared fat. 

Cut the fat into small fragments ; then melt it 
with a gentle heat, and press it through linen. 

Sevum prir[mraluin. London Prepared suet. 

Cut the suet into pieces ; then melt it with a 
gentle heat, and press it through linen. 

Comu laluin, London. — Burnt hartshorn. 

Bum pieces of hartshorn iu an open fire un- 
til they become thoroughly white; then powder 
them, and prepare them in the manner ordered 
for the preparation of chalk. 

Medical propertiei. — Exceedingly question- 

Spongia lata. London. — Burnt sponge. 

(ut sponge into small pieces, and bruise it in 
order to free it from any adhering extraneous 
substances ; then burn it in a covered iron vessel 
till it become black and friable. Finally, let it 
be rubbed into a very fine powder. 

Iodine and subcarbonate of soda are the active 
ingredients in burnt sponge. 

Medical proiKrlici.— Deobstruent and tonic. 
Used especially in bronchocele. Dose from 5j. 
to 3ij. or more, mixed with honey or other male- 
rials in the way of an electuary. 

Tcila prapnralir. London. — Prepared shells. 

Wash the shells with boiling water, having 
first freed them from extraneous matters; tlien 
prepare them in the manner directed for the pre- 
peration of clialk. 

This preparation is superfluous. 

Emplastra. — Plasteis. 

Emptattrum ammoniaci. London. Edinburgh. — 
Ammoniacum plaster. 

Take of purified ammoniacum five ounce*, 
diluted acetic acid half a pint Dissolve the 
ammoniacum in the vinegar ; then evaporate the 
solution in an iron vessel, assiduously stirring it 
until it become of a due consistence. 

Medicnl proprrdin. Resolvent Useful in is* 
dulent tumors. 




EiHpliutniip ammoniaci cum hi/drargyro. 
don — Aminonincal plaster with mercury. 

'lake of puritieJ unimoniacum a pound, puri- 
fied mercury iliree ounces, sulphurcted oil a 
fluid draclim. Rub ihe mercury with the «ul- 
pliurelcii oil until the globules no longer appear; 
then gradually addAIie ammoniacum previously 
melted, and mix the whole together. 

Medical properties. — KesoWgnl and discutient. 
Applicable to indolent swellings. 

EmplaslruH auafatidit. Edinburgh. — Auafoe- 
tida plaster. 

Take of plaster of semivitreous oxide of lead, 
assafictida, of each two parts ; galbanum, yellow 
wa« , of each one part. 

ALiUcaipropertia. — Antispasmodic and stimu- 

Kinplastrum cert. London. — Wax plaster. 

Take of yellow wax, prepared suet, of each 
three pounds ; yellow resin a pound. Let them 
*be melted together and strained. 

Emplmtrum simplcj. Edinburgh. — Simple 

Take of yellow wax three parts ; mutton suet 
and white resin, of each two parts. Seldom em- 

Emplastrvm atmini. London. Cumin plaster. 

Take of cumin seeds, cirraway see<Is, laurel 
herries, of each three ounces ; dried pilch three 
pounds; yellow wax three ounces. I.el the pitch 
and the wax be melted together; then add the 
dry ini^redients in powder so as to form a proper 

Emplutrvm gatbaai compositum. London. — 
Compound galbanum plaster. 

Take of puhhed galbanum eight ounces, lead 
plaster three pounds, common turpentine ten 
drachms, resin of the spruced fir powdered three 
ounce*. The galbanum and the turpentine hav- 
ing been mixed together, add first the resin and 
then the lead plaster previously melletl by a slow 
lire, and mix the whole together. 

Emplattrum gummopuK. Edinburgh. — Gum 

Tak* of plaster of semivitreous oxide of lead 
eight parts; ammoniacum, gum resin, galbanum, 
jrellow wax, of each one part. Add the gum re- 
sin to the plaster and wai while meltpd, and mix. 

Emplattrum kydrargyri. London. — Mercurial 

Take of purified mercury three ounces, sulphu- 
retcd oil a Huid drachm, lead plaster a pound. 
Rub the ineicury with the sulphureted oil until 
globules no longer appear ; then by degrees add 
the lead plaster, and mix the whole. 

Edinburgh. — Take of oli»e oil, resin, of each 
one pan; mercury tliree ports; platter of semi- 
vitreous oxido of l«'t 5IX (lurti, I' "i-r- 
cury with the oil ami miii pi led 
toycth«r and cooled until til'- ' .ir; 
Iben grtdnally add ihi- pi.. out 

oxide of lead melted, wl .- j ....a ilic 

whole logvtlier. 

Mrdieai prmttrttrt. — nitiiilicnl. Eapccially 
applicable to old sypl ' ions. 

FmplattTvm coafAn" U>n.— Blistering 


T»k» of Mitteriof Kin lubbrd to a ve^ fine 
pc wd« a pound, wax pUsltr • pound and a 

half, prepared lard a pound. M4 
and the lard together ; and, having reC 
from the fiie just before they beo 
sprinkle in the blistering flies,aiid i 

Ei«plaitrum cantharid'u vtact 
burgh. — Ulistering plaster. 

Take of mutton suet, wax, whitel 
ing plaster rubbed to a very fine powi 
equal weights. Mix the powder wit 
articles previously melted together ai 
from the fire ; then stir till the mixtui 

Einplatlrum carUhurida veticatori 
turn. Edinburgh. — Compound plastei 

Take of Venice turpentine eighteen | 
gundy pilch, blistering flies, of d 
parts, yellow wax four ports ; snbaoet 
per two parts ; white mustard seed, bli 
of each one part. Melt the Burgund; 
tlie wax, and add the turpentine to tb 
these remain warm after being melte 
in the other ingredients reduced to fi 
and mix, constantly stirring, so as 
plaster. More active and immedi 
operation than the common blistering 

Kmplattrum opii. London. Ed 
Plaster of opium. 

Take of hard opium powdered hal 
resin of the spruce fir powdered tbi 
lead plaster a pound. Melt the pLu 
resin together, then let the opium be i 
the whole mixed. ■ 

Medical propcrtia. — Anodyne M 
matic. ■ 

Emplattrum oiidi /rrri rubri. Ed 
Plaster of red oxide of iron. 

Take of plaster of semivitreous ox 
twenty-four parts, white resin six pa 
wax, olive oil, of each three parts, n 
iron eight pans. Rub the red ozi 
with the oil, and adding the other 
melted, let the whole be well mixed. 

Medical propfTlici. — Supposed toni 

Emplaitrwn pica compositum. Lond 
pound pitch plaster. 

Take of Burgundy pitch two pound 
the spruce fir a pound ; yellow retin, y 
of each four ouuces ; expressed oil ot 
ounce ; olive oil, water, of each two fl 
To the pitch, resin, and wax, mel<» 
first add the resin of the spruce Ar, < 
of nutmeg, the olive oil, and the wi 
tlie whole and rtrduce it to a due 

Medical propcrtiit*. — Stimulant 

Kmptaitrwn plumhi. London. — 

Take of semivitreous oxide of tea 

a very fine [>owdcr ' ' '- 

water two pints. 

fit V. ,,,!!,. .. ..., ^,. 

e of a plastr 
>• ■ . ;. to add a li 

water, it thai winch was employed i 

mn; iliall ti-np brtn consumed bcfe 

1 ' 

— l' ul icmiviucotn oxide i 




■i*rlreou$ oxide of lead one 
ml two fans, water a julficieiit 

Bod them, coniunlty siimng, until 

kcOKid* comblDe into a platter. 

Hyrifiii — Cnnclpilly employed for 

Htppoit and defence. 

IB raanc London. — Resin plaster. 
yMam cesin half a pound, lead 

i peond*. Melt the lead plaster with 

It, then add the resio powdered and 

MVHMMMM. Edinburgh. — ResiiMus 

l^kr of femiritreous oxide of lead 
^K oae part. Melt them with a 
^Bm continue stirring the liquor 
^Htiff iu cooling. 
PpvltR. — Principally adhesive. 
im Mfmit. London.— So.ip pUster. 
■d Miui sliced half a pound, lead 
t piWWi Mix the soap with the 
Kr; llkni boil it down to a due coii- 

■I nya^tmni. Edinburgh. — Soap 

wmniXnovi oiide of lead four parts, 
ta«f«rts, soap sliced one part. Mix 
I piasters melted togetiier ; then 
t as to form plaster. 
n. — Discutient, but less effi- 
I mercurial plaster. 

*EAAT*. — Cerates. 

jiaie between plasters and 

Ie.r. London. — Cerate, 
oil four fluid oui)ces, yellow 
Add the oil to the melted wax, 

p'lp ul iti. — Emotlieot : used for ex- 

cdbauM. LoodoD. — Calamine ce- 

OTp>r<d calamine, yellow wax, of 
poand, oliie oil a pint Mix the 
■■ttiit mt ; then let the mixture be 
I ifc, aad so soon as it begins to 
Bine, constantly stirnng, 

lUKi impuri. Edinburgh. 
! eaibonate of ttiic. 
cnrnte five parts, prepared 
I aif noc one pan. Mix. 

-L'seful for eiconalions, 
I ba*« been called Turner's ce- 

(rtant. London. — Spermaceti cerate. 
tpcrauedt half an ounc«, white 
Mma^ ohTc oil four fluid ounces. 
ililMili and the wax l>e nrtelted 
Mtiddlheoil and stir them until tliey 

Edinburgh. — Simple cerate. 

I od Ml parts, white wax three 

1 part. Let the wax and the 

in the oil with a gentle 

r ttir until the mixture stiffen 

London.— Cerate of blis- 

Take of spermaceti cerate six diochms, blister- 
ing flies rubbed to a rery fine powder a drachm. 
Add the blistering flies to tlie cerate softened by 
the tire, and mix them together. 

Medical properlks. — Employed to keep open 
blistered surfaces. 

Ceratum plumbi acetalit. London. — Cerate of 
acetate of lead. 

Take of acetate of lead in powder two 
drachms, white wax two ounces, olive oil half a 
pint. Melt the wax in seven fluid ounces of the 
oil ; then add gradually the acetate,'sepaialely 
rubbed down with the remaining oil, and stir 
with a wooden spatula until the mass be tho- 
roughly formed. 

Medical proprrliet. — Exceedingly useful for 
bums and excoriations. 

Cerutum plwmbi compotitum, London. — Com- 
pound cerate of lead. 

Take of solution of acetate of lead two fluid 
ounces and a half, yellow wax four ounces, olive 
oil nine fluid ounces, camphor half a drachm. 
Melt the wax and mix it with eight fluid ounces 
of the oil ; then let them he removed from the 
fire, and as soon as they begin to thicken add 
gradually the solution of acetate of lead, and stir 
as.«duously with a wooden spatula until they be 
cold. Lastly, mix the camphor dissolved in the 
remainder of the oil. 

Medical /iropcrtict. — The same as the last. It 
b called Goulard's cerate. 

Ceralum resitut. London. — Resin cerate. 

Take of yellow resin, yellow wax, of each a 
pound, olive oil a pint. Melt together the resin 
and the wax by a slow fire ; then add the oil and 
strain the cerate while it is hot through a linea 

Vnguentum minofum. Edinburgh. — Resinoui 

Take of hogs' lard eight parts, resin five parts, 
yellow wax two parts. Melt the whole by a genile 
heat, and stir llie mixture until it become stiff iii 

Medical prnpcrtics. — Stimulant and detergent. 

Ceralum suiting. London. — Cerate of savine. 

Take of the fresh leaves of savine bruised a 
pound, yellow wax half a pound, prepared lartl 
two pounds. Melt together the lurd and the wax 
and boil the savine leaves in the mixture ; then 
strain through a linen cloth. 

Medical proptrtiet. — Stimulant. It is used to 
keep open blisters when the .cantlmrides are 
thought loo stimulating. 

Ceratum taponit. London. — Soap cerate. 

Take of bard soap eight ounces, yellow wax 
ten uifnces, semivilreous oxide of lead powdered 
a pound, olive oil a pint, vinegar a gallon. 
Boil the vinegar or the oxide of lead over a slow 
fire, tteiitly stirring untd they incorporate ; then 
add the soap and boil again in the same manner 
until the moisture be entirely evaporated ; laMly, 
let tlie wax previously melted be mixed withtJie 

Medical pntprrlies. — Tliis is properly a ceiate 
of acetate of lead. It is a cooling dressing to 
inflamed surfaces. 

l'>ovFKT*. — Oinkmetits, 
I'nfiiienlHin acidi nt/fon. Edinburgh. — Oint- 
ment of nitious acid. 



Take of iiogs' lard one pound, nitrous acid 
^ix drachms. Mix gradually the acid with the 
melted lard, and assiduously as it cools beat the 

Mtdical propcrtiei. — It has been employed in 
ulcers of a syphilitic and herpetic kind. 

Unguentum cetacd. LondoD. — Spermaceti 

Take of spermaceti six drachms, white wax 
two drachms, olive oil three fluid ounces. Melt 
them together over a gentle fire, and stir tlietn 
constantly until they be cold. 

Medical properties. — Healing and emollieoi. 
Unguenttan clemi comporitum. London.— 
Compound ointment of elemi. 

Take of elemi a pound, common turpentine 
ton ounces, prepared suet two pounds, olive oil 
two fluid ounces. Melt the elemi with the suet, 
then let it be taken from the fire, and immedi- 
3tel|r mix in the turpentine and the oil. Lastly, 
strain the liquor through a linen cloth. 

Meilieul proptrliet. — Stimulant and digestive. 
Unguentum hi/drargyri J'ortiut. London. — 
Strong mercurial ointment. 

Take of punlied mercury two pounds, pre- 
pared lard twenty-three ounces, prepared suet 
one ouoce. Fint rub the mercury with the suet 
and a little of the lard until there be no appear- 
ance of globules, then add the remainder of the 
fat and mix. 

Unguentum hydrargyri. Edinburgh. — Mercu- 
rial ointmsit. 

Take of mercury, mutton tuet, of each one 
part, hogs' lard three parts. Rub the mercury 
diligently in a mortar with a little of the hogs' 
lard, until there be no appearauce of globules ; 
then add the remainder ol the lard. It may also 
be made with double or triple the quantity of 

Unguentum hi/drargyri mitiui. London. — 
Milder mercurial ointment. 

Take of the stronger mercurial ointment a 
pound, prepared lard two pounds. Mix them. 

Mrdical proptrties. — It IS used in friction for 
the same purposes with which mercury is given 
by the mouth when specific eflects arc tequircd. 
Quantity for friction 3j. night and morning. 
As in the case of the pilule hydraro^yri so even 
here there are doubts whether the mercury is in 
a degree oxidised, or only mechanically divided. 
Vngyenlian ojidi hydrargifri eintrti. Edin- 
burgh. — Ointment of gray oxide of mercury. 

Take of gray oxide of mercury one part, hog's 
lard three parts. Mix. Not much employed. 

I'nguenltuH kydrargyri nilratn. London. — 
Ointment of nitrate of mercury. 

Take of purifitd mercury one ounc*, nitric 
acid eleven tluid dmchms, prepAreil lard six 
ounces, olive oil four fluid ouncci. KirsI dissolve 
the mercury m the acid ; then while il is liot mix 
the solution with the lard and oil melted toge- 


Vngmntum nitrati$ ht/drargyri /ortita, vulgj) 
■n^entum citrinum. Edinburgh. — Stronger 
oinlinent of oiiraie vt mtntity. 

Take of purified mercury one part, nitrons 
acid two parts, ulivp oil nine parl», hogs' lanl 
tbrae parts. DiasoNe the nieicury in the acid ; 
iheK Deal up the solutioa strongly in a glass 

mortar, with the Inrd and oil pre' 
together and nearly cold, !o as to m{ 

Unguentum mtratit kydrargyri 
burgli. — Milder ointment of nitrate a 
It IS made in the same way a* ll 
with a triple portion of oil and lard. 
Medical properties — Tlicsc ointmt 
mulnnt and detergent. They are 
veral chronic eruptions of the skin 
fulous aflections of the eyelids. 

Unguentum gallf. Loodon — Oil 

Take of galls in fine powder one 
eight parts. Mix. 

Medicid propcrtiet. — Useful in pilei 

Ungiumlnm liydrargt/ri nitrico-oiydi 

— Ointment of nitric oxide of mercuf 

Take of nitric oxide of mercury 
white wax two ounces, pre|)ared lard 
Melt the wax and the lard together; 
the nitric oxide of mercury in very fii 
and mix. 

Unguentum oiidi hydrurgyri rubri. 1 

— Ointment of red oxide of mercury. 

Take of red oxide of mercury by i 

in fine powder one part, bogs' lard « 


niedical properties. — Stimulant and 
Unguentum hydrargyn praeipitati 
don. — Oinimeat of white precipital4 

"Take of white precipitate of 
dtachni, prepared lara an ounce and •: 
the precipitated mercury to tho lard 
melted with a gentle heat, and mix. 

Medical propertia. — Useful m itch 
cutaueous atfectioas, where sulphur 

Unguentum cemtharidu. London/-* 

Take of blistering flies finely p«' 
ounces, distilled wat>!r tight fluid oui 
cerate eight ounces. Ikiil the walrri 
blistering (lies down to half its qui 
strain. Mix the cerate with the stiaifl 
and evaporate to a due consistence. 

Unguentum inj'uti ca*tharidi$ • 
Edinburgh. — Ointment of infusioo of 

Take of bli>tering flies, resits, ydlM 
each one part ; Venice tDrpcntior, bog 
each two parts ; boiling water four pal 
cerate '.he flies in the water during a 
and strain the liquor with strong ej 
add the liquor to the fui, and boil until 
b<> evaporated ; tlicn add the wax i 
and thoM' being iiiellrtl remove llw li^ 
thv fire; add the Venice turpcnUne, 
These are injudicious prepanitiOM. 

Unguentum juntpm mMm. E£i 
Oioliucnt of savine. 

Take of fresh leaves of (ariiM i 
yellow wax one part, lard four |iart>. 
wax and lard together, then boil tti« Ic 
mixture, and rxprexs through a dolK. 
keepini; blistcr«i surfaces open. 

I 'ugui ntum carbematii pbimhL EAlt 
OintmcDt of nrbeoUa «f Uad. 



loiDtment five parts, caHiODate 
ipui. Mix. 
hd infirtia. — A cooling desiccalive 

■<>■ wt£ tiati impuri. Edinburgh. — 

tf of impure oxide ot zinc. 

c^ liaple liniroeot five parts, prepared 

tad* of ziDC one part Mix. Not at 

Hch employed. 

mt»»p>cit Itjuid^. London. — ^Tar oint- 

suef, of each a poand. 

t,tnA»nxa the mixture through 

ll|k. — Take of tar five parts, yellow 
^WIL Melt the wax with a gentle heat ; 
A* rar, and itir until the mixture be- 
Fni cooling. 

rfyryrrtri Detergtnt and stimulant. 
timrn fidi nigrt. London. — Ointment 

fUaek pitch, yellow retin, of each nine 
bAvc «•! cue pint I>et them be melted 
■I Mnined tlirough black cloth. 
ifrvfiriia. — Digestive and stimulant. 
iHbb fUrrrit cttntkahdit veiitatoritr. 
k^-OMUnwnt of the powder of blister- 

r miMm ointment seven parts, pow- 
Iklteg tiei one part. Sprinkle the 
Hadn melted ointment, and stir the 
■Mil it stifTeo in cooling. 
tjltfuliei. — Uied to keep blistered 

mrui^rt. London. — Black re- 

RMfi, yvllow wax, yellow resin, 
I ; oUve oil a pint .Melt tbeni 
■in through a linen cloth. 

Luodoii. — Elder oint- 

' flowwj, prepared lard, of each 

mI the elder Mowers in the laid 

rcrup; tlini let the ointment be 

I ■ linen cloth. 

t OMittnents, and therefore useless 

Edinburgh. — Simple oint- 

I oil five parts, white wax two 

. t wax in the oil; then stir tlie 

Mil ilboroaw Miff in cooling. 

■lis evfiri. Edinburgh. — 
I of copper. 
I oMmeot fifteen parts, sub- 
COpptr on* part. Sprinkle the sub- 
■ •■ tllnl ointment, and stir until 
ritiif in cooling. 
I. — Deten^Bt and eschaiolic. 
Ijoodoib — Sulphur oiot- 

i Mlphur three ounces, prc- 
MV« peoad. Mix. 
igk'— Tike of bog's lanl four parts, 
Ml|kw oae part. Mis. 
\fnfuttu Specific in itch. 
im MhiaHi famp(>$Uum. London.— 
I •■■■(■( of nil pbur. 
laMtMrf adpfaur half a pound, while 

hellebore root in powilrr two ounces, riiirate of 
potAssa a drachm, soft soap half a pound, pre- 
pared lard a pound and a half. Mix. 

Medical proprrtia. — The same but more tU- 
mulant llian the last. 

UnguentHm vcralri. London. — Ointment of 
white hellebore. 

Take of white hellebore root in powder two 
ounces, prepared lard eight ounces, oil of len.oa 
twenty miniros. Mix. 

Medical properties. — Less oettaio for the cure 
of itch than the sulphur ointment. 

Vnguentum iinci. London — Zinc ointment. 

Take of oxide of line one ounce, prepared lard 
six ounces. Mix. 

Vnguentum oriditincL Edinburgh. — Ointment 
of oxide of zinc. 

Take of simple linimeot six ports, oxide of zinc 
one part. Mix. 

Medical propertiet. — Astringent and healing. 

LiHiMEHTA. — Liniments. 

Xtnimdi/iim <rni^iRif, London. Liniment of 

Take of verdigris powdered an ounce, vinegia 
seven fluid ounces, clarified honey fourteen 
ounces. Let the verdigris be dissolved in the 
vinegar, and the solution strained through a linen 
cloth; then,havio$ .idded the honey, boil the mix- 
lure to a due consistence. 

Medical properliei. Detergent aikd escharotic, 
not much usea. 

Litamealum oimumic fortiia, I^ondon. 
Stronger liniment of ammonia. 

Take of solution of ammonia a fluid onoce, 
olive oil two fluid ounces. Shake tbem together 
until a union is formed. 

Oleum aatmoniatum. Edinburgh, Ammoniat- 
ed oil. 

Take of olive oil eight parts, water of ammonia 
ooe part. Mix. 

Medical propertiet. RubefacienL Useful ia 
chronic riieumalism. 

Unimeniiim ammonia tuhttirlionatis. London. 

Liniment of subcarbrmale of ammonia. 

Take of solution of subcarbunate of ammonia 
\ fluid ounce, olive oil three fluid onocet. Shake 
liiem together so as to form a uiaon. 

lAnimentum aqua catcis, tive oleum tint obh 
calce. Edinburgh. Liniment of lime water. 

Take of liniieed oil, linie-waler, of each equal 
paitj. Mix. 

Medical propertiet. — Useful for bums and 

. Linimeittum camphor t. London. — Liniment of 

Take of camphor half an ounce, olive oil two 
6uid ounces. Dissolve the camphor in the oil. 

Uleum camphoratum. Edinburgh. — Camphora- 
te'l oil. 

Take of olive oil four parts, camphor one part. 
Mix so as to dissolve the camphor. 

Medical propertiet. — Useful in glandular awell- 
ings and in chronic rheumatism. In cases of 
deafness arising from hardened wax it will be 
often useful to put some of this oil at night into 
the ear by meins of cotton or bnL 

Linimenlum camphora compntilum. LoodoD.— 
Compound liniment of camphor. 



Take of camphor two ounces, solution of am- 
rnonia six fluid ouncfs, spirit of lavender a pint. 
Mix the solution with the spirit; tlien distil a 
pint with a gentle heat from a glass retort. 
Lastly, dissolve the camphor in this distilled li- 

Medical propertki. — Stimulant and nibela- 

Liniitmtuin hydrargyri. London. — Liniment 
«f mercury. 

Take of the stronger mercurial ointment, pre- 
pared lard, of each four ounces; camphor an 
ounce ; rectified spirit fifteen minims ; solution of 
ammonia four fiuid ounces. First rub the cam- 
phor with the spirit, then with the lard and mer- 
curial ointment. Lastly, drop gradually in tlie 
solution of nmmonia and let the whole be mixed. 

Atedkat properties. — Stimulant and discutient, 
especially of chronic affections of the syphilitic 

I^nimentum taponis eompotitum. London. — 
Compound soap liniment. 

Take of hard soap three ounces, camphor one 
ounce, spirit of rosemary a pint. Dissolve the 
camphor in the spirit ; then add the soap, and 
macerate in the beat of a sand-bath, till a solu- 
tion be effected. 

TinctUTit taponis camphorata, rulgi) linimentum 
4ammiic(um. Kdinburgh. — Camphorated tincture 
oi .soap, commonly called liniment of soap. 

Take of hard soap sliced four ounces, camphor 
two ounces, volatile oil of rosemary half an 
ounce, alcohol two pounds. Let the soap be 
•lif^sled in the alcohol during three days ; then 
add the camphor and the oil, frequently shaking 
the mixture. 

Medical propcrtiet. — Stimulant and anodyne. 

Tinctura lapomt et opii, vulgi") linimentum ano- 
dynum. Kdinburgh. — Tincture of soap and opium, 
commonly called anodyne liniment. 

Take of hard soap sliced four ounces, opium 
one ounce, camphor two ounces, oil of rosemary 
half an ounce, alcohol two poundi. Let the 
soap be digested in the alcohol for three days ; 
then to the strained solution add the camphor 
and the oil, frequently shaking the mixture. 

Medkal properliet. — Stimulant and anodyne. 

Lmimtntum ttrtbintkint. London. — Turpen- 
tine liniineot 

Take of cerate of resin a pound, oil of turpen- 
tine half a pint. Melt the cerate ; then add the 
oil of turpentine, and mix. 

MrtUnt propertiet. — An excellent application 
to recent burns and scalils. 

CATiri.isUATA.— Cataplasms. 

C<>la;>'a<>Ra /rrmtntt. London. — VeuA cata- 
Take of Hour a pound, ynst of beer half a 

CL Mil, and e>|M>se the initlure to a gentle 
I till il bvgin to swell. 

Medual pritpertiei. — A corrector of foul ulcen, 
l>y vtTtue ot the carbonic acid gas thai is evolved. 

OUaplatma mutpii, London. — Cataplasm of 
mustard . 

Take of raiistard seed, linseed, of each in pow- 
der half a {lound ; hot vinegar a •uftcient quan- 
tity. Mix them tu the coinistence of a cau- 

Medical propcrtiet. — Slimulan 
and often vesicatory. 

PART in. 

The principal FonxuLxof Mage 
and some which have been recently 
into the E'BAnMACOpaiA of the Di 
LE«E, and others employed in ll 
States or Amcbica. 

In the application of chemistry to pt 
and medical purposes much has rci 
done towards ascertaining the precin 
upon which medicinal eliicacy mani 
and many new remedies have beat 
and brought into practice, more espeoi 
the Frencli chemists by separating < 
from another, of a particular subat 
separated portion being in several ins 
ceived to be that upon nbicb the wl 
of the material had depended. Coi 
elegance, and increase of effect, havt 
occasionally introduced into medicine, 
consequent good has resulted ; in somi 
indeed, we may consider the propose 
ments to be questionable ; for fact il 
pointed out by Dr. Paris in his Phai 
that even the inert woody fibre of nn 
bles when in combination with olll 
principles becomes active, so that 1 
misled in supposing that by an eztl 
separation of a medicinal principle 
and separate tlie whole of medicinal ] 

Another objection may be taken i 
new medicinals as il refers to their non 
for in some instances the coocentratetl 
are named from their medicinal effect 
case of narcotine, while in others I 
chemical, or natural history principl 
the appellation, — but the science of 
in the way now referred to, may be i 
its infancy, and time with more malur 
ation will doubtless effect still more in 

of It. 

The principal of the medicii 
thus introduced are the following 

Strychnine and brucinc, two pe 
alkalies, discovered by Messrs, I'elteti 
ventou, which exist in a slate of con 
an acid called the igaturic, in 
Si. Ignatius's bean ; tlic upas 
and the snake wood, which tepaii 
ther aie described as possessing I 
properly of exciting strongly the spS 
without affecting, exceplini; iiiilirrctli 
lions of the braiir, ' ' ' 

efficacious in sor 

Morphine^ apinuijiM' .iiiumf-ii mv * 
which, at well as by other meaut^ r 
tained by treating opni"' »>"i'' — •nrtii 
which )s said to be thr nnc 

drug, and the salts of \^ ill«| 

Mts all the good ptopeitN* of opiun 

Norrottnr, one of the imine 
likewise of opium, po«*e*«ed ol 
those of morpiiinc, but less |>owe 

EmctxHt. ' M. M. IVIIilier, 
pttaeuted a memoir to the Acade 



Ivbich il wm announced as tlie mult 
r «rperitiients, timt ihe power of ihe 
«s of ipecacuanha depenOcd on a 
r pnncipl* droominaled emetine, and that 
toao* Mios much more active than the 
■Ib itself, without possessing either its 
nUf utt« or nauseous smell, might on all 
■ bt ssbstiluted for it with advantage.' 
Mbwippean to be a new vegetable alkali. 

m im euvJkmiite The gray bark was 

B jiM cinchonine, a peculiar alkaline 
M|bil« ' the yellow bark furnished an 
^H^ though in many respects resem- 
NBlr, differed in certain properties too 
lit 10 admit of their being confounded ; 
1^ 1hetcfet«, its discoverers denominated 

' We owe oar knowledge of this 
I to M. M. Pelletier and Caventou. 
bfabte chemists had remarkei that 
I tribe, almost all the individuals 
Bical character) possessed a dis- 
hvcrytcnd taste, while they produced 
rtctioo on the animal economy. They 
^J conceived iliat it would be interesting 
■hcdier such properties did not re- 
'colar substance common to all 
! conjectures were confirmed 
Fthe seeds of the veralrum sa- 
'wliich they separated the acrid prin- 
MfBiinig in it all the alkaline proper- 
' ■tarmrdi detected it in the bulb 
I auluronalc, in tliat of the vera- 
Or white hellebore ; and named 
the family denotnination be- 
! plant.' 

Ine discorerer of this principle in 
oily of the soUnex, the sola- 
• iolanum dulcamara, was M. 

^BD. This principle possesses 

, aiDCtic powers, but the latter 
Hj aod conspicuously than the 

-This alkali was detected in 1819 
' the delphinium staphlsagria by M. 
od Lassaigne, who thus named it 
that the acnd properties of the 
r licpended upon this principle — 
ver, which has not been con- 
I analysis of other plants belonging 
iicuukl properties of delphine have 
Bodt Uied. 

-' A very singular circumstance 
>ith the discovery of this principle. 
faai Caventou were both employed 
, and without any knowledge of 
pfnoeediDgi, upon the analysis of 
and arrived at results so perfectly iden- 
, apo* comparing notes, they found the 
ea at co-operation so striking that they 
aoaiugate thefr labors together.' 
1 from the gentian and its 
k highly concentrated bitter, es- 
applicable to scrofiitous 

account of the discovery of 
the article CnKMisrnr. Its 
madicnul pru(>rrUes are coo^picu- 
' to the glandular organisation and 

lymphatic system, and it has been employed m 
scrofula with reputed success. 

Lupuliju. — 1)r. Ives of New York has the cre- 
dit of discovering this principle as resident in 
the humulus lupulus. It is said to be aromatic, 
tonic, and narcotic. Some, however, have doubt- 
ed its pretensions. 

Piperine. — ' This substance was discovered in 
the black pepper by M. j'Erstaedt,' by whom it was 
supposed to be a vegetable alkali, but other ex- 
periments have tended to disprove this. It has 
lately been employed in Italy as a febrifuge. 

Besides these principles, and time may proba- 
bly add to their number rapidly, several new sub- 
stances and combinations of substances have been 
introduced into the more recent pharmacopceias ; 
and Dr. Thomson has availed himself of these 
additions in a very useful work he has published 
under the name of a Conspectus of the Pharma- 
copoeias : what follows will be principally com- 
piled from that publication ; the articles to which 
the letter D is attached are from the last edition 
of the Dublin Pharmacopeia; those to which 
U. S. are added are from tlie order of the United 
Stales ; and the others are French preparations. 

Acetum opii. I'. S. — Vinegar of opium. 

Upium half a pound, vinegar three pints, 
bruised nutmeg one ounce and a half, sall'ron half 
an ounce, sugar four ounces, yeast a fluid ounce. 
Boil the first mentioned articles to a proper con- 
si-slence; then add the sugar and yeast. Digest 
for seven weeks, and then decant, filter, and bot- 
tle up, adding a little sugar to each bottle. 

AlcdiaU proptrtiei. — Anodyne. Dose from 
mv. to mxx. 

Cinchonina (cinchonitie). — Cinchoiiia. Dr. T. 
prefers the termination of these words in a. 

Take any quantity of powder of cinchonia 
lancifolia; boil it in alcohol until it lose all 
bitterness, and distil the tincture to dryness. Dis- 
solve the residue in boiling water acidulated with 
muriatic acid ; then add an excess of magnesia, 
and boil for some minutes. Filtrate when cold, 
wash the magnesian residue with cold water, and 
dry it in a stove ; then digest repeatedly ia boil- 
ing alcohol, and mix the alcoholic liquors, which 
in cooling wilt yield crystals of cinchonia. 

Medical propertiei. — In all cases in which bark 
is useful. Dose from gr. ij. to 3ft. 

Cyanurttum hydrargyri. D. — Cyanuret of 

Take of the cyanuret of iron six parts, nitric 
oxide of mercury five ()arts, distilled water forty 
parts. the cyanuret of iron and oxide of mer- 
cury be mixed together, then add tlie hot water. 
Let the mixture be boiled for half an hour stirring 
it all the time, and then filter through blotting 
paper. Let the residue be well washed with dis- 
tilled water. Finally evaporate tlie filtered solu- 
tions, and crystallise in cooling. 

Medical proiiertiet. — The same as those of hy- 
drocyanic acid, but more fitted for external ap- 

Drtoclum calutnb<r compoiilum. V. S. — Com- 
pound decoction of C'alumba. 

Take of bruised Caliiinba root, quassia 
.shavings, of each two diatlinis, orance |>eel one 
drachm, powdered rhubarb a scruple, carlionate 
of polassa half a drachm, wal^r twenty fluid 



otiDCOs. Boil down lo a pint, and add half a 
tluiil ounce of tincture of l.irendcr. 

iledieal prvptrtict. A tonic in convalescence 
from fever. Dose f. 5. 

Dccoctum pyroLr. D. — Decoction of irinter 

Take of pjrrola umbellata one ounce, water 
by measure two pounds. Macerate for six hours, 
then bruise and return tl)e pyrola to the liquor, 
and reduce the mixture by evaporation, when 
stnined and expressed, to a pound by measure. 

Medical propcrlits. — Highly diuretic. Dose 
from f. 5j. to f. 5ij. 

Decochtm tcilUc. U. S.— Decoction of squill. 

Take of squill three drachms, juniper berry 
four ounces, seneki root three ounces, water four 
pints. Boil to one-half, then strain, and add 
spirit of nitric ether four fluid ounces. 

Medical prapcrtia. — Diuretic. Dose from 
f. xi. to f 3ij. 

Emetina. — Emetine. 

Take of powdered root of ipecacuanha any 
quamily ; digest it several times in ether at 60^ 
Fahrenheit, and then in alcohol. ' Evaporate the 
•Icoholic tincture in a waler-bath, and disolve 
the residue in cold water; then add magnesia and 
macerate ; and, after drying the magnesian pre- 
cipitate, digest it in pure alcohol, and evaporate 
the solution to dryness. 

Medical proprrliet. Emetic, narcotic, purga>- 
live. Dose from one third of a grain to grs. iij. in 
any bland fluid. 

Jncompalibkt. Preparations of nutgalls, and 
all vegetable astringent infusions or decoctions. 

Exlractum nuci$ vomicii. D. — Extract of oox 

Take of rasped nut vomica eight ounces, 
Tm>of spirit of wine by measure two pounds. 
Digest in a covered vessel for three days, strain 
the liquor, and express what renukins in a press ; 
to this residue ado a pound and a half of proof 
spirit, digest for three days, and express the re- 
sidue. Consume the mixed liquors by distilla- 
tion, and reduce to a proper consistence. 

Medical properiiet. — Antiparaljrtir. Dose gr. 
J to gr. ifl. 

Terri pnutioM. V. S. — Prtissiate of iron. Pni*- 
sian blue, composed of Prussic acid 35- 1, red 
oxide of iron 53, water 11 9 in 100 parts. 

Medical properties — Tonic and antispafmodic. 
In intermiitents, scrofula, chorea, and epilepsy. 
DoK gn. iij. to gis. viij. in syrup thrice > day. 

Hydriodai potaate. D. — Hydriodate of po- 

Take of iodine one part, snlphuret of iron in 
coarse |iowder five parts, sulphuric acid seven 
part*, distilled water forty-eight parts, srater of 
carbonate of potass* as much as necessary, recti- 
fiefl spirits six parts. Mix the iodine by aid of 
friction with sixteen parta of the water, and 
pour the mixture into a glaa vestel. Poiir the 
acid diluted with (hirty-two pans of the water 
upon the tulphuret, put into a matrais, and by 
a tube fiti»d to the neck of the m3lra«v and 
teaching to the bottom of the vessel containing 
IIm ieduM aiHl water, let the iris pass through 
llw ailWr* until the iodine alioi<ethcr disappears. 
SMpentc the strained liquor immediately with 
a gtinlrr hat, and *mia it again. Then add 

enouksh of the solution of curboiarie of | 
saturate the acid, which is known by th« 1 
vescence ceasing. Then expose the mixti 
a gentle heat until tlie residuary nil 
dry and of a while color : pour the spirit I 
this, and dissolve with heat Finally 1 
the liqour poursd off from the retidn 
and having evaporated it to drynea Id 
preserved in a slopped bottle. 

Medical properties. — ^The same a* nd 
Dose from gr. i. lo grs. iij. of the dn«d 1 
from mvj. to ni.u-of the saturated solution. 

Infusum cinchona run nu'co itmonvm. 
Infusion of cinchona with lemon juice. 

Take of cinchona in powder one «unc«,l 
juice two fluid ounces, compound tig 
camphor three fluid drachms, cold water a | 
Macerate for twelve hours ih a cov e t e d 1 
and strain. 

Mrilical properties. — Tonic when the 1 
is too irritable lo bear bark in the common i 
Dose from f. Jj. lo (. ^iij. 

Infusum cupatorii. — lnfnsion of 

Take of eupatoriom one ounce, bot 
pint Infnse for two bonn in a covered < 
and strain. 

Medical proprr/ict. — Emetic, diap 
tonic when given cold. 

lodinium. — Iodine. D. See CBrjusrar. 
Medical properties. — Stimulant, 
and emmenagogue. Useful in broncho 
other glandular swellings not of a schin 
lure ; to bring on menstruation in young I 
in whom it has not occurred ; to assist tte^ 
trization of venereal ulcers. Doae from 4 
of a grain to grs. iv, in piHs, wilh 

Lhtimentum tahaci. U.S.— Liniment ofM 

Take of cut tobacco one ounce, \mt{ 
pound. Simmer the tobacco in the laiil 4 
gentle fire until it become crisp, and 1 

Medical proprrtits. — Usefiil in tine^ i 
and in hemorrnoids. 

Liqtar labamupiii ehloro-iodaicuM,- 
sodaic solution of labarranue. 

Dissolve grs. 2187-5 of pure 1 
bonate of soda in f Jxx, of distilled 
saturate the solution with chlorine gas. 

Medical properiiet. — Antiieptjc, 

tonic, used for disinfecting foul air, da 
animal putrefaction ; an escelleiit lotioa ferS 
blains, fetid ulcers, and gangrenotis < 
the best lotion m ptyalism yet dim>*trad. 
ternally in dysentery. DoM CraiB mxi. To I 
in a cupful of water ; for a lotion or a 
f. 5xij. in fjvj. of distilled water. 

Ijuputr morphitue actlatis. — Solution of I 
of morphia. 

Take of acetate of morphia sixtefo 
distillnl water six fluid dradma, dilata^i 
acid (. 3ij ; mix. 

Medical properties. — See "— -rWrur 
Dose from mxxxvi. in any UandT 

MultiTa Itryctmiiur.—MixtUTt of *tr)d 

Take of strychnia gr. i., whila mtf 
drachms, disiilird water two fluid oaiwa 

Medical ^im^crtics.— See Stryrknim. 



L Sij. every morning ami 

imm). Morphia. Morphine, 
solution of opium, and 
i mgimia 'm the proportion of ten 
>«d> pound of opium used. Filtrate 
te dapotit on the filter with cold rain 
1 oiler, and when it is dned digest it 
■Icr 212° with weak alcohol Filtrate 
III dcwait with a little cold alcohol ; 
lit t lar^ quantity of rectified alco- 
fenle while tlie liquor is hot. The 
I ifeposited as the liquor cools, and 
n^M by repeated solutions and crys- 
. Sobmuel's metliod. 
/rtftrtttt. — Sedative. Chiefly em- 
MtM Ibe salts of morphium. Dis- 

■ ■■li ivbbed on the skin it produces 

I titlM. — Acetate of morphia. 
tuphiifonr partx, distilled water eight 
S dita in a porcelain dish, and then 
•nd, specific gravity 1075, until lit- 
r ■ riightly reddened. Evaporate 
lljliui and reduce to powder (Codex 
■Miai). It most be kept la a ground 

pvfutia. — $Iarcotic and sedative. 

fukvtfe. iij. 

r H^Aa. — Sulphate of morphia. 

■■iihil SIX parts, distilled water 
in, MpkiirH: acid diluted with twice 
mtK a aufficicnt quantity to saturate 
ik Etvpocal* slowly and crystallise 
'-'- — Dtuius). To be kept in a 

See Morphia. Dose 

IT. S.'— Oil of wotmseed. 

u — Antbelmiotic. Dose 

■faHM. U. S.— Oxidated oil 

r ■ Bnid drachm, nitric acid 
Asthau and a half. Put the oil of 
glMt ramel, and gradually drop the 
ftA tfhe wuat lime stirrine the mixture 

■ l«d. Let it staiHl for thirty-six 
I wp o nt e the tupemaiant resinous 

■ <be acid fluid beneath, and wash 
r ftnl with cold and lastly witli hot 
le and taste be romnred, 
frvftrtitt. — A substitute for musk. 
racJMi manotiai privatum. — Extract 
kiod frets oajtotine. 

I eoandy powdered opium in cold 
■( aad «vaporaIe to the consistence 
■In* liifest in mtified ether, and 
m iaa| ai my crystals of narcotine 
A* mUiic of the distilled ether. 
Ifonlt the sohitton which has been 

/i nu laov— Antxlyne ; without being 
p DoMcr. I to err. vj. 
t mJftm. D.— Sulplute of quinine. 
f *t jwBow bark (heart leaved) in 
> feu pounds, distilled water by 
diluted sulphuric acid 
I a proper vessel and in a 

high tempeiature, agitating frequently ; digest 
for four hours, then strain ; the residue of the 
bark is then to be again mixed with an e<pinl 
quantity of water and strained ; this should be 
done three times. To the mixed solutions add a 
quantity of fresh burnt lime sufficient to saturate 
the acid. Separate the precipitate by means of 
blotting paper, and add to it three pints of rec- 
tified spirit, then digest with frequent aplation 
for six hours and strain ; again digest the resid uary 
powder with an equal quantity of rectified.spirit 
and strain. Let this be done three times. Mix 
the spirituoussolutions, and evaporate to dryness 
in a water-bath. To the residue add gradually 
as much diluted sulphuric acid as will make it 
just sensibly acid ; then evaporate and crystallise. 

Medical properties. — Powerfully tonic ; espe- 
cially usefiil Id intermittent fever. Dose gr. i. 
to 3ft. 

Sulphat fuinirue. See Quininte tulphat, above. 

Stryehnina, strycknium. — Strychnia. 

To a solution of extract of nux vomica in 
water add a solution of suhacetate of lead as 
long as any precipitate is formed. Filtrate and 
separate any excess of the subacctate of lead 
from the solution by sulphureled hydrogen; then 
filtrate again and boil the solution with magne- 
sia ; wash the precipitate with cold distilled 
water, redissolve it in alcohol, and evaporate. 
The residue of the evaporation is strychnia, 
which may be purified by dissolving it in mu- 
riatic acid, and precipitating by means of mag- 

Medical propertici. — Antiparalytic in cases of 
paraplegia. Dose gr. ^ to gr. |, made into pilU 
with crumb of bread. 

Sunipus cinchoniiue, — Syrup of cinchona. 

lake of sulphate of cinchooia gr. xxxix. sim- 
ple syrup sixteen fluid ounces. Dose f. 5j. tof. 5j- 

Si/rupiu emetirue. — Syrup of emeta. 

l^ake of pure emeta gr. iv., simple syrup a 
pound; mix. 

Medicid properties — In catarrh, hoopino; 
cough, and all cases iu which ipecacuanha is 

Syruput morpkitt acetatii. — Syrup of acetate of 

Take of clarified syrup one pound, acetate of 
morphia four grains. E)ose f. 3j. to f. 3ij. 

Syrupia morphia mlphali*. — Syrup of sulphate 
of morphia. 

Take of clarified syrup one pound, sulphate 
of morphia four grains. Make into a syrup. 
Dose f. 3j. to f. 3iv. 

Surupus quinimt. — Syrup of quinine. 

"fake of sulphate of quinine forty-four grains, 
simple syrup two pounds, mix. Dose f. 3ij. to 
f. 3iv. 

!n«r/uro capaici cl cantharidum. U. S. — Tinc- 
ture of Cayenne pepper and blistering flics. 

Take of cantharides bruised ten diachms, cap- 
sicum one drachm; diluted alcohol a pint. 
Diitest for ten days and filter. 

Medical ;>r«ptrto.— Stimulant and rubefa- 

Tinctura cinchonin/e. — Tincture of cinchonia. 

Take of sulphate of cinchonia eight grain*; 
alcohol a flind ounce. Dose f, 3j. to f. 3iv. 

Tinctura iodinii. D.— Tincture of iodine. 

Take of iod ine two scruples ; rectified spirit 



a fluiil ounce. Mix and dissolve tlie iodine by 
Ileal. Dose n\x. to npx. 

Ttnctura lubelU. V. S. — ^Tincture of IndiaD 

Take of Indian tobacco two 6uid ounces, 
diluted alcohol a pint. Digest for ten days and 

lUrdical propertiei. — Emetic and expectorant. 
Dose f. 3j. to f. 3iij. 

Tinctura nucis vomicit. D. — Tincture of nnx 

Take of the fruit of the strychnui nux vo- 
mica rapped two fluid ounces, rectified spirit 
eight fluid ounces. Macerate for taiea days, 
then strain. 

Tinctura tptinint. — Tincture of quinia. Take 
of sulphate of quinia six grains, aliolml (spe- 
cific gravity -847) a fluid ounce. Dose f. 5j. to 
f. 3iij. 

Tinctura umguinarit. U. S. — ^Tincture of blood 

Take of bruised blood root Iwo fluid ounces, 
alcohol a pint. Digest for ten days, and filler. 

Medical properties. — Expectorant and tonic, 
and in large doses emetic. Dose nix. to f. 

rinr/urfl ttrychnintt. — ^Tincture of strychnia. 

Take of strychnia three grains, alcohol (Spe- 
cific gravity -837) a fluid ounce. Dose xt\y\- 
to mxxiv. 

Vngucnium iodinii. D. — Ointment of iodine. 

Take of iodine one scruple, prepared lard one 
ounce. Kub them together into an ointment. 

yimuH cintlionina ■ — Wine of cinchonia. 

Take of cinchonia fourteen grains, Madeira 
wine thirty-one fluid ounces. Doscf. 3ij. lof. Jij. 

I'iaumquininte. — Wine of quinia. 

Take of sulphate of quinia nine grains, Ma- 
deira wine two pounds. Dose from f, 3iv. to f. 


An account of the constituent parts of some of 
tlie most popular among P*T£ht and other 
M inic I >Es, extracted from Dr. Paris's Puak- 

AniUrton't pills are formed principally of 
aloes, with a portion nf lalap and oil of aniseed. 

Anodynt ntckluei. — The roots of henbane are 
commonly strung in the form of beads, and sold 
under tliis name, to be tied round the necks of 
coildien to facilitate the growth of their teeth, 
and allay the irritstion of teething. 

Antivtnertol Jropt, so fiinoiis at Amxterdam, 
were analysed by Scheele, who found that they 
were composed of mnnale of iron, with a iinall 
portion of corrosive sublimate. 

Aromatic vinegar (Henry's) is merely a solu- 
tion of camphor and some essential oil. A pre- 
paration of this kind may be extemporaneously 
made by putting one drachm of ncctate of po- 
lan* into a, with a few drops of sonio 
fnmnt oil, and nixx- of concentrated lulphuric 

BitUam of honey, or pectoral baltam, is the 
tincture of benioin, or that of Tolu. 

balmoneftiiiuorict. (Pectoral). The proprie- 
tor of lilts nostrum pavely «flir«n, that f. _^irt. 
contains the viriiw] of a whole pound nf liquo- 

rice root; but, upon investigation, it 
found to consist principally of faresoric I 
very strongly impregnated with the oil 

Barclay t anliOilious pillt. Takeoftbcl 
of colocynth two drachms, resin of j' 
drachm, almond soap a drachm and tf 
acum three drachms, tartarised antimo 
grains, essential oils of juniper, carTawa| 
rosemaiy, of each four drops, of syrup < 
thorn, as much as will be sufficient to form J 
to be divided into sixty-four pills. 

Bateman't pectoral dropt consist 
of the tincture of castor, with portiofa i 
phor and opium, flavored by aniseed audi 
by cochineal. 

Batllcy'i tedativc /ifuor (liquor opii I 
Under this name Mr. Battley, of Fl 
London, has introduced a narcotic pn 
which it IS generally »uppos«>d owes it* 4 
to the acetate of morphia ; on being kr 
ever, I found that it underwent some io 
change, during which so much air 
gaged as to blow out the cork from thtf 
with violence. This is a great objeclioa ] 
admission into practice. [We think il, \ 
right to state that this preparation 
used by us and very many of our 
decided advantage over the commoa I 
opium. — EM.] 

Black drop, or the Lancaster or Qadbrlj 
drop. This preparation, which has Io 
known and esteemed as being more po« 
its operation, and less distressing in itt i 
than any tincture of opium, has until ItH* 
involved in much obscurity ; the pap 
ever, of the late Edward Walton, of Si 
one of the near relatioru of the original ] 
tor, having fallen into the bands of 
strong, that gentleman has oblifpd the I 
by publishing the manner in whit^ iI I 
pared, and it as follows : — ' Take half «J 
of opium sliced, three pints of good 
(juice of the wild crab), and one 
ounce of nutmegs, and half an ouncej 
Boil them to a proper thickness ; 
quarter of a pound of sugar, and two iip 
of yeast. Set the whole in a warm place I 
fire for six or eight weeks ; then jilac* itj 
open air until it become a syrup. I^astlj 
filter, and bottle it up, adding ■ lit]' 
each bottle. One drop of this prepan 
sidered about equal lo three of lh« 1 
opium. — Ph. L. Il woulil appear ' 
late of morphia is formed, which is 1 
and less distressing in its effects than 
narcotic combination. 

The French Codex contains direction* I 
paring a compound very m iK*^ 
drop, vii. I'inum opialum 
or Ciutla, uu luuaanum ui 
of while honey twelve ounces, warm^ 
(H>unds. l)i»«o|v«> the honey in the i 
into a matrass and set il a<idc in a ' 
as toon as fermentation ha« < ("nrncnced,* | 
ounces of goi>il opium, I • vio« 

sijlvt'd, or ralhrr diffusT': r o» 1 

water. Allow them to t<-rnvtn if»gn 
month ; ihrn rviiporate until ten outiref i 

f H A R M A C Y. 


hm «onc» sinj a half of 

t ardial consists of tlie linc- 

D, calamba, cardamom, and hark, 

ipirit of lavender and wine 

I ;..r^....,, — These consist of yel- 
: the former are taken in 
1 1 - -he succeed ins; mornittK. 

loienges. Saffron half an ounce, 

\ho{\ and strain ; add of white pa- 

ury (calomel washed in spirit of 

i, white suijar twenty-eight pounds, 

Bgacanlh as much as may be suHi- 

ta masn, which roll out of an exact 

» that each lozence may contain one 

era. Dose from one to six. 

Panacea seren ounces, 

iinds and a half, while 

• U{i;eof tragacanth enough 

li> contain half a grain of i>a- 

-Ui>der this word. Dr. Paris says, 

qaack's sheet anchor. The various 

tneil as cough drops for the cure 

, catarrhs, ice, are preparations 

• similar to paresTonc elixir. Pec- 

Itquorice, and essence of coltj- 

pns of this kind. Grindle's 

eparation of this kind, made 

Kt instead of proof spirit, and 

htghly charged with stimulant 

be mischief,' observes Dr. Fother- 

procreded from the healing ano- 

1 scarcely be imaipned ; for in 

1 stipprcsscd perspiration, or 

hesis, opiates generally do 

Sticking; plaster. — Black silk is 
braitied over ten or twelve times 
tityf preparation : Dissolve half 
'^fum benzoin in six fluid ounces of 
Mihl ; in a separate vessel dissolve an 
rfntt i T in half a pint of water; strain 
(■■a; mix them; and let them rest, so 
ppmtt puts may subside. When ihc 
■r ii cold It will form a jellY, which 
vanned before it is applied. When 
ftttto prercnt its cracking, it is finished 
I •oJ.jtinn of four ounces of Chio lurpen- 
>f tincture of benioin. 
/ ) her nill«. or lady Webster's 
■ the pilulic stoma- 
I. • ., iif ilie Codex Mc- 

Hhk I'^ixei")!*. Lditio nuinta, A. D. 
^VTake of best aloe< six drachms, 
^B nd row of each two drachms, 
^Kiwooil a* much as will be siiWcient 
RBlB. The mass is divided into pills 

TTjis is the linctura sennm 
luhstilution nf trracle for 
tliJditinn of aniseeds. Dif- 
um are sold under the 
t Oiey differ principally in 
keiAule mimitiie or unimportant addi- 


ite. Tliii consists of carbo- 
Iwo scruples, oil of peppermint 

one drop, of nu(in<»g two drop*, of aiiiieed three 
drops, of the tinctures of ra.«tor thirty drojis, of 
a.ssaf<ttida fifteen drops, spirit of pennyroyal hf- 
teen drops, of the compound tincture of carda- 
moms thirty drops, peppermint water two fluid 

Dinner pilli. See Lady Crcspigny'i pillx. 

Diron't antihiliout nills. Aloes, scammony, 
rhubarb, and turtarised antimony. 

Dutch ilropi. The basis of this nostrum con- 
sists of the residue of a redistillation of oil of 
turpentine, which is a thick, red, resinous matter, 
to which the name of balsam of turpentine has 
been given : a preparation however is frequently 
vended as • Dutch Drops', which is a mixture of 
oil of turpentine, tincture of guaiacum, spirit of 
nitric ether, *ilh small portions of the oil of 
amber and cloves. 

Kmi medicinaU. AOer various attempts to 
discover the active ingredients of this Parisian 
remedy, ii is at length determined to be the col- 
chicum auturnnale, which several ancient authors, 
under the name of hermodnctyls, have recom- 
mended in the cure of gout. The followintf is 
the receipt for preparing this medicine; — Take 
two ounces of the root of colchicum cut into 
slices, macerate it in four fluid ounces of proof 
spirit, and filter. 

Eacnte of coffee. The pulp of cassia is said 
to form the basis of this article. 

Etience of coltifoot. Tliis preparation con- 
sists of equal parts of the balsam of tolu and the 
compound tincture of benzoin, to which is added 
double the quantity of reclifie<l spirit cf wine. 

Eaence of mustard. (Whitehead.) This con- 
sists of oil of turpentine, camphor, and n portion 
of spirit of rosemary ; to which is added a small 
quantity of flour of mustard. 

Etsence of muttard pills. Balsam of tolu with 
resin 1 

Eaence of tpruce. A fluid extract by decoc- 
tion from the twigs of the species of fir called 
the pinus larix, producint; the Venice turpentine, 
is the well known essence of spruce, which, 
when fermented with molasses, forms the popular 
beverage called spruce beer. 

Euential %alt of U-mom. The preparation 
sold under this nanie for the purpose of removing 
iron moulds from linen consists of cream of tar- 
tar and superoxalate of potassa, or salt of sorrel, 
in equal proportions. 

Vriar't baltnm is nothing more than the com- 
pound tincture of betiioin of the pharraacopcfiias. 

Godfrri/'t cordial. The following receipt for 
this nostrum was obtained from a wholes;de 
drngKis'i ^l'" makes and sells many hundred 
dozen bottles in the course of the year. There 
are, however, several other formulas for its pie- 
paration, but not essentially different. Infuse 
nine ounces of sassafras, and of the seeds of 
carraway, coriander, and anise, of each one 
ounce, in six pints of water; simmer the mixture 
nntil it is reduced to four pints ; then add six 
pounds of treacle, and boil the whole for a few 
minutes ; wben it is cold add three fluid ouiiccl 
of the tinctu re of opium. 

Golden ointment. Under this niune is sold a 
preparation which consists of sulphutel of arsenic 
forpiment] with lard or spermaceti onitmciiL 



The unguentum hydnr^yri nitrieo-oxydi of Ihe 
London college is also sold under the same title. 

Gout tinclurt (Wilson's). This is merely an 
inrusion of colcliicum, as Dr. Williams of Ips- 
wich has satisfactorily shown. 

(jovlamCt lotion is a solution of sublimate in 
an emulsion formed of bitter almonds in the pro- 
portion of about a grain and a half to a fluid 

Hooper't pillt. Compound aloetic pill with 
myrrh (pil. ruti), sulphate of iron, and Canella 

James't pout/cr. See the present article under 
the word Putvit antimonialu. 

Jamcs'i analeptic pillt. These consist of 
James's powder, gum ammoniacum, and the 
pill of aloes with myrrh (pil. rufi), equal parts, 
with a sufficient quantity of the tincture of castor 
to make a mass. 

Norton'* drop$. A disguised solution of cor- 
rosive sublimate. 

Opodeldoc (Steers's). Castile soap one ounce, 
recUiied spirit eight ounces, camphor three 
ounces and a half, oil of rosemary halT a fluid 
drachm, oil of origanum one fluid drachm, solu- 
tion of ammonia six fluid drachms. 

Oxley'i concentrated atence of Jamaica einger. 
A mere solution of gini;er in rectified spinL 

Portland potcder. Equal quantities of the 
roots of gentian and birthwort, the tops and leares 
of germander, ground pine, and lesser centaury 
powdered and mixed together. 

Riga baUam. From the shoots of the pinai 
cembra previously bruised, and macerated for a 
month in water. This same fir aUo aflbrds 
Brian^on turpentine. 

Rotht't tmhroealion. Olive oil mixed with 
almut half its quantity of the oil of cloves and 

Ruipini'i tincture. This consists of the root of 
the floretitiiie iris eight ounces, cloves one ounce, 
rectified spirit two pinm, ambergris one scruple. 

Seidiit: pou-deri. These consist of two dif- 
ferent powdtrs ; the one contained in a white 
paper consists of two drachms of tartarised soda 
and two scniples of carbonate of soda ; that in 
the blue paper of ihirty-five grains of tartaric 
acid. The contents of the white paper are to be 
dissolved in half a pint of spring water, to which 
those of the blue paper are to l>e added ; the 
draught is to be taken in a state of effervescence. 
The acid, being in excess, renders it more 
gmleful and no less efficacious xs a purgative. 

Singleton's uinttncttt. See Golden ointment. 

Sodaic puvaderi. Contained in two distinct 
papers, one of which is blue, the other while ; 
lliat in the former consists of h.ilf a drachm of 
the carbonate of soda ; that in the latter of 
twenty-five grains of tartaric acid. These pow- 
ders require half a pint of water. It is very evi- 
dent that a solution of these powders is by no 
means similar to soda water, winch it is intended 
to emulate; for in this latter preparation the soda 
il in ciimhination only with carbonic aciii, 
whereHs the Kilutioii of the sodaic [lowderj is 
»htti oi 1 11. iiir .1 .lit with a portion of fixed air 

■'rlrtitic dn»p»..— Of corroaive 
sublimate two drachma, prepaicd aulphuivt of 

antimony one drachip, gentian root 
peel equal parts two drachms, shai 
Sanders one drachm, made into a t 
a pint of proof spirit. Digest and s) 

Stephen I (Mrs.), rtmtdt) for iht 
sisted of lime in conjunction with t 

Velno't vegetable synrn — There it 
scurity with respect to the genuine 
of this nostrum: it is supposed to cO 
limate rubbed up with honey and m 
have reason, however, to believe tha 
antimony, and the syrup of roan 
Swediaur says that the volatile alkali 
it as an ingredient : this alkali was ] 
Dr. Peyrile as a substitute for mer 
constitutes the active ingredient ol 
sition, propc»ed by Mr. Besnatd, { 
the king of Bavaria. 

Virgin's milk. A spirituous solul 
zoin, mixed with about twenty pa 
water, forms a cosmetic long kiM 
name. A sulphate of lead is also 
this name, which is prepared as foll< 
saturated solution of alum add of O 
tract one third part. Shake them la 

fVanfi paste/or fistulas, piles, &i 
black pepper and elecampane, pow4 
parts, half a pound ; of tlie seeds 
pound and a half; of honey and i 
parts, one pound ; beat and well a 
all the ingredients in a mortar. O 
of a nutmeg three times a day. 

Wonn cakes {Storey's). — Caloine 
made into cakes and colored by cinl 


TiBLE. — Showing the proportiom 
Opii'm, Antimony, Aasr.sic, and 
are contained in some compounU 
From Thomson's Dispf..<I8*tubt. 


Conftctio opii. Ixindon. — Col 
opium. Thirty-six grains contain i 

FJectuarium opiatum. EdiDbai| 
electuary contains in each drachm 
grain and a half of opium. 

PUutit saponis cum opio. Londa 
soap and opium. Five grains cootai 
of opium. 

PUuU opiatit. Edinburgh, — Opil 
Thebaic) pills. Each drachm cootaii 
of opium. A pill of five grains codI 
grain of opium. 

Pulfu eornu mtt cum opio. Londo 
of burnt hartshorn witli opium. Ten 
lain one grain of opium. 

Pulvis trrltr romposifus evm opio. 
Compound powder nf chalk with o{ 
»cruples contain one grain of opium 

Puliis ipecocuittOur cnrnpositut. 
Compound powder of ipecacuanha, 
contain onr grain of opium. 

Pulvu kino ctimpotitus. L'.indoik-.' 
|iii»iUr of kino. Fjich scrupl* ^ 
yraiii of opiuir, 

Tmctura opu. I.(indnn. — Tinctus 
Nineteen minims contain OM giaia i 


Edinburi^h. — Tinrlure ofopiuin 

Iwo scruples of opium i.i each 

d. Of each drachm should contain 

Bat one drachm of the tincture 

1 yields only three grains and a 

fttmtp»ar^ tompotUa. London. — Com- 
idore of camphor. Tinctura opii cam- 
Umburgfa. — Half a fluid ounce con- 
ij oae grain of opium, 
rs tpa ammcuuata. Edinburgh.— Am* 
liacture of opium is made with about 
M of opium in each ounce of liquid, or 
hm ihould contain nearly one grain of 

m t^oai$ tt opiL Edinburgh. — Tinc- 
If ud opium IS made with one scruple 
■ ach oonce of the liquid. 
ri ^tyryrrtutt nan opio. Edinburgh, — 
4 liquorice with opium. Each drachm 
Muly one grain of opium. 


nlimonii tarlariiali. Loiuion.— So- 
iMtUtied antimony, conlains in each 

!f two grains of lartarised antimony. 

fcHnta an/iaioiiij. Edinburgh. — Wine 

r «f •ntunony contains in each ounce 

I <d taitnte of antimony. 


M r argy ri. Edinburgh. — Mer- 

Ekch drachm conlains about 

mercury (hfieen London). 

H nan creti. London. — Mercury 

I Hkm grains contain one grain of 

^^ atymurialit. London. — 
ittriale of mercury. Two fluid 
half a gnin of oxymuriate of 

London. — Mercurial 
contain one drachm of 

ri. Tendon. — Mercurial pills. 
I one Krain of mercury. 

Edinburgh. — Mercurial 
I contains fifteen graiosof mer- 
grain pill contains one and 
I of mercury. 

j^yri lubmiaialu compotila. 
nbargh. — PilU of lubmuriate of 
I ibur grains contain one gram of 
if at nwmiry